Michael Paton

BSc(Ed) UNSW, BA(hons.) Syd, PhD Syd.
Senior Lecturer; Teaching Quality Fellow
michael.paton@sydney.edu.au

H04 Merewether Building
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia

Phone: +61 2 9351 5569
Fax: +61 2 9351 4433


Michael Paton was the Teaching Quality Fellow of the Faculty of Economics for over 16 years. He has an extensive publication record over a wide range of disciplines including: academic communication skills, university education, critical thinking, management, and the history and philosophy of science in China.

He is a former Vice President (Asia) of the Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science, principal sponsor of the Sustainable Management of Organisations Group (SMOG), and Development Theme Leader for the University's Institute for Sustainable Solutions. At present, he is a member of 5 research clusters of the University’s China Studies Centre.

Michael’s major research interest is the history and philosophy of science and the environmental history of China, especially focusing on dili (the principles of the earth) and fengshui (wind & water). He has translated major dili texts over different dynasties to map the development of China’s environmental understanding. His research interests in communication skills, university education and management deal with their relationship to culture, critical thinking and knowledge production.

Publications

Forthcoming

Paton M (in press) ‘The Geography of Styles of Reasoning: East and West; North and South’, Philosophy East and West, vol. 65:4.

2013

Books

Paton M (2013) Five Classics of Fengshui: Chinese Spiritual Geography in Historical and Environmental Perspective Brill, Leiden. http://www.brill.com/five-classics-fengshui

Conference Paper/s & Seminar presentations

Paton, M 2013 ‘The Business of Education’, China Studies Centre Annual Conference, University of Sydney, November 2013.

Paton, M 2013 ‘Business Education or the Business of Education’, International Society for Intellectual History conference, Princeton University, USA, 5-7 June, 2013.

Paton, M 2013 ‘Teaching and Learning with Chinese Students’ Faculty of Engineering Teaching Forum, University of Sydney, 17 June 2013 (seminar).

Reviews

Paton, M.J. (2013) a review of Scott Davis’ The Classic of Changes in Cultural Context; A Textural Archaeology of the Yi jing. (Cambria Press: Amherst, New York, 2012) Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, vol. 45.

2012

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2012 'East and Southeast Asian Science - Antiquity to 1200CE' in Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia , ed. Edward Ramsamy, Andrea L. Stanton, Peter J. Seybolt, and Carolyn Elliott, SAGE Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, United States

12
Conference Paper/s & Seminar presentations/s

Paton M 2012 ‘The Logic of Short Term Advantage and the Ethics of Chance in International Education’ China Studies Centre Annual Conference, University of Sydney, December.

Paton M 2012 ‘Fengshui, Ritualisation of Knowledge, Logic of Short Term Advantage and Ethics of Chance’ Australasian Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy conference, UNSW, 9-11 July.

12

Reviews

Paton M (2012) a review of Judith Shapiro’s China’s Environmental Challenges Polity Press, Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia vol. 44 pp. 124-129. Link

12

Newspaper Article/s

Paton M 2012 ‘Chinese Business Students in Australia: a conundrum of gender’ China Express vol. 1 no. 1, Link
Paton M 2012 'Fengshui, sustainability and the ethics of chance' The Fifth Estate: sustainable property news and forum 16 May Link

2011

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2011 'The Cosmology of Yang Yunsong and Science' in Feng Shui (Kan Yu) and Architecture: International Conference in Berlin , ed. Florian C. Reiter, Harrassowitz Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 165-84

4
Journal Article/s

Paton M 2011 'Asian Students, Critical Thinking and English as an Academic Lingua Franca', Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , vol.32:1, pp. 27-39

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2011 'Gender in Ming Dynasty China: The Water Dragon Classic, Chinese Studies Association of Australia 12th Biennial Conference , Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 15th July 2011

Paton M 2011 'Geography of Styles of Thinking: East and West; North and South, On Hacking’s ‘Style(s) of Thinking’ Conference , University of Cape Town, South Africa, 31st March 2011

10
Report/s

Paton M 2011 'Ethical Challenges - International Students and Business Education', Business and Professional Ethics Group Biennial Report

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2011 'Good fortune, Magic, Mysticism and Science in the Water Dragon Classic: The end of the observational roots of fengshui?, Seminar presented as part of a workshop on 'Science, Magic and the Problem of the Demarcation of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe' (Michael Hunter of the Royal Society as discussant) , Universities of New South Wales and Sydney, Australia, 15 February 2011

Paton M 2011 'Not quite as smart as we think we are or should lawyers govern?', On Line Opinion , Brisbane, Australia

2010

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2010 'Gender roles in Ming Dynasty China: The Water Dragon Classic, 2nd Academic Association of Historians in Australian and New Zealand Business Schools Conference , University of Sydney, Australia, 17th December 2010

Paton M 2010 'The Empirical basis of the Cosmology of Yang Yunsong of the Tang dynasty, Symposium on Kan Yu (Feng Shui) and Architecture - Seminar of Sinology , Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Germany, 11th November 2010

Paton M 2010 'The nexus between rationality and emotion: fengshui as an early post-modern science?, Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Science Annual Conference , University of Sydney, Australia, 11th July 2010

Paton M and Zhang C 2010 'Southern Culture & the North/South Divide: more than a metaphor, Transcultural Mappings: emerging issues in comparative, transnational and area studies , University of Sydney, Australia, 11th April 2010

Paton M 2010 'Delegate by invitation of the United Nations (UN-HABITAT) The University Roundtable & HABITAT partner University Side Event, World Urban Forum 5: the right to the city – bridging the urban divide , Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 26th March 2010

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 2010 'English as an Academic Lingua Franca: Internationalisation, Economic Imperative or Cultural Chauvinism?', Proceedings of the Internationalising Learning and Teaching in Academic Settings - "Engagement, Collaboration and Sustainability" , University of Sydney, Australia, 1st January 2010-31st December 2010

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2010 'Learning and Teaching with Chinese Students: A history & philosophy of science perspective, Learning and Teaching Seminar Series - Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Sydney , Australia, 05 October 2010

2009

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2009 'Feng Shui and the Energy of the Land' in Research in Scientific Feng Shui and the Built Environment , ed. Michael Y. Mak and Albert T. So, City University of Hong Kong Press, Hong Kong, (China), pp. 45-64

4
Journal Article/s

Paton M and Henry P 2009 'Human nature and social complexity: a common challenge for Chinese philosophy and marketing', International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management , vol.2:3, pp. 276-90

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2009 'Can Historical Research into Fengshui Tell Us Anything about Business in China?, Academic Association of Historians in Australian and New Zealand Business Schools (AAHANZBS) – Inaugural Conference , University of Sydney, Australia, 15th December 2009

Paton M 2009 'English as an Academic Lingua Franca: Internationalisation, Economic Imperative or Cultural Chauvinism?, Internationalising Learning and Teaching in Academic Settings Conference , University of Sydney, Australia, 23rd November 2009

Paton M 2009 'Asian Students, Critical Thinking and English as a Lingua Franca, 3rd International Free Linguistics Conference , University of Sydney, Australia, 11th October 2009

Paton M 2009 'Environmental History of China and Australia: the Logic of Short term Advantage & the Ethics of Chance, 15th Annual Conference of the International Sustainable Development Research Society , Utrecht, Netherlands, 9th July 2009

Paton M 2009 'Environmental History of China and the Sustainable Management of Governments, 1st International Conference on Sustainable Management of Public and Not For Profit Organisations SMOG 2009 , University of Bologna, Forli, Italy, 3rd July 2009

Rowe A, Guthrie J and Paton M 2009 'Public Environmental Reporting in China, 1st International Conference on Sustainable Management of Public and Not For Profit Organisations SMOG 2009 , University of Bologna, Forli, Italy, 3rd July 2009

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 2009 'Can Historical Research into Fengshui Tell Us Anything about Business in China?', Academic Association of Historians in Australian and New Zealand Business Schools AAHANZBS – Inaugural Conference , Sydney, Australia, 15th December 2009

Paton M 2009 'Good Fortune or Environmental Harmony?', Proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Scientific Feng Shui and Built Environment 2009 - Sustainability and Operability , Hong Kong, (China), 21st February 2009

2008

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2008 'Reflective journals and critical thinking' in Intercultural Communications across University Settings - Myths and Realities "refereed proceedings of the 6th Communication Skills in University Education Conference" , ed. j. van Rij-Heyligers, Pearson Education New Zealand, Rosedale, New Zealand, pp. 201-9

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M and Henry P 2008 'Human Nature and Social Complexity: A Common Challenge for Chinese Philosophy and Marketing, 2nd World Business Ethics Forum: Rethinking the Value of Business Ethics , Hong Kong, China, 12th December 2008

Paton M 2008 'Has the Sentence been Lost in Genre?, 2nd International Free Linguistics Conference 2008 , Sydney, Australia, 12th October 2008

Paton M 2008 'Chinese students and critical thinking, ALTC (Australian Learning & Teaching Council) Workshop "Investigating the efficacy of culturally specific academic literacy and academic honesty resources for Chinese students" , Melbourne, Australia, 29th August 2008

Henry P and Paton M 2008 'What Basis for Consumer Rights? The Case of Credit Card Debt, The 2008 Latin-America Conference of the Association for Consumer Research , Sao Paulo, Brazil, 3rd August 2008

Paton M and Henry P 2008 'Confucian Values: A Case of Oversimplification?, 8th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business , Honolulu, United States, 25th May 2008

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2008 'A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental History of China and Australia using the Concept of Shanmai ??: the Logic of Short-term Advantage & the Ethics of Chance, Department of Agricultural Economics seminar series , University of Sydney, Australia 2008

2007

4
Journal Article/s

Paton M 2007 'Fengshui: a Continuation of the Art of Swindlers?', Journal of Chinese Philosophy , vol.34:3, pp. 427-45

Paton M 2007 'Why International Students are at Greater Risk of Failure: An Inconvenient Truth', Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations , vol.6:6, pp. 101-112

Paton M 2007 'A review of Hong-Key Yoon’s The Culture of Fengshui in Korea: An Exploration of East Asian Geomancy', The Review of Korean Studies , vol.10:4, pp. 321-324

Paton M 2007 '**** you Ouyang or Whingeing as a Northern Hemisphere Trait’ a review of Ouyang Yu’s poem ‘**** you Australia', Southerly , vol.67:3, pp. 209-212

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2007 'Has the Sentence been lost in Genre?, Australasian Association for Language and Learning conference , Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 1st - 31st December 2007

Singer P and Paton M 2007 'On the Ethical Life, The Empty Dichotomy of East and West and the Problem with Moralities: a ‘Southern’ Environmental Perspective , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 30th April 2007

2006

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2006 'Ethical Responsibility: the Southern Perspective' in Moral Responsibility: Eastern and Western Traditions , NSW Chapter of the Independent Scholars Association of Australia, Australia Link

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2006 'Communication Skills in University Education, Critical Thinking and Learning Journals , Auckland, New Zealand, 1st - 31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'The Environmental History of China and Australia from a Traditional 'dili' Perspective, Federation of Ethnic Communities Councils of Australia, Transformations 2006: Culture and the Environment in Human Development , Canberra, ACT, Australia, 1st - 31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'The Environmental History of China and Australia: the relationship to the 21st century, World without Walls: East and West 21st Century Perspectives, conference of the Oriental Society of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'Why International Students are at Greater Risk of Failure, FECCA Transformations: Culture and the Environment in Human Development , Canbeerra, ACT, Australia, 1st January 2006-31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'The Conceptual Basis of Fengshui and Science, Australia Association of Philosophy conference , Canberra, ACT, Australia, 1st - 31st July 2006

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 2006 'a review of Mark Elvin’s, The Retreat of the Elephants: an Environmental History of China', China Journal , 1st January 2006-31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'A North /South Axis', Moral Responsibilty: Seminar proceedings 2006 Independent Scholars Association of Australia , Australia, 1st January 2006-31st December 2006

Paton M 2006 'Learning Journals and Critical Thinking: a Preliminary Study', Proceedings of the Uniserve Science Conference, Assessment in Science Teaching and Learning 2006 , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 30th September 2006

Paton M 2006 'Reflective Journals and Critical Thinking', Uniserve Science Symposium-Assessment in Science Teaching and Learning , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 28th September 2006

Paton M 2006 'Is Traditional Chinese Medicine Science? What Chinese Scientists Think', 16th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia , Wollongong, NSW, Australia, 29th June 2006

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2006 'Moral Responsibility: Eastern and Western Traditions, NSW Chapter of the Independent Scholars Association of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia 2006

Paton M 2006 'Learning Journals as an Assessment Tool, Research Forum on the First Year Experience at the University of Sydney , Sydney, NSW, Australia September 2006

Paton M 2006 'Effective Assessment for First Year Students, Best Practice in Assessment and Student Feedback: A Forum , Sydney, NSW, Australia June 2006

2005

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2005 'Is Critical Analysis Foreign to Chinese Students?' in Communication Skills in University Education: The International Dimension , ed. E. Manalo and G. Wong-Toi, Pearson Education, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 1-12

4
Journal Article/s

Paton M 2005 'New Scholarship: XXII International Congress of the History of Science Beijing (a review)', China Heritage Newsletter , vol.3

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2005 'Fengshui and the Energy of the Land, International Symposium on Fengshui and the Built Environment , Hong Kong, (China), 1st January 2005-31st December 2005

Paton M 2005 'Cultural Chauvinism or a Continuation of the Art of Swindlers?, 14th International Society for Chinese Philosophy , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 2005-31st December 2005

Paton M 2005 'The Concept shi in Fengshui Classics of the Form School (chair of session, Ancient Cosmology), XXII International Congress on the History of Science , Beijing, China, 1st January 2005-31st December 2005

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 2005 'Fengshui and the Energy of the Land', Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Scientific Fengshui and the Built Environment , Hong Kong, (China), 1st - 31st October 2005

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2005 'The Concept shi and its Relationship to Gravity, Cambridge University, United Kingdom October 2005

2004

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2004 'Critical Thinking of East Asian students studying in Australia, 8th Pacific Rim First Year in Higher Education Conference , Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 1st January 2004-31st December 2004

Paton M 2004 'Dragon Veins, Cultural Chauvinism, and the Energy of the Land, Tenth International Conference on the History of Science in China , Harbin, China, 1st January 2004-31st December 2004

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 2004 'Dragon Veins, Cultural Chauvinism, and the Energy of the Land', Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on the History of Science in China: Multiaspect Studies on the History of Science, Technology and Medicine in China , Harbin, China, 1st - 31st August 2004

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2004 'International and Non-English Speaking Background Students, Discussion paper for the Teaching & Learning Committee Faculty of Economics and Business , Sydney, NSW, Australia 2004

Paton M 2004 'Yang Yunsong of the Tang Dynasty: the Second Father of Fengshui?, Chinese Studies Department seminar series , Sydney, NSW, Australia 2004

2003

2
Book Section/s

Paton M 2003 'Zhou Shu’an' in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century 1912-2000 , ed. L.X.H. Lee and A.D. Stefanowska, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, United States, pp. 712-713

Paton M 2003 'Yan Fengying' in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century 1912-2000 , ed. L.X.H. Lee and A.D. Stefanowska, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, United States, pp. 609-610

Paton M 2003 'Yeh T’ao' in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century 1912-2000 , ed. L.X.H. Lee and A.D. Stefanowska, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, United States, pp. 642-645

Paton M 2003 'Ch’en Hsiu-his' in Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: The Twentieth Century 1912-2000 , ed. L.X.H. Lee and A.D. Stefanowska, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, United States, pp. 62-65

4
Journal Article/s

Paton M 2003 ''Balancing Virtues’, A review of John Ralston Saul, On Equilibrium, Penguin Books Australia, 2002', The Drawing Board , vol.4:1

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2003 'Is Freshman English the Way to Go?, 7th Pacific Rim First Year Experience in Higher Education Conference , Queensland University of Technology, Australia, 1st January 2003-31st December 2003

Paton M 2003 'Is Critical Analysis Foreign to Chinese Students?, Vice Chancellor’s Teaching and Learning Showcase, Graduates for the World , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 30th November 2003

Paton M 2003 'Practice Makes Perfect: Meeting the learning needs of students with diverse cultural backgrounds (joint demonstration), Vice Chancellor’s Teaching and Learning Showcase, Graduates for the World , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 30th November 2003

Areni C, Bonanno H and Paton M 2003 'Practice makes perfect: Meeting the learning needs of students with diverse cultural backgrounds, Vice-Chancellor's Showcase: Graduates for the world , University of Sydney, Australia, 6th November 2003

Paton M 2003 'Was Shi a Physical (or Psychic) Concept?, Biennual Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st - 31st July 2003

Paton M 2003 'The Concept shi in Traditional Fengshui Texts, Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy & Social Studies of Science (AAAHPSSS) , Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 1st - 31st July 2003

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 2003 'Weng Wenhao, Geologist and Fengshui Researcher, Chinese Studies Department seminar series , Sydney, NSW, Australia May 2003

2002

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2002 'The Water Dragon Classic: the end of the observational roots of Fengshui?, Early Modernity, Conference of the International Society for Intellectual History , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 2002-31st December 2002

Paton M 2002 'Dragon Veins, Annual Conference of the Australian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 2002-31st December 2002

2001

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2001 'Towards a Scientific Understanding of Fengshui, (Colloquium) , United States, 1st January 2001-31st December 2001

Paton M 2001 'Women, Modernity and Opportunity in 20th Century China, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 2001-31st December 2001

2000

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 2000 'delegate, Annual Conference of the Australasian Association for the History , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 2000-31st December 2000

1999

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1999 'The Fengshui Classics and Twenty Four Difficult Problems; a Negation of the Compass School, London International Fengshui Conference , London, United Kingdom, 1st January 1999-31st December 1999

1998

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1998 'The Relationship of Fengshui to the Scientific Tradition, Eighth International Conference on the History of Science in China , Berlin, Germany, 1st January 1998-31st December 1998

Paton M 1998 '10th World Conference on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, Freiburg, Germany, 1st January 1998-31st December 1998

1997

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1997 'Fengshui: an Australian Perspective, Property Council of Australia National Property Conference , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1997-31st December 1997

Paton M 1997 'English translations of the Fengshui classics, The First Melbourne Fengshui Conference , Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 1st January 1997-31st December 1997

1996

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1996 'Fengshui and the History of Geology, Annual conference of the Australasian Association for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Science , Melbourne, VIC, Australia, 1st January 1996-31st December 1996

Paton M 1996 'delegate, Conference on Descartes' Natural Philosophy , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1996-31st December 1996

7
Thesis

Paton M 1996 'Towards a Scientific Understanding of Fengshui: The Burial Classic of Qing Wu, Twenty Four Difficult Problems and Secretly Passed down Water Dragon Classic', , University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

9
Internal Working Paper/s

Paton M and Goodhew J 1996 'Failing Students - Accounting 1A and Economics', Faculty of Economics and Business University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

1995

6
Conference Proceeding/s

Paton M 1995 'delegate', Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australia Conference , Perth, WA, Australia, 1st January 1995-31st December 1995

1994

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 1994 'Workshop leader, Teaching Across Cultures , Sydney, NSW, Australia 1994

1993

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1993 'delegate, Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1993-31st December 1993

1991

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1991 'delegate, Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1991-31st December 1991

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 1991 'The Problems Encountered by NESB Students in the Writing of a thesis, Thesis Writing Seminar , Sydney, NSW, Australia 1991

1990

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1990 'delegate, How to Teach Writing for the Year 2000: Technical Communication , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1990-31st December 1990

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 1990 'Fengshui and the History and Philosophy of Science, NSW Chinese Studies Group Seminar Series , Sydney, NSW, Australia 1990

1989

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1989 'organiser, International Conference on the History of Printing , Taiwan, 1st January 1989-31st December 1989

Paton M 1989 'organiser, The Eleventh International Conference on Abraham Lincoln , Taiwan, 1st January 1989-31st December 1989

Paton M 1989 'organiser, International Conference on Chinese Folk History , Taiwan, 1st January 1989-31st December 1989

1988

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1988 'chairman and organiser, Aboriginal Studies throughout the Curriculum , La Perouse, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1988-31st December 1988

11
Seminar Paper/s

Paton M 1988 'The Beginnings of an Understanding of Diqi, NSW Chinese Studies Group Seminar Series , Sydney, NSW, Australia 1988

1987

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1987 'chairman and organiser, Computers and the Teaching of Languages , Canterbury, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1987-31st December 1987

Paton M 1987 'delegate, Biennial Conference of the Chinese Studies Association of Australia , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1987-31st December 1987

1986

5
Conference Paper/s

Paton M 1986 'delegate, 4th International Conference on the History of Chinese Science , Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1st January 1986-31st December 1986