No. 2000/1                                                                                                                                           April 2000

 University of Sydney’s Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies —PeaceWrites

The newsletter of peace studies, seminars, books, and peace initiatives

 

Inside this Issue

Towards Aboriginal Reconciliation 1

Peace in the New Millennium – 1

+Commentaries by: the Dalai Lama, Mary Robinson,

Johan Galtung, Armen Gakavian, and CPACS

+ The Sydney Peace Prize

+ CPACS Objectives

CPACS members on the Peace Track:

in Hong Kong, Okinawa, Spain & Macedonia 3

Poetry for Peace: Xanana Gusmao 4

RESEARCH at CPACS 5

TEACHING: Graduate Peace and Conflict Studies 6

PUBLICATIONS: New Occasional Papers, and 6

book launch, see Diary Dates below

SEMINARS: Sri Lanka, Armenia, Western Sahara 7

In Remembrance of Gordon Rodley 8

Dates for Your Diary

Tuesday 2 May: Book Launch. Join His Excellency, the Honourable Gordon Samuels AC, Governor of New South Wales as he launches Human Rights, Corporate Responsibility: A Dialogue, edited by Professor Stuart Rees and Shelley Wright. All welcome, 6.00 for 6.30pm. The Great Hall, University of Sydney. RSVP CPACS 9351 7686.

Wednesday 10 May: Lunchtime Seminar ‘Western Sahara, Africa’s Last Colony – the Process of Decolonisation’ at CPACS. See page 8 for details.

Wednesday 17 May: Breakfast Seminar Presented by the Sydney Peace Foundation: Peace in the Workplace: achieving fairness and justice. Guest Speakers, Ron Callus, Director and John Buchanan, Deputy Director, Australian Centre for Industrial Relations, Research & Teaching (ACIRRT), provide answers to the questions: "What is peace in the workplace and how can it be achieved?" ACIRRT is the leading centre researching the nature of organizations and labour market policies. Callus and Buchanan are contributing authors to Australia at Work (1999), which examines the changing nature of work and its impact on people’s lives. All welcome: Barnet Long Room, Customs House, Circular Quay, 7.30am-9.00am. $49 per person, ($45 CPACS members) cooked breakfast included. RSVP by 10th May, to Antonia Stephenson: tel 9351 4468, fax 9660 0862.

Wednesday 17 May: Announcement, at the breakfast seminar, of this year’s winner of the Sydney Peace Prize.

Thursday 9 November: Sydney Peace Prize Lecture 6.30pm, Seymour Centre. Box Office: 02 9364 9400. Details regarding speaker and topic to follow in the coming months – watch this space!

Friday 10 November: Sydney Peace Prize, to be awarded at the Sydney Peace Foundation’s gala dinner in the Great Hall, University of Sydney. Enquiries regarding the dinner to Antonia Stephenson: tel 9351 4468, fax 9660 0862.

TOWARDS ABORIGINAL RECONCILIATION

As we slip and stumble towards reconciliation the following two events are to be supported. Both highlight the need to acknowledge the past, and embrace the future through apology and forgiveness in the present. Much can be learnt from the Desmond Tutu model of reconciliation as used by South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission:

Stolen Generation Company B, Belvoir Street Theatre,

25 Belvoir Street, Surry Hills will perform Stolen, a compelling drama based on the lives of five indigenous Australians who, as children, were removed from their families. The play, which opens on 19 April, explores the legacy of this pernicious Government policy. Reductions to CPACS members and friends for mid-week evening performances during May. Pay by 27 April to get tickets for $29. Box office: 9699 3444, mention CPACS.

The People’s Walk for Reconciliation, Sunday 28 May from North Sydney Station to the Opera House across the Harbour Bridge, closed to traffic. Organized by the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation.

 

THE HUMAN RIGHTS STAGE - Peace in the new millennium?

A perspective from the Dalai Lama:

"There is nothing new about the new millennium if the people of the world do not adopt new attitudes and ways of thinking."

The Dalai Lama made this pronouncement during his visit to London in May last year, when he unveiled a Peace Pillar in the new Tibetan Peace Garden in the grounds of the old Imperial War Museum. The symbolism was clear: a place glorifying and honouring war now showcased a monument to peace, made all the more pertinent, not just by the dramatic juxtaposition of contrasting ideologies, but also because the Peace Garden is a gift from the Tibetan people who are suffering political and cultural oppression.

In our comfortable lives it seems that peace is only valued by those who do not have it. In a world where over 400 wars wage, the Dalai Lama’s message of non-violence and an end to suffering is compelling. Ghandi’s message of the last millennium: "I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary – the evil it does is permanent" has gone unheeded, with conflicts in Kosovo, East Timor, Rwanda, Northern Ireland, Sri Lanka, Algeria, Afghanistan, Chechnya as proof of our failure to grasp the importance of peace. For those who are slow to learn, the Dalai Lama shares Ghandi’s wisdom: "Violence has become inappropriate and anachronistic in today’s smaller world, where what one wreaks on one’s enemy today rebounds back in another guise tomorrow." (Rigpa 2000:24, at www.rigpa.org)

Peace is the only option, is the central message in the work of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson and her ‘Human Rights Charter’. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has been awarded the Guinness World Record for having collected, translated and disseminated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights into more than 300 languages and dialects: from Abkhaz to Zula (available on line through the OHCHR website http://www.unhchr.ch). The Universal Declaration is thus the world’s most ‘universal document’. In the words of Mary Robinson …

"this project … shows that all of us, in our different forms of expression, can speak the common language of humanity, the language of human rights, which is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights."

The project, developed in the framework of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), is an example of global partnerships for human rights. As is the upcoming World Conference Against Racism, which will take place in 2001 in South Africa, a land where Nelson Mandela has set such an example of forgiveness over hatred, reconciliation over revenge. The first preparatory Conference will be held in Geneva this May, with regional conferences taking place throughout the world this year. As Robinson notes with great sadness: "We must be honest and recognize how far performance lags behind the goal of human rights for all. Who could be optimistic in the wake of one of humanity’s bloodiest centuries? Or in the knowledge that, despite the vow that genocide would never be repeated, it has disfigured the world more than once in the past decade." But on a positive note she says: "I shall look, in particular, to women leaders and to young people to take initiatives in their national and local communities to shape a global community committed to the cause of human rights for all, irrespective of race, gender or creed."

Johan Galtung, Professor of Peace Studies, Taplow Court, London, like Mary Robinson is also an optimist, as conveyed in his paper: The New Millennium - Do We Have the Courage of Optimism? available on

On the same topic, CPACS member, Dr Armen Gakavian shares his observations and insights:

The New World Order That Never Was

by Armen Gakavian*

A new world order has been formed

Between the chequebook and the dawn.

(Renaissance Man - Midnight Oil, 1993)

In 1989, amidst the euphoria of the tumbling of the Berlin Wall and the ‘end of communism’, US President George Bush boldly proclaimed the beginning of a ‘New World Order’. With the Cold War well and truly over and the end of the arms race, there was a strong sense of optimism and an expectation that the nineties and beyond would herald a world of Peace, Harmony and Order. For the first time in the twentieth century, there appeared to be the possibility of real progress towards a common humanity.

 

Yet the unfolding of events in the early 1990s and beyond made it clear that the so-called New World Order simply marked the replacement of one oppressive international regime with another. The much heralded ‘triumph of democracy’ turned out to be a false victory, an opportunity for economic imperialism to find new roots, with transnationals entering (or creating) new markets and the World Bank / IMF finding (or creating) a new niche. As part of this process the Soviet Union, far from transitioning gracefully from communism to capitalism, fell apart at the seams, producing untold misery and economic hardship for millions of people.

 

These disappointments were accompanied by a further, more profound realisation - that perhaps human beings had not changed either. We had hoped that the horrors of the twentieth century would have taught us some lessons, that we would be quicker to resort to peaceful means to resolve complex issues. Yet war, revolution, genocide and torture have continued to characterise human relations not only in many parts of the Third World, but also on Europe’s own doorstep. Enter the nineties, and names like Rwanda, Bosnia and East Timor became household words as the horrors of genocide and destruction flashed before our eyes on the evening news.

 

As recently as 1999 we saw the brutality of Rwanda and Bosnia repeated, this time in Kosovo. The solution offered by the ‘free world’, the guardians of the New World Order, was equally vicious. NATO’s bombing campaign solved little, resulting in further misery and leaving behind a trail of innocent victims. NATO’s belated entry into former Yugoslavia was in stark contrast to the US’s unhesitant declaration of war against Iraq only a few years earlier, for the purpose of defending its ‘right of access’ to the Kuwaiti oil fields.

 

The New World Order envisaged by Bush of global harmony and order seems to have died before it ever had a chance, undermined by a social environment of greed, competition, hatred, war, and genocide, where double standards continue to be the guiding norm of international behaviour. Yet in many ways, this is not all that surprising. A New World Order is not going to come from the top with the decrees of politicians, nor by allowing free reign for multinationals, nor by policing the world with more armed forces.

 

Rather, it is something that needs to be built by the little people – by you and by me. For a true New World Order to emerge, what is needed is a social and spiritual revolution premised on truth, co-operation, faith and practical love. It is on the basis of this kind of grassroots strength that sustainable political, economic and structural change can be achieved. Then we can begin to enjoy a New World Order – not one of rhetoric created by politicians and guided by the chequebook, but rather of truth and reconciliation between human beings, starting in our own families, communities, universities and workplaces.

__________________________________________

* Dr Armen Gakavian received his PhD from the University of Sydney, specialising in nationalism and ethnic identity. He is on the CPACS Council and is Convenor of the Armenian Genocide Research Unit of the Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies, Macquarie University. Armen is also on staff with the Navigators, a campus-based urban network concerned with faith and justice. He is currently tutoring in the Politics of Genocide course at UTS and will be teaching Social Action and Community Mobilisation at the same university, before leaving for a two-year trip to Armenia to teach the Social Action course and help establish a community mobilisation project.

 

Peace and Human Rights at the beginning of the 21st Century

The second millennium (by some calendars) has ended with a century marked by a vast increase in material potential and personal mobility, the growth of a world community, global economy and information revolution, the widening of divides within and between peoples and regions, and increasingly frequent and violent conflict over ideology, religion, resources and race. The policies of international organisations such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the World Trade Organisation, the International Labour Organisation, increasingly impact on the daily lives of men, women and children, and the environment in which we live. A heightened awareness of human rights and dignity has been matched by an increase in their violation. The need for processes that produce lasting resolutions to conflict and the willingness to apply them has never been greater.

The Sydney Peace Prize

In 1999 the Sydney Peace Prize was awarded to Archbishop Emeritus, Nobel Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa for his work as head of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission and for the relevance of that work to Australia’s own task to achieve reconciliation with its own indigenous peoples. Archbishop Tutu’s and his wife Leah’s presence in Sydney on 26 November was of enormous significance. Numerous people reported that the Peace Prize Lecture in the Seymour Centre at 2:30 pm that afternoon was: ‘the most electrifying piece of theatre all year’; an inspiring experience which will have a lasting effect on me’; like watching the presence of goodness and greatness’; so profound and yet always so funny. Copies of the lecture (text only) are available through CPACS ($10/$8). A video recording of the televised lecture can be obtained from the ABC, quoting ‘Straight Talk’ 27 November, 1999.

At a gala dinner in the evening of 26 November, the Governor General Sir William Deane presented the 1999 Sydney Peace Prize to Archbishop Tutu. In his tribute the Governor General said that the world could not underestimate the force for goodness which the Archbishop had displayed for all of us. In his acceptance speech, the Archbishop said that he had not won this prize by his own efforts, hence his request that he would accept it in association with the South African High Commissioner Dr. Bhadra Ranchod. In expressing thanks to the Archbishop, Stuart Rees, Director of the Peace Foundation, reminded the audience that the last 50 years of the 20th century had been characterised by destructive violence and by illiteracy about human rights. The challenge for CPACS, for the Peace Foundation and for the international community was threefold: (i) to advocate peace with justice (ii) to develop skills in conflict resolution (iii) to become far more literate about human rights. To that ‘holy trinity’ the Archbishop had just added his African ingredient - ubuntu the quality of being human - which would bind and be the catalyst for those other tasks.

The 1998 Prize was awarded to Muhammad Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank, which lends minute amounts of money to the poorest of the poor with startling results whereby such borrowers achieve financial autonomy, formerly unknown to them in their impoverished lives.

The objectives of the Foundation are:

to award the annual Sydney Peace Prize

to create jobs for young people in peace and human rights research

to award scholarships and internships in peace, human rights and conflict resolution

to hold public seminars related to peace with justice issues

CPACS OBJECTIVES

The Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies was established in May 1988 as a specialist research and teaching centre within the University of Sydney. It has evolved into a significant international contributor in this field.

The Centre aims to facilitate dialogue between individuals, groups or communities who are concerned with conditions of positive peace, whether in interpersonal relationships, community relations, within organisations and nations, or with reference to international relations.

It promotes interdisciplinary research, teaching, public discussion and publications on the causes of conflict and the conditions which affect conflict resolution and peace. Through the Peace Foundation and the Sydney Peace Prize it celebrates the achievements of outstanding contributors to the processes that build peace, justice, truth and reconciliation. Projects, such as outlined under the headings ‘Research’, ‘Teaching’, ‘Publications’, focus on the concepts and realities of justice and the means of attaining conditions which contribute to equitable social relationships and just societies.

 

ON THE PEACE TRACK

… with Stuart Rees, in Hong Kong, January 2000

At City University Hong Kong in late January, I (Stuart Rees) was the keynote speaker on the topic ‘Holistic Care for People with a Disability’. A theme of that paper is that holistic care – meeting a diversity of needs from the cradle to the grave – is not only a technical and political task but also one which involves advocacy of peace with justice.

The ‘peace with justice’ theme was easily understood by parents and other carers of developmentally disabled children. They know that improved quality of life for vulnerable citizens depends on a significant increase in education, in employment, and in support for carers. Those improvements are the minimum conditions for a just settlement of the claims of people with a disability.

This holistic goal will not be achieved easily . Hong Kong’s obsession with shopping – I admit that visiting academics also shop when they go there (!) – means that it is seldom easy to focus attention on citizens who at first sight do not appear to be contributing to material prosperity. Although economic rationalism remains the ideological base of Hong Kong’s social policies, pressure groups supporting the disabled are beginning to make market trends work for them. Here is an encouraging example.

Betting on horse races is a popular pastime in Hong Kong. Wanting to promote an image as a good corporate citizen, the HK Jockey Club is contributing to projects concerned with holistic care for the developmentally disabled. ‘Services for people with a disability’ may not be a 100-1 outsider after all. Be optimistic, but don’t bet on it!

… and in Okinawa, February 2000

In early February I attended the international conference ‘Dialogue between Civilizations’ in Okinawa. Organised by the Hawaiian based Toda Institute, delegates from many countries, representing most of the world’s religions, assembled to talk about peace.

Three specific exchanges highlighted obstacles to dialogue. Event one occurred when the representative from Russia told Hainani Trask – an indigenous leader from Hawaii: "There are already too many countries in the world. Giving recognition to indigenous peoples will only exacerbate the problem". There followed replies from the floor explaining the benefits of learning from the non-violent traditions of indigenous peoples and of discouraging the rational-materialist ways of thinking which apparently informed our Russian colleague’s views. Event two occurred when the representative from the Peoples Republic of China said in response to a question about human rights violations in Tibet: "Tibet and Taiwan are Chinese. There can be no discussion". There followed a patient appeal from David Chapple – Professor of Religion at the University of Hawaii – as to whether dialogue could begin if key topics were ruled off limits. Event three involved an exchange between one representative from India who said that the Hindu religion was all forgiving and always non-violent and Dr Radnakrishnan – a Ghandian scholar – who reflected on India’s testing of atomic weapons and the intolerance towards Muslims implied by the rise of Hindu nationalism. A sort of ‘satyagraha’ search for truth then started.

Among numerous moments of inspiration in Okinawa, I’d select one. On the opening day, in an address about the clash between science and religion, the speaker was Nobel Prize winner Sir Joseph Rotblat. He warned of the continued danger of nuclear arms and the ever-present threat of violence created by massive social inequalities. As impressive as his data was Joseph’s overriding humanity, his energy, humour and participation with all the delegates. He is 92. What an inspiration!

The outcome of the Okinawa deliberations will appear in a book – edited by Majid Tehranian, Director of the Toda Institute – to be published later this year. (Stuart Rees 2000)

 

… with Carolyn Hayes in Spain in September 1999

In September last year I presented a paper to the joint conference of the European Association for the History of Medicine, and the International Network for the History of Public Health. I am a PhD student at the University of Sydney, and a member of CPACS, and am researching the suppression of dissent and whistleblowers who revealed malpractice in the Chelmsford Hospital ‘deep-sleep therapy’ tragedy.

If we in Australia think whistleblowers are given scant recognition and silenced by the bureaucratic, legal and hierarchical processes of control, spare a thought for anyone in southern Europe attempting to expose wrongdoing within institutions. To my amazement the concept ‘whistleblowing’ was unintelligible to the academic audience attending this conference; it was not part of their lexicon. "Is it like blowing a whistle on the playing field?" one baffled European asked.

In a sense this is what whistleblowers are trying to do: reform society by exposing corruption and human rights infringements. This makes whistleblowing so hard because it invariably comes from within organisations, from those individuals who put their jobs and, worse case, their lives in jeopardy.

Europe, with its history of repression, hierarchical and familial control, has not fostered a social environment that would encourage individuals to stand against injustice. As explained by Professor Renato Mazzolini of Trento University, Italy, public dissent is not common in Spain where people still remember the repression of the Franco era; nor in Italy, which struggles with government corruption. Even a visiting academic from Britain found ‘whistleblowing’ foreign, in spite of the highly publicised Bristol Infirmary scandal: "Was that about whistleblowing?" he queried.

(Carolyn Hayes, 2000)

P.S. from the editor: Nor is the word recognised by my computer’s American-English spell-check. I reach for the Australian Macquarie Dictionary (1988 edn) and find: whistleblowing:

‘blow the whistle on, Colloq, to betray, especially to the authorities’ [emphasis added]. Now that’s interesting Carolyn, even the dictionary is not on your side! All I can suggest is you ‘wet your whistle’ (the next dictionary entry) in support of all whistleblowers! Good luck.

 

… with Carol Shermann in Macedonia until 30 June 2000

I have taken a contract with CARE International, Macedonia to work as Programme Manager in their Skopje office until 30 June 2000. Current projects here include the rehabilitation of a 51 hectare piece of land in the municipality of Cegrane, using permaculture techniques. This site was the largest of the refugee camps during last year’s Kosovo crisis, in fact it was the biggest refugee camp that Europe has seen since World War II. Many of the projects that have been implemented here have directly related to the needs of the refugees. However, now that the emergency has abated, this office is looking more towards development strategies.

I haven’t completely left social work behind. This week I visited the main home in Macedonia for the intellectually disabled, a very sad place which has received much international attention in the past year. Hopefully, we can continue to be involved with the place through some selected progressive programming. There certainly is a role for some CPACS training courses out here and of course in Kosovo. Tensions continue to be high, and sadly it is difficult to imagine what might happen if all the KFOR troops packed up and went home.

I hope to see you all in July. Until then, I shall be drinking plenty of rakia, passively smoking at least a carton a day and eating plenty of meat. Regards, Carol.

 

POETRY FOR PEACE

Peace is hard to define, single words invariably fail, whereas art, music and poetry have the ability to describe the indescribable, by appealing to the essence of humanity. President of the National Council of Timorese Resistance (CNRT), Xanana Gusmao has used poetry to convey the meaning of peace and the tragedy of conflict:

 
 
A Fighter Who Fell

High on the mountain peaks of Timor

The grass grows

And warms the fractured bones

Of a fighter who fell

Down on the grassy plains of Timor

A flower shows

And beautifies the bones

Of a fighter who fell

This is the hopeful life that grows

From life’s release

The life that every woman knows

Who calls for peace

With every waking breath

But not the peace of death

Throughout the peaks and plains of Timor

The life-blood flows

And animates the bones

Of the fighters who fell

(Xanana Gusmao)

RESEARCH

Three research project have recently been completed at the Centre. The report documents will be made available as CPACS occasional papers.

1. ‘Off The Record: Gaps and Shortcomings in NSW Disability Services’

is a report written by  Kerry O’Donohue in collaboration with

Centacare.  Within the sphere of disability, the research is concerned with the range of needs clients have and the extent to which they are being met. The issue of unmet and, at times, unexpressed need, is also acknowledged.

2. ‘Work for All Who Want It: Questioning employment’ substantial piece of  research undertaken by Michael Jarques in collaboration with the CRN.  The author begins to unravel the complexities of labour market and human rights ideals in the context of unemployment.

3. ‘The Impact of Aboriginal Night Patrols as a Juvenile Crime Prevention strategy: An evaluation of the four pilot programmes in New South Wales’ is a report prepared by Lynda Blanchard (CPACS) and Leah Lui (Koori Centre) for the NSW Attorney General’s Department (AGD). The research informing this evaluation was conducted throughout regional NSW from September 1998 to February 2000. The report to the AGD will be considered by the Premier’s Department.

Aboriginal Night Patrols Programme in NSW:

Summary of Findings

Indigenous initiatives such as these night patrols reflect concern about a range of social issues. In this respect it is not too ambitious to claim that night patrols might "address the whole community, its history and its wider context as part of the problem and the solution" (Smith 1999:153). Although night patrols involved in this pilot project were funded as a crime prevention programme with a focus on ‘at risk’ Koori youth, all patrol leaders stressed the importance of their operations as a resource for the whole community, not to be viewed as yet another government supported programme just for Aboriginal people.

For Aboriginal night patrols’ operators and committees, preventing juvenile crime is only one reason for intervention. Recognising the risk factors associated with juvenile crime in Aboriginal communities and developing a diversity of strategies to respond to youth needs are key objectives, in particular:

(i) The need to hear what indigenous people are saying in general about social problems and juvenile justice.

(ii) The need to take seriously the proposals which indigenous people have made about ways to respond to the marginalisation of Aboriginal youth.

(iii) The problem that key local governments find it very difficult to respond creatively to points (i) and (ii) above.

In the four study locations - Kempsey, Narrandera, Forster and Dareton - youth unemployment percentage rates were 37, 26.3, 29.7 and 34.2 respectively. Aboriginal people under the age of eighteen accounted for between 48.2% and 52.4% of the indigenous population in each of the locations. Despite programmes such as the Koori Youth Programme, Aboriginal youth unemployment in regional NSW is acute.

Night patrols have the potential to be part of an integrated programme of youth services, developed in conjunction with broader Aboriginal youth policy. Every group representing a community that wants to run a night patrol must be encouraged to apply for appropriate financial support. A careful process of assessing the merits of each application would be established.

In responding to the crisis that is facing young Aboriginal people in rural and remote areas, professional agencies must be responsible for supporting night patrols, albeit as part of an overall Aboriginal youth policy. The role of government agencies, such as the Department of Community Services, Department of Health, NSW Police Service (NSWPS), the Attorney General’s Department, and the Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), in monitoring and supporting the work of night patrols should be formalised through policy at the state level. This policy should include provision for available funds to be dispersed within each region by a ‘lead agency’ in accordance with the fulfillment of service obligations. While taking into account the requirements of each community, regional agreements between night patrols and government agencies are to be guided by these policies.

The resources needed for even one night patrol group to be sustained total approximately $70,000 per year, little more than the annual cost of one incarcerated youth. In some instances the NSWPS provides this support - for example in Walgett and Redfern. In others, a shire worker coordinates night patrol activities - for example Kempsey - which is an extremely valuable ‘hidden’ cost of the community service. Most night patrols in NSW, however, struggle with donations from business or short-term Government funding.

The evidence documented in this report shows the value of night patrols in supporting youth and promoting community safety in diverse parts of NSW, even though they are supported by very limited funding, from the longest running patrol in Kempsey, to the most recently developed service in Dareton. In Kempsey, the Kempsey Assistance Patrol (KAP) operators confirm that since the commencement of the night patrol, there has been a fall in the number of times police have been called to the central business district to address juvenile misdemeanours. This year KAP received an Australia Day Award for community service. In Dareton, during a three-month period of reliable night patrol operations, police recorded a 50% drop in car theft. On suspension of the patrol, car theft rates have returned to pre-patrol levels. Although not specifically referring to juvenile behaviour, the North West Regional Ambulance Service of Victoria recorded a dramatic decrease in the number of ambulance responses to Dareton/Namatjira Area during a month of the patrol’s operation. Responses fell from 22 in February 1999 to 7 in April 1999. In a letter to patrol leaders and the NSW Premier’s Department regional Coordinator, the Northern Operations manager stated "From what we have seen to date, this strategy is an obvious success".

Young people in regional NSW are showing initiative in addressing their problems despite the apparently bleak quality of life for many. Aboriginal community night patrols offer young people a non-threatening support service - in the transportation of passengers from streets to their homes or safe places - and often much more.

 

Smith, L. (1999) Decolonising Methodologies. Otago, New Zealand: Zed Books/University of Otago Press.

TEACHING – Certificate, Diploma and Masters Programmes in Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Sydney. New course for semester II, 2000:

SCWK6935. Peace-Building Media: Theory and Practice Taught Intensively during October 2000

This unit discusses the ways in which the media can act as a vehicle for promoting peace with justice. Conflict-resolving media initiatives will be discussed with reference to the development of ‘peace journalism’. The role of news and other media representations in helping to construct a sense of ‘self’ and ‘other’, will be addressed and examined in coverage of contemporary controversies in international affairs, law and order, and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples. This unit of study will provide writers, readers, viewers and listeners of the media, both professionals and lay people, with an opportunity to practise techniques and skills of conflict resolution.

The course will be run by Jake Lynch and Annabel McGoldrick. Lynch is a senior reporter with Sky News (London) and the author of What are Journalists For? (1999) published by Conflict & Peace Forums, UK. A former Sydney correspondent for the Independent newspaper, he spent the Kosovo crisis reporting from Nato HQ in Brussels, interpreting the warmongering spin from the perspective of peace journalism. At the same time McGoldrick worked with playwright Harold Pinter to make the BBC television programme: Against The War. She has reported from Sydney for Sky, the BBC, Channel Four and Australian Woman’s Weekly. The pair run the annual international peace journalism conferences at Taplow Court, near London, UK.Admission Requirements

Entry into the postgraduate programme in peace and conflict studies requires a bachelor’s degree or an equivalent qualification.

How to Apply A current application form must be acquired from the University of Sydney NSW 2006 Australia, available from the University website: http://www.usyd.edu.au. For further information contact Dr Jane Fulton, Teaching Co-ordinator, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, on cpacs.teaching@arts.usyd.edu.au or tel 612 9351 5440, fax 612 9660 0862.

 

CPACS PUBLICATIONS IN 1999 AND 2000

As well as PeaceWrites, CPACS has recently published:

*No. 99/1 The Future of Policing: The Challenge of Non-Violence Michelle Momdjian.

*No. 99/2 Positive Policing – Rebuilding Social Bonds and Community Confidence Jane Fulton (ed.)

*No. 99/3 Peace is Freedom from Poverty (1998 Sydney Peace Prize Lecture) Muhammad Yunus

*No. 2000/1 Peace through Reconciliation (1999 Sydney Peace Prize Lecture) Desmond Tutu.

Stuart Rees and Shelley Wright (eds) Human Rights, Corporate Responsibility: A Dialogue. Pluto Press: Sydney (2000) ($29.95). Business needs human rights. Can human rights influence business, locally, nationally and internationally? Contributors include business leaders, lawyers, social scientists and human rights advocates. Doing business and addressing human rights can be interwoven. Published in association with the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies. See under ‘Diary Dates’ front page, for book launch details.

Positive Policing – Rebuilding Social Bonds and Community

Confidence

This CPACS occasional paper is a compilation of four articles in search of policing strategies that best serve society. All four articles stress the importance of recognising the need to change the culture of policing from rigid enforcement to a focus on problem-solving within the context of community. Such a focus encourages collaboration, trust and respect between the police service and the people it serves.

In his paper ‘Policing, Structural Violence and Accountability’, Tim Anderson argues that policing in New South Wales (NSW) is inherently violent, as a consequence of history. From the inception of the British colony in Australia, police adopted the British military model which defined the role of policing in terms of enforcement. Anderson calls for a new way by which police can better serve the community with a focus on rights and justice. For this to happen, the police service is required to undergo a paradigm shift from that of ‘occupying army’ to a focus on ‘customer service’. Part of this shift demands greater police accountability. Evidence of these two opposing styles of policing is demonstrated in Anderson’s examination of policies relating to youth offenders. On the one hand, the Young Offenders Act of 1997 offers a system of warnings, cautions and family conferences to avoid arrest, charge and possible imprisonment; on the other hand, the policy of Zero Tolerance insists on formal legal intervention.

The second paper, by Terry O’Connell and James Ritchie, ‘Restorative Justice and the Contest Between the Relational and Institutional Paradigms’, (presented at the Reshaping Australian Institutions Conference held at the Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences in February 1999) builds on Anderson’s observations by examining the social dynamics between two paradigms, namely the relational paradigm formed by our obligations to one another; and the institutional paradigm formed by social structures within institutions. Understanding this relationship is at the centre of current efforts to restore justice within the police service in New South Wales. Examples provided by O’Connell and Ritchie of their work in this field show a direct correlation between the way in which police supervisors treat front-line officers, and way in which these officers interact with the public. For example, Shoalhaven Local Area Command adopted an operational system based on each Command member’s input to the question: "How do you wish to be treated in the workplace by fellow colleagues?" Implementing such a system has shown that the more respect and fair treatment given by police to each other within their internal hierarchy, the more respect will be shown by police to the general public. In the Shoalhaven area, this operational system built on trust, respect and basic human rights, has fostered respect for and hence legitimacy of the police in the eyes of the public, resulting firstly in greater cooperation between police and community, and secondly a corresponding reduction in crime.

Collaboration between the community and the police service is further strengthened by police initiatives, such as the teaching of conferencing skills to community groups to resolve conflict and restore justice. Such skills empower the community with new strategies to deal with their own problems. This is the topic of Terry O’Connell’s second paper: ‘Restorative Justice and Community Empowerment: Conferencing – A comprehensive response to crime and anti-social behaviour’.

The fourth paper ‘A Safely Armed Police – towards a New South Wales Police Force carrying non-lethal weapons’ by Andrew Greig, argues for the removal of guns from the NSW Police Service in the normal course of policing. Greig uses the United Kingdom and New Zealand as working examples of such an approach. He draws an optimistic conclusion that a domino effect will ensue from the removal of lethal weapons from police in New South Wales, resulting ultimately, by example, in a world without guns. If it is part of a broader peace-seeking strategy, a world without guns is one step closer to a world without wars.

This CPACS occasional paper is a second in a series addressing the fundamental issue of the rights of the individual within society. The first: The Future of Policing: The Challenge of Non-Violence (1999) is based on a CPACS forum held earlier in 1999. Invited to offer their perspectives were representatives from the police, academia and the civil liberties movement: Christine Nixon, Assistant Commissioner of NSW Police; Greg Chilvers, a member of the NSW Police Association; Associate Professor Mark Findlay of Sydney University’s Law Faculty; and Tim Anderson, Secretary of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties contributed to this debate.

At a time when mandatory sentencing laws exist in Australia, in direct violation of international human rights conventions, such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, justice and rights must not be overlooked, but placed in the spotlight. Like a candle held up against the winds of injustice, this paper: Positive Policing – Rebuilding Social Bonds and Community Confidence, attempts to shed light on the notion of civil rights.

A Safely Armed Police. This is the quest of CPACS member Andrew Greig, as outlined in the above document. Andrew is coordinator of a new group advocating the safe arming of our police. To support this initiative contact Andrew on 0412 299 762.

On this same topic, Friedrich Nietzsche had the following to say:

Breaking the Sword

‘And perhaps the great day will come when a people, distinguished by wars and victories and by the highest

development of a military order and intelligence, and accustomed to make the heaviest sacrifices for these things, will exclaim of its own free will, "We break the sword" and will smash its entire military establishment down to its

lowest foundations. Rendering oneself unarmed when one

has been the best armed, out of a height of feeling—that is

the means to real peace, which must always rest on a

peace of mind; whereas the so-called armed peace, as it

now exists in all countries, is the absence of peace of mind.

One trusts neither oneself nor one’s neighbor and, half from

hatred, half from fear, does not lay down arms.  Rather perish

than hate and fear, and twice rather perish than make oneself

hated and feared—this must some day become the highest

maxim for every single commonwealth.’ (Friedrich Nietzsche)

 

CPACS SEMINARS

On the 8 March, CPACS presented: Development Work in a Conflict Setting a seminar conducted by Mr. B. Gowthaman, Project Manager, Community Aid Abroad, Sri Lanka. Based on his experience in the conflict zones of Eastern Province and the Habantota of Sri Lanka, Gowthaman outlined the strategies he has developed to address the practicalities of working in protracted conflict situations. Initiating and strengthening community institutions to deal with livelihood issues in a volatile environment is one challenge. Channelling emergency relief and rehabilitation assistance through community based organisations is another. This work involves experiences in border villages at the margins of war – and with mixed ethnic composition – to promote reconciliation and peace building.

Gowthaman also drew attention to the use of overseas aid to pay for arms, either directly, or indirectly with food aid (food aid frees money that would otherwise have been spent on food.) To overcome the misappropriation of aid, a majority of nations, united by concerns about terrorism, voted to establish an international agreement to stop the flow of money to terrorist organisations. The agreement, the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, is intended to encourage nations to monitor closely the collection or deposit of funds in banks by foreign organisations that may be using the money to buy arms for terrorists in another country.

The Convention may be of most immediate help to Sri Lanka, where a violent Tamil separatist movement against an ethnic Sinhalese government has been sustained almost entirely by money raised in ethnic Tamil communities in Canada, the United States, India and Southeast Asia, according to diplomats and Sri Lankan officials.

On 12 April, CPACS hosted a lunchtime seminar: Armenia:

Mobilising Communities for Peace. Dr Armen Gakavian, Convenor of the Armenian Genocide Research Unit

of the Centre for Comparative Genocide Studies, Macquarie University, a council member of CPACS, and a staff member of Navigators, a campus-based urban network for faith and justice, shared his experiences from a recent visit to the former Soviet Republic of Armenia. He plans to return there and mobilise communities around the Gandhian model of peace. Like Gowthaman, Gakavian also talked of the failure of international aid to right the wrongs of a society. In a country used to full employment during the society era, and where now 60% are unemployed, a ‘hand-out’ mentality exists whereby individuals feel powerless to do anything but wait for outside help in the form of overseas aid. Gakavian believes that this impacts negatively upon the Armenian people. On his return to Armenia he hopes to show, through education and example, that individuals can make a difference, that they can encourage and effect change, not through violence but through peaceful means. Martin Luther King, Aung San Suu Kyi, Ghandi, Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, and the Dalai Lama are guiding and shining examples.

Whether the conflict be in Armenia or Sri Lanka, these seminars highlight the importance of working at the local level, to build peace on firm foundations of forgiveness, co-operation and responsibility.

Join us for a Seminar on Wednesday 10 May 1-2pm

Western Sahara, Africa’s Last Colony, the Process of Decolonisation’. Kamal Fadel, representative of Polisario, the Sahrawi resistance movement, will talk about the struggle over the past 25 years for self-determination in Western Sahara. Very little is known of this struggle, which Fadel compares to that of East Timor. The UN and OAU have been trying to organise a referendum in the Territory for the past nine years without much success. Venue: CPACS Posters for Peace Gallery, Tel 9351 7686.Mackie Building, University of Sydney, Arundel Street.

CPACS on the WORLD WIDE WEB 2000:

Some of the current and future web projects are:

Linking to other sites and search engines; Publishing Newsletter, Media/Press Releases; Accessing CPACS research projects; Advertising educational activities and graduate programme; Online Discussion forum (future development) - people can discuss peace issues via the web; Online Library Database (future development) - what books we have at the CPACS Library. If you have the time and expertise to help with Website projects it would help us enormously.

LIBRARY REPORT

CPACS’ collection of books and journals is now being developed as a library for the use of students and members. Books are classified according to the Dewey Decimal system, catalogued, processed and shelved in Dewey order. This is a reference library for the use of our members, students and friends. Books may be read in the Posters for Peace Gallery. Donations of books and journals to our Peace and Conflict Library are gratefully received.

THANKS FROM …

Letter to Professor Stuart Rees, from Dame Leonie Kramer, Chancellor, University of Sydney:

Dear Stuart

At its meeting of 7 February, the Senate passed the following motion.

Dr Macnab moved that Senate congratulate the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, the Sydney Peace Foundation and all those within and outside the University who had contributed to the success of Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s visit.

Although, as you know, I was in Singapore, I’d like to add my congratulations, on the basis of the messages I received (not to mention the publicity).

Yours sincerely, Dame Leonie Kramer, Chancellor, University of Sydney, 21 February, 2000

THANKS TO…

Mrs Terry Bruce for the steel self labels donated to the library. Also Ms Barbara Wilson, cataloguing librarian in the Fisher Library, for donating the Dewey reference volumes. CPACS librarian, Peg Craddock, is over the moon with these helpful donations. Peg and Marjorie Bull have donated their Tuesdays to undertake invaluable work establishing the reference library at CPACS.

… the Conflict Resolution Network (CRN) for its donation of many core books and journals in the field of peace and conflict studies, including Track Two. Produced in South Africa it is an invaluable resource on peace and conflict resolution. These additions will be housed in our library as a highly informative source for our students, members and colleagues.

… Valerie St John for the donation of Judgment at Hiroshima, an enormously inspiring work, written by her husband, the late Edward St John.

… the College of Humanities and Social Sciences (CHASS) for providing seed funding from 1 March 2000, for an education coordinator for the graduate programme in Peace and Conflict Studies at CPACS - a position filled by Dr Jane Fulton.

Terry Schofield and Shaun Etherington , Alex, Belinda and Sam for helping with the book launch.

THE LAST WORD

In Remembrance of Gordon Rodley – A Tribute

Gordon championed social justice. He worked according to the highest standards of scientific endeavour. He played sport with great skill and according to indispensable principles of sportsmanship. He was poetic without ever admitting to being a poet. He was a philosopher who seldom used the word. He was a humanitarian who struggled to express his humanism. In short he was one of the most accomplished yet humble and selfless people I have ever encountered.

Gordon was and remains a cosmopolitan human being. He crossed discipline boundaries, from chemistry and physics to social science and social policy, from theology and history to poetry and critiques of classical economics. He carried out that work on several continents but also within social movements where his skills were called on by people campaigning to protect their environment, to safeguard their heritage, and to achieve social justice. The titles of some of his edited books convey the depth of Gordon’s understanding and tireless energy: Deconstructing Deterrence (on nuclear disarmament); Beyond The Market (a critique of economic dominance in social policies); The Human Costs of Managerialism (a critique of the fads of management and of the disappearance of human considerations in decision-making in private and public sector organisations).

Characteristically, Gordon has left us with a challenge – to express his vision, to sustain his opposition to the selfishness engendered by nationalism or commercialism, and always to realise the potential for all peoples in artistic, scientific, sporting and humanitarian work. Great citizen of New Zealand and the world, you are gone but still with us. The benefits of knowing you, learning from you and being privileged to be your friend will last forever.

(Stuart Rees, 8 February 2000)

Comments and contributions welcome. Contact Editor and Publications Officer Jane Fulton on tel 02 9351 5440, fax 02 9660 0862 or CPACS@social.usyd.edu.au Disclaimer—the views in this publication are solely those of the contributors.