Below is a summary of what can be gleaned about their structure, function and dating from surface survey and some oral and archival investigation. This is divided into the designated sub-areas.
The main homestead building received the most concentrated attention
during the 1998 fieldwork. It lies on an approximately NE/SW axis. All
the outer walls were of double brick, as were the internal ones, the highest
of which now standing up to about six courses. Lime mortar was used throughout
the building for the brickwork. Early photographs (fig. 12, fig. 13, fig. 14) indicate
that the outer faces of the brickwork had been left bare although there is evidence
that the lowest courses of many of the outer walls had been cement-rendered.
The inner walls had been lime plastered and patched with cement
render. Those in the northern section had been lined with fibro. There
also appears to be evidence of wooden doorframes for some of the internal
This building consists of nine rooms and an internal corridor (fig. 11). It has a verandah running along the east side and part of the north, and another along the west side. The early photographs show that it was single-storeyed with a corrugated galvanised iron roof (fig. 12, fig. 14). Peter Beven remembers that the ceilings were 'matchboard'. The core of the building consists of four rooms (4, 5, 7 and 8), all leading off a corridor (6), which runs E/W between the verandahs. This core is approximately 8m x 12m. The rooms to the east (5 and 7, fig. 20, fig. 22) are slightly larger than those to the west (4 and 8, fig. 19, fig. 23). They appear to have had wide openings onto the eastern verandah. Room 5 has a brick fireplace in the centre of its north wall and room 7 has one in the centre of its south wall. A photograph taken in 1969 (fig. 15) indicates that the latter had been straight-sided with a low arch. Extensive collapsed brickwork in this part of the building means that none of the floors of these rooms are visible.
Room 3, to the north of room 4 appears to have been inserted between this core and the northern section of this building (rooms 1 and 2), possibly into a west section of the northern branch of the east verandah. This room measures approx. 3m x 5m. The west wall appears to have been taken up entirely with an arched fireplace, the south nib of which remains (fig. 18). The east wall lines up with the west end of the fireplace in room 5. Again, the floor is obscured by collapsed brickwork.
The northern section of this building consists of two rooms, aligned with the west wall of the core, and possibly a verandah on the east side, set back from the main verandah. The alignment of the east wall of room 2 (fig. 17) is not yet discernible but may have been in two sections. This room appears to have had a floor of wooden joists and wooden, tongue and groove, floorboards. Room 1 (fig. 16) has a brick fireplace in the centre of the north wall. It would appear that its floor is no longer in situ and that four wooden underfloor stumps are visible. However, these stumps are not aligned.
To the south of rooms 7 and 8, two rooms (9 and 10) are located, on the opposite axis to the rest of the rooms in this building (fig. 24 fig. 25 fig. 26 fig. 27). They are each approx. 4m x 7m. Their floor levels appear to have been considerably lower than those in the rest of this building. These rooms project onto the east and west verandahs, respectively. Room 10 had a doorway in the centre of the west wall (fig.14). Each room had a brick fireplace in the centre of the south wall. The chimney in room 9 is preserved to twenty-one courses (approx. 2m) in height and indicates that the fireplace had a semi-circular arched top and had been painted several times (fig. 29). The 1969 photograph (fig. 15) indicates that this fireplace was the same shape as that in room 3 but that both were different from that in room 7. There are remains of wooden joists and floorboards in room 9. The joists appear to be in situ and to indicate the floor level. Any flooring in room 10 is covered with collapsed brickwork. The sequence of the cement rendering of the junction, where the north wall of room 9 meets the east wall of room 7, implies that the eastern section of the former, that projecting onto the eastern verandah, post-dates the east wall of room 7. This implies that these two rooms (9 and 10) were later additions. This is perhaps confirmed by their lower level which may be accounted for by the need to fit them under the roof-line of a pre-existing verandah across the southern end of the building (see fig. 14). The similarity of the fireplace in room 9 with that in room 3, rather than that in room 7, also suggests that these were later additions. However, rooms 9 and 10 were present in the photograph which is likely to have been taken about the time of the 1890 flood, and certainly before H. B. Hughes death in 1892 (fig. 13).
Another 1890s' photograph indicates that the eastern verandah had run along the entire eastern side of the house, including a section in front of rooms 1 and 2 and another in front of room 9 (fig.12). Two row of bricks in the south-east corner of the building (feature JJ) (fig. 28), may be related to the southern extremity of this verandah. The verandah pavement (fig. 30), at least in front of rooms 5 and 7, consisted of concrete aggregate with a cement render topping. The pavement of the other sections is not visible. In the 1890s photograph the square verandah posts appear to have been painted white. Scattered wooden remains indicate that they had been chamfered, or bevelled, and must have been repainted green. When the homestead was occupied by the Beven family this verandah had been enclosed with mesh (fig. 31 fig. 32). Two stumps to the north of the north-east corner of the east verandah, were the supports for a small water tank visible in the above-mentioned photo. The extent of the western verandah is unclear although it would appear to have commenced at the southern end from the north side of room 10 (fig. 13,fig. 14) and extended at least in front of rooms 4 and 8. Remains of the pavement in front of room 4 indicate that it was made of ordinary bricks and at least one 7"x 7" (180mm x 180mm) paver, possibly with a black bitumen covering.
The finds recorded on the surface of this building included wood and metal objects, some of which are likely to have been related to the structure. Some glass, seemingly window glass from the structure, was recorded. In addition, various fragments of glass and pottery from domestic artefacts, a number of metal cans and vessels of various sizes, a watering can (A7S0005, fig. 33), shoe fragments, a battery and a bed spring were recorded. Some of these objects, particularly fragments of glass bottles are likely to have been introduced to the site after its abandonment. Others are likely to be related to its occupancy but to have been moved around by visitors. For example, a saucepan noted in room 1 in 1996, was found in room 9 in 1998. The watering-can, recorded in July 1998, had already been completely removed by October.
While no precise date is available for the construction of this building, it is generally believed to have been built after H. B. Hughes took over the Kinchega lease in 1870. E. Gwynne Hughes has indicated (pers. comm.) the existence of a 'pre-1870 homestead', to the south and closer to the Darling River (fig. 3). Because H. B. Hughes would have been occupied with the construction of a new woolshed between 1870 and 1876, E. Gwynne Hughes suggests that this homestead would have been a later project. Pearson, in his 1976 report, postulated that the homestead had been built in the 1880s but provides no source for this information. It would seem safe to assume that at least part of this building had been constructed in or after 1876. It was certainly complete and largely in its current form by c. 1890 (fig. 12, fig. 13). The cement rendering also predated the construction of rooms 9 and 10.
E Gwynne Hughes suggests that this complex was all built at one time. However, a number of structural details outlined above suggest that this may not have been strictly the case. The bricks used in this building vary in quality. Some are extremely poorly fired such that they appear to be yellow mud-bricks, while some are misfired part yellow and part red and others are well-fired red bricks. As Hughes has pointed out, some the bricks from the earlier homestead would have been used in the construction of this building. According to Hughes, bricks for this building also came from Echuca. The quality of some of the poorly-fired bricks in this building, perhaps including those which were part red and part yellow, suggests that these ones were originally from an earlier building. It is difficult to imagine that such poor quality bricks would have been shipped in, rather than made locally. While no local source has yet been identified, the Menindee Hotel, constructed in 1852, was made of handmade sundried bricks (Maiden 1989), presumably local. The better-fired bricks may well have come from Echuca by paddle steamer, as those of the Kars Chimney built in 1876 (Kearns 1970: 8), to which they are similar. As suggested by Ralph Wallace (Broken Hill Historical Society, pers. comm.) bricks were likely to have been used as ballast, replaced on the return journey with wool (see also Maiden 1989: 112).
While some of the bricks at the northern section (rooms 1 and 2) had a diamond frog (fig. 34), no frogs have so far been identified in any of the bricks securely associated with the main section. This suggests a separate brick shipment and possibly a different date of construction. As Rob Pullar has noted the core of the homestead is a standard homestead form (see Freeman 1982: 62). This part may well have been built first, possibly surrounded by verandahs. It is conceivable that rooms 1 and 2 had originally been a separate building, possibly connected to the main core by a verandah.
Beven has identified the room 1 as a laundry but it is unclear from his drawing (fig. 3) and Pullar's plan (fig. 11) whether room 2 had been a bathroom or whether it had also been part of the laundry. According to Beven, room 3 had been a kitchen during the 1940s but the actual construction of this room would appear to have been earlier. He indicated that room 4 had been a dining-room, room 5 had been a living-room, and rooms 7 and 8 bedrooms. He has also indicated that rooms 9 and 10 were guests rooms.
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Western garden area (fig. 9 fig. 42)
To the west of Building A is an area which appears to have been fenced
along three sides with a corrugated iron fence, at least in the 1930s-1940s
(fig. 36). Building B (fig. 35 fig. 37) lies on the northern side of this
area, to the north-west of building A. The fence appears to have been constructed
up against this building. Building B is c. 16.5mm x 5.4m and appears to
have consisted of four rooms, with brick walls preserved to two to three
courses (fig. 40). Some of the bricks from this building have a rectangular
frog, which is different again from the bricks in the two sections of building
A (fig. 38). Room 1 has a fireplace in the centre of the north wall, preserved
to approximately 1m in height. It appears to have had two ovens. There
is an area of cement pavement along the north side of this room, which is
not aligned with the fireplace. However, generally, the flooring of this
building is not discernible. The interior of the brick walls in the westernmost
room (room 4) appears to have been painted blue and there is evidence that
fibro had been used in this room. According to Beven, this building had
once been the main kitchen of the workers. During the early 1930s this
had been the house of the cook and her husband (Jim McLennan, pers. comm.).
After the Second World War, although Beven's mother had had a new kitchen
built in the main building, a Dutch couple had been employed to cook and
had lived also in this building for a short time.
Along the south side of this area is a brick building (Building C) (fig. 39 fig. 41). This building is c. 25m x 6m (excluding verandahs) and would appear to have had a corrugated galvanised iron roof in the 1940s (fig. 36). It appears to have consisted of three rooms, with a verandah along the north side (not shown on the plan) and a retaining wall along the south. The latter consisted of large stumps and corrugated galvanised iron and formed a loading platform as well as part of the fence around this garden area. The external walls of building C were of double brick, now standing to four courses or less. The internal wall between rooms 1 and 2 was also double brick, while that between rooms 2 and 3 appears to have been single brick and timber. The bricks used in room 3 appear to have been predominately poorer fired yellow bricks. In rooms 1 and 2 and on the northern verandah, the floor consisted of square brick pavers. That in room 3 was paved with ordinary bricks. According to Beven, this building had originally been single men's quarters, with a large dormitory and a fireplace. However, Jim McLennan (pers. comm.) remembers a men's accommodation constructed of corrugated iron to the north or north-east of the main buildings. In the 1930s and 1940s the eastern room 3 of building C had been a storeroom, the middle room had been been a shop area, which had supplied travellers who had passed through, and the western room had been the storeman's office and bedroom (Peter Beven and Jim McLennan pers. comm.). Lycergus Underdown had been the storekeeper and sub-overseer in the early 1890s (Maiden 1989: 111) but it is not clear whether he had lived and worked in this particular building or even at the Kinchega homestead. Jim McLennan recalls bullet moulds, powder and shot, for making cartridges, being kept in the store during the 1930s.
To the south of Building B are the wooden remains of Building D, which probably collapsed in the 1960s (fig.35, fig. 42, fig. 43). Four wooden corner stumps (diam. 250mm) and wooden bottom plates (sections 150mm x 75mm) indicate that this building had been approximately 4m x 3m. Two similar stumps inside the south end of structure indicate an internal enclosure. Chicken wire and cane grass had been used on the outer enclosure. A chopping block is located at the south east corner of the structure, which has been identified by Peter Beven as a meat safe (fig. 3). To the west of Building D are two more stumps at ground level 1025mm apart (Feature E). It is unclear if these belong to Building D or to a separate feature. Also in the western garden area are the remains of exotic trees, all now dead. Most evident are a cypress pine, a date palm and a carob tree (fig. 12, fig. 13, fig. 14, fig. 15, fig. 42, fig 44, fig. 45).
Remains of a large corrugated galvanised iron water tank are found against the west wall of Building A, towards the north end (fig. 10). An inscription, "HBH", "V[?]", is painted on its side, 200mm from the top in 70mm high letters. The NPWS photographs indicate that there had once been two such tanks here, and another near the south end of Building A (fig. 26, fig.27). All three appear to have sat on the ground.
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Eastern garden area (fig. 46, fig. 48)
The area on the eastern side of building A is bordered to the south
by a row of Athol Pine trees and post and wire fences 3 and 3A. To the
north and north-east it is bordered by wire fences 1, 1A and 9, which appear
to have continued the enclosure formed by the fence around the western
garden area. The billabong forms the eastern border of this area. Fence 3 was constructed
of strand wire, rabbit-proof netting and barbed wire while fence 3A appears
to have only had strand wire. The Athol Pine trees are quite young and
would appear to be a recent planting, although Peter Beven recalls their
presence in the 1940s. A row of 'old man saltbush' appears to have been
planted along fences 1 and 9, including between fences 1 and 1A. Fences
1 and 9 consisted strand wire and rabbit-proof netting, while fence 1A
also had cyclone netting and barbed wire.
The most prominent structure in this garden area appears to have been Feature K (fig. 49), which is located in the southern area of the garden and constructed of sheets of corrugated galvanised iron, now at ground level. It measures approx. 7.27m x 3.32m. Its function is unclear but may have either been a shelter or a garden bed. The latter seems more probable as Peter Beven does not recall a structure in this part of the garden. Scattered throughout the garden are six ship tanks, all buried or partially buried (fig. 50). Most are located in the area directly in front of the house but two are found further north, in the area identified by Peter Beven as the vegetable garden. These ship tanks are either c. 950mm x 950mm or c. 1200mm x 1200mm and therefore the two larger of the three sizes reported by Pearson (1992: 24). It would seem that they had been used for water storage although it is conceivable that some may also have been used as garden beds. E. Gwynne Hughes reported that fish were caught and kept in tanks in the garden. Jim McLennan recollects that the billabong (fig. 56) had ducks as well as carp, gold-fish, fresh-water crayfish, yabbies and leeches in the early 1930s.
Features F and G are rows of bricks near building A. Feature F are visible in an early photo of this area (fig. 52), and to have been two parallel garden beds. However, they do not seem to be visible in a photograph of approximately the same area taken in the 1940s (fig. 32). Feature G, may be the remains of a path, or another garden bed. Mounding of soil to the east of these features, near the billabong, suggests that there had been further garden beds in this area. Two post and wire fences (2 and 5) in the north-western part of this garden area do not seem to have been used as enclosures and may have been used to support plants, such as vines. Fence 2 had high posts (height 1380mm) and five strands of wire, while all that remains of fence 5 is rabbit-proof netting. Pipes in this garden area (features J and M) are either the remnants of a well or watering system. A large water tank (tank 1), of corrugated galvanised iron on a stand of large wooden posts, is located near fence 1 (fig. 53). Beside it is a pit (XX) with remains of wooden posts and planks and galvanised iron sheets. This was probably the latrine (Jim McLennan pers. comm.).
No evidence of the large grape vine (fig.54), which Peter Beven had indicated (fig. 3) should have been located towards the centre of this garden area has yet been identified. Jim McLennan describes it as having been located some 15-20 yards south of tank 1 and consisting of two branches which were trained in opposite directions onto a square fenced enclosure. Besides the row of Athol Pines, the only remaining live exotic vegetation in this area is a stand of bamboo, on the billabong bank, and a pepper tree towards the northern end of building A. The remains of two dead trees are located near the south-east corner of building A and another near the bamboo. A photograph used in the NPWS signage and probably taken in the early 20th century indicates that large tamarind and citrus trees once stood in this area (fig. 55).
Beside the billabong, to the north of the bamboo are the remains of a concrete pump stand (feature W) with further wooden stands and post reaching into the base of the billabong (fig. 56, fig. 57). To the north is located a large ship's boiler (feature X) but it is unclear why it is located here. Immediately to the north of this boiler are what appears to be the sub-floor remains of a small building (feature Y, fig.58), which would have had dimensions of approx. 3m x 3m. An upright ship tank with a gabled roof (feature Z, fig. 59) is located immediately to the west of this building but its purpose is unclear. The building (Y) may have been the 'Chinaman's hut' referred to by Peter Beven (fig. 3), and had presumably been a gardener's residence at one time, although it appears to have been unoccupied when the Beven family lived here. Further north of this collection of features, and similarly along the billabong bank, are the remains of a windmill (feature AA). According to Peter Beven the area between this group of features and fence 9 had been the vegetable garden. E Gywnne Hughes recalls that 'Water was pumped by a mill from the Billabong which had a high level drop gate to let the water in, in flood time and endless steam engines to pump it from the River when the Bong went dry'.
Hughes also remembers the garden of the homestead as 'a large garden with many orange trees but few navels....[with] lawns and flowers like suburban living....[and] the gardener [who] grew every type of vegetable'. Similarly Jim McLennan recalls mandarin trees, and Peter Beven reported that shaddocks (grapefruit for making marmalade) were grown in this garden.
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Area to north-east of main complex (fig. 65)
This area is bounded by fences 1, 1A and 9 to the south, the modern
road, to the north and west, and the billabong to the east. Immediately
to the north of fence 1 and fence 1A are found a 40 gallon drum (feature
HH), which appears to be filled with ash, a five wooden posts (feature
FF) and a four-cylinder vehicle engine, feature P (fig. 64). The purpose
of the first two features is unclear but the later was likely to have been
a generator. According to E. Gwynne Hughes, the homestead did not have
electric light until 1942.
Running west from the northern section of fence 9 are two further
post and wire fences (6 and 10). A third post and wire fence (7) runs N/S
from towards the western end of these fences, to form an enclosure.
All three fences had strand wire, rabbit-proof wire and possibly barbed
wire. Peter Beven has indicated that there had been a fowl house in this
area, possibly on the east side of fence 9 and consisting of metal shed
on wooden silts. No traces of it have yet been identified. The substantial
heights of the posts and wire in the enclosure (c. 1250-2100mm) suggest
that this had been a fowl run.
Further to the west of this enclosure are the remains of a slab hut (feature R), facing north-east. While it is now levelled to the ground, the scattered remains indicate that it had been constructed of upright poles (maximum height 2560mm), set into the ground, with horizontal slabs dropped between two sawn timber battens which were nailed to each post. To the northern end are the remains of a brick fireplace, some of bricks having a diamond frog, as found in the northern section of building A. Sheets of mini orb corrugated iron remain from the chimney. The building would have measured approximately 6m x 3.5m. The floor appears to have been mud and to have been built up above ground level, at least to the east. Peter Beven remembers this as Mike Doherty the gardener's hut. In front of this structure is another ship tank (6) which is filled with predominantly brown bottle glass (fig. 60). Some of glass fragments scattered around the tank date to the 1940s.
To the north-east of the fenced enclosure are two more post and wire fences (fences 8 and 4), similarly constructed of strand wire, rabbit-proof netting and barbed wire. Fence 4 runs approximately along the billabong bank, fence 8 running westwards from its northern end. North again from fence 8 is feature BB (fig. 61), which consists of a 2.7m high forked bush pole, located near four low wooden posts, and possible two others. The four in situ posts cover an area c. 1010mm x 1920mm. They may have formed a tank stand for a small corrugated iron water tank which is now lying to the east of this feature. The post has been identified in the NPWS signs as a pivot pole, where slaughtered animals would have been hung to bleed. The tank may have supplied water need during the killing. Adjacent, to the north, is another feature (CC) consisting of an area of broken and burnt bricks and charcoal. Although its form is unclear, its proximity to the pivot pole suggests that it could conceivably have been related to the boiling down of carcasses (Rick Taylor pers. comm.).
Beyond and to the north-east of features BB and CC are the remains of a number of fences (11, 11A, 15, 16 and 16a) and a 'cocky gate' (fence 14). Fence 11 also has the remains of a wooden gate, at its southern end. Fences 11 and 11A were constructed of strand wire and rabbit-proof netting and some corrugated iron. The 'cocky gate' is similarly constructed of strand wire and rabbit-proof netting. Fences 15, 16 and 16 had only strand wire. Much of the remaining wire in all the fences in the eastern garden and north-eastern area is galvanised.
The most northern feature in this area is feature KK. Its remains consist of a concrete slab and traces of brickwork covering an area c. 1650mm x 2100mm. Its poor state of preservation makes identification difficult but it that it may have been the cow bale, which Peter Beven (pers. comm.) has indicated had been a rudimentary structure in this area.
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Area to south of main complex (fig. 67)
This area is bordered by the row of Athol Pines and fences
3 and 3A to the north, the modern road to the west and south and the billabong
to the east. It corresponds with the area which had been surveyed for evidence
of Aboriginal occupation in 1996 (Rainbird et al: 31-38 ). According to
both Peter Beven (fig. 3) and Jim McLennan (pers. comm.) the homestead
road had passed through this area in the 1930 and 1940s, with a carpark
near the north-east corner and passing in front of building C and the loading
In the north-east corner of this area, near the billabong, is feature Q (fig.68), which has been identified by Beven as a blacksmith's forge. The extant remains consist of an in situ firebox, constructed from a reused ship tank, and brick hearth with a hole for the bellows. A corrugated galvanised iron chimney hood has fallen down the slope of the billabong bank. Scattered bush poles (height c. 2.7m) and squared timber beams provide possible evidence of a building and associated yarding. Nearby is a block of wood which may have been a fixing for an anvil or vice.
Just to the south of this structure is an oval pit (LL), which appears to have had a covering of wooden slats and a oval galvanised iron sheet. It was conceivably a well. Jim McLennan (pers. comm.) also recalls a small locked shed in this area, where poisons were kept in the 1930s. However, this has not been located.
To the west of this structure, just south of the Athol Pines, are the remains of a wooden building (L) which is now levelled to the ground (fig. 69, fig. 70). The remains indicate that the building had been approximately 14.4m x 8.8m. They consist of seven central bush poles, forked to support the round ridge pole, and bevelled to take the rafters of a gabled roof. The ridge pole, constructed in three section, is also notched to sit into the forks. A row of bush poles along each side have been notched to take a top plate. Each central pole is also notched part way down, at height which appears to correspond with height of these side posts. The rafters and roof battens are all constructed from bush timber. No remains of dressed timber are evident. Hand-forged spikes were used to lock the structure together. Along the western side is what appears to be a separate structure with a netting fence attached to rectangular posts, fastened with ten gauge wiring. This was possibly to lock the structure together or to form bays. When Elizabeth Rich recorded this structure she noted the remains of cane grass, presumably secured by the netting, and a timber-lined vehicle pit. She also noted the presence of a wooden dray, the axle of which may still be found within the building remains. Donald McLennan had kept his Rio Wolverine motor here in the early 1930s (Jim McLennan pers. comm.). According to Beven this building had been a cart shed in the 1940s. It is similar in construction to an early woolshed on Eldee Station and may conceivably had been built as such before the present woolshed was built in the 1870s.
At the east end of the building L is what appears to have been a metal ' scoop' (SS) whose dimensions are c. 2730mm x c. 1610mm (fig. 71). It consists of three tapering metal plates bolted together along each side, and articulated. One end of the scoop is open and the other consists of a mobile metal plate. According to Elizabeth Rich it had been constructed from ship tanks and used as a scoop for digging out ground tanks. However, it is difficult to comprehend how this particular object would; have operated with its mobile end, apparent lack of base and longer, articulated, sides (cf. Simpson and Simpson 1988: 85-86, fig.130. for further references and discussion Schmidt 1997: 47-49). Given its location, in proximity to the billabong and the Darling River, it could conceivably have been used as a dredge for clearing out silt.
Further to the east, beside a channel leading to the billabong, is an upright sheet of wrought iron (T), c. 916mm x 914mm with rows of three square holes (14 x 14mm), approx. 400mm apart. This may have been part of a sluice gate. Approximately 80m south of building L is an upright rectangular block of cast iron (PP), with dimensions 850mm x 280mm x300m (fig. 74). It has an upright ring (diam.130mm) at top centre and is pierced through with two square holes (approx. 50 x 50mm). An inscription: "G. WATT ADELAIDE FOUNDRY" is located on the side. This was reputedly a pile driver and has been set in this position after the homestead had been abandoned (Rick Taylor pers. comm.).
To the south-west of these features, near the modern road which borders this area is a cemetery. The area of cemetery has recently been defined by NPWS with wooden corner posts, painted green (c. 18m x c. 11m). Within this area two graves have also been defined by wooden post and rail surrounds (c. 1.9 m x 1m) of treated pine, one towards the north-east (on same axis as corner posts) and one to the south-west, on a different axis. Approximately in the centre of the demarcated cemetery area are the dead remains of a once substantial tree. To the west a NPWS sign indicates that the crew of the paddle steamer Providence, which blew up on 9th November 1872, were buried here, along with other individuals (see Kearns 1970: 6). South of this sign is an area (c. 8m x 8m) fenced with rabbit-proof wire. It is uncertain whether this is related to the cemetery.
Towards the southernmost end of the homestead complex, near the billabong bank are the remains of a barge (RR), c. 9m long and c. 1.65m wide (fig. 72). The remains consist of a wrought iron frame of upright struts with L-shaped brackets bolted on the insides and an L-shaped cast iron capping. The front of barge is formed by diagonal L-shaped brackets. The sides were formed by wrought iron sheets (possibly from ship tanks) bolted to the struts and the top bracket. The square end of the barge has an iron hauling ring (diam c. 130mm) in the centre.
In the bed of the billabong, towards its southern end was found a long semicircular race (feature NN), c. 15m in length. It consists of a 350m wide trough constructed of wrought iron sections, each approximately 1900mm long, which are bolted together. Further remains of the race are located to the south. This was used to carry water from the river when the billabong was dry (Peter Beven pers. comm.).
At the bend in the Darling River and connecting it to southern end of billabong is a weir (TT, fig. 73) of concrete slab construction with a trapezoidal top and metal runners in place to guide the sluice gate (width 1.4m). Its maximum visible height is 2270mm and the channel is 4.1m x 0.7m x 0.6m. This weir was reputedly build c. 1920 (Ashley et al. 1994: 54). A red gum growing over the southern section indicates that the weir is of a considerable age. In the 1940s, Albert Beven reinforced it with sandbags to ensure that it held water in the billabong.
Not part of the 1998 survey, but of potential interest for the study of the development of the homestead, is a pile of bricks located on both sides of the road which forms the southern boundary of the study area. This may be the remains of a 'pre-1870 homestead', referred to by E. Gwynne Hughes.
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THE HOMESTEAD OCCUPANTS