Mexico and U.S. Border

These photographs were taken in 2002. The Mexican-U.S. border is more than 3,000 km long and stands as the busiest border in the world. The border wall shown in these pictures was first built in 1994 as part of the Operation Gatekeeper. Its objective is to stop the entrance of illegal immigrants into the United States, however its effectiveness in stopping or reducing illegal migration is not clear. The existence of the wall and tougher border security has nonetheless forced migrants to take more dangerous and remote routes into the United States.

* All pictures copyright of Ellie Vasta and Stephen Castles. Please contact: Stephen Castles for permission to reproduce them.