Migration and Development in Southern Morocco

These photographs were taken in March 2010, during a study visit by academics, government officials and migrant association leaders from Mexico, the USA, European countries and Morocco. The projects seen in the photographs are connected with migration, in the sense that some returned migrants work in them, and Moroccan migrants who have or are still working in France, the Netherlands or Spain invest in them. However, it is important to realise that such projects are made possible by investment-friendly measures (such as irrigation, power and transport infrastructure) initiated by individuals, communities and the Moroccan government, as well as by returning migrants. The extent to which such projects are the result of the migrant contribution is often hard to establish.

* All pictures copyright of Stephen Castles. Please contact: Stephen Castles for permission to reproduce them.