||Collaboration to achieve competitive advantage is one of the most commonly recommended cross border strategies. However, international alliances can take many different forms, and they can serve many different purposes. Managing international alliances raises a series of different issues for the alliance partners to manage. This unit examines the issues raised and considers the reasons for success and failure of international alliances. It looks at the forms that partnerships can take, it examines the methods for choosing among potential partners, it examines the potential forms of collaboration and the level of resources each may require. Managing the partnership for maximum advantage, avoiding possible risks, and deciding how and when to end the partnership, all are further issues that managers must consider. The unit considers these questions in the framework of general theoretical approaches, and pays particular attention to discussion of individual cases.