Past Seminars


Peter Stopher

Date: 23 October 2007

Speaker: Professor Peter Stopher, Senior Lecturer in Transport and Deputy Director, ITLS

Topic: Advances in the use of GPS to measure travel behaviour Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Over the past 6 years, ITLS has been pioneering the use of personal GPS devices to measure personal travel. With recent advances in the technology and a significant amount of experience in the use of personal GPS devices, we believe that GPS technology is now sufficiently advanced to offer a real potential for collecting a range of personal travel behaviour data. In this seminar, Prof. Stopher will briefly describe past and current projects using GPS devices, and will then review the capabilities of the current devices that ITLS is using. He will demonstrate some of the insights being obtained from using GPS devices and will also explore current and future directions in data processing of GPS data.

Bio: Professor Stopher is Professor of Transport Planning at the Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies at the University of Sydney, a position he has held since the beginning of 2001. He was educated at the University of London, where he received both his BSc (Eng.) in Civil Engineering and Ph.D. in Traffic Studies. He has been a professor at Northwestern University, Cornell University, McMaster University, and Louisiana State University, where he held the endowed chair of the Louisiana Land and Exploration Company. He spent 11 years from 1980 through 1990 as a full-time transport planning consultant in private industry. Prof. Stopher has 40 years of professional experience in transport planning, travel forecasting, travel-behaviour modelling, and associated areas. He has an international reputation in travel-demand modelling, and the development of new procedures for travel forecasting. He was one of the pioneers of the development of disaggregate travel-demand models and was the first to use and apply the logit model in the 1960s. He has been in the forefront of work to assess the shortcomings of conventional travel-forecasting models with respect to the demands of clean air legislation and goals. He was selected by the US Federal Highway Administration to develop one of four concept papers on a new paradigm for travel forecasting. He was a founding member of the Transportation Research Boards Committee on Traveller Behavior and Values, serving as its first Chairman from 1971-1977, and again from 1995-1997 and was awarded Emeritus Membership of the Committee in 2002; he also founded the series of International Conferences on Traveller Behaviour that began in 1973 and which will hold its next meeting in Kyoto, Japan in 2006.

Stephane Hess

Date: 25 September 2007

Speaker: Dr Stephane Hess, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London

Topic: Models for air travel choice behaviour Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: This presentation discusses a number of issues relating to the pre-analysis and cleaning of stated preference data, where we look specifically at the problems caused by non-trading, lexicographic and inconsistent response patterns. We argue that this process is in fact considerably more complex and challenging than many in the field have hitherto acknowledged, with the standard practice being the use of rather ad-hoc procedures for the identification of the above listed phenomena. A detailed analysis on four different SP datasets highlights the potential impacts of these methods on model estimation results.

The aim of this presentation is to shed some light on the changing role of gateways and corridors in the context of global value system dynamics. To do so a logistics and value system perspective is taken on. After an explication of the multidimensional space of logistics decision making in global value systems it is discussed which current and future trends and dynamics of logistics systems can be identified. In a final outlook some key implications for gateways and corridors are derived.

Bio: Dr Stephane Hess is a research fellow in the Centre for Transport Studies at Imperial College London and a senior researcher in the Institute for Traffic Planning and Transport Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zrich (ETH). Hess holds a PhD in transport demand modelling from Imperial College London, and a MPhil in Statistical Science from Cambridge University. He is a fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, and a member of academic committees for the European Transport Conference and the Transportation Research Board. His main research interests lie in the use of advanced discrete choice models for the analysis of travel behaviour. Here, Hess has made several recent contributions to the state of the art in the specification, estimation and interpretation of such models, while also publishing a number of papers on the benefits of advanced structures in actual large-scale transport analyses. Dr Hess is also the winner of the 2005 Eric Pas award for the best PhD thesis in the area of travel behaviour modelling, and the winner of the 2004 Neil Mansfield award awarded by the Association for European Transport.

Werner Delfman

Date: 18 September 2007

Speaker: Professor Werner Delfman, Director, Department of Business Policy and Logistics, University of Cologne

Topic: Gateways and corridors: Adding value in global logistics systems Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Gateways and corridors have always played a key role in global transportation. From a logistical point of view gateways are nodes, corridors are edges of logistics networks through which logistical flows are directed, linking locations and regions of supply with demand markets. However, in the context of globalisation of target markets as well as complex production networks and multistep supply chains, based on specialization, outsourcing and inter-organizational integration, the role of gateways and corridors is changing. Following current trends of organizing logistics in global value systems aiming at highest logistical performance, gateways and corridors have to be understood and assessed as integrated elements of such systems. The design and operation of gateways and corridors has to take into account the role they are supposed to play in the context of global logistics networks. Depending on this role development guidelines as well as performance criteria differ significantly. One key question for the competitiveness, economic and environmental sustainability and finally profitability of gateways and corridors is, in how far they can add logistical value. Logistics is much more than efficient transportation and handling of big container volumes. Beyond efficiency modern logistics systems aim at providing customers (suppliers, manufacturers, retailers, shippers) with logistical added value, complex customized solutions, flexibility and reliability. Therefore key logistics decision makers more and more take on a customer value perspective rather then focussing only on efficiency, when it comes to the choice of nodes and roads, modes and loads for their (global) logistics networks. Consequently this has to be taken into consideration when it comes to the future development of gateways and corridors. This is even more important as global production networks are in constant change. New markets develop faster than traditionally. Global markets for sourcing change. This all leads not only to a high dynamic but also to high imbalances of global logistics flows which again directly impact the economic position of gateways and corridors. Furthermore new technologies and logistical concepts in line with intense multimodal competition as well as cooperation offer new opportunities and challenges which have to be taken on to sustain competitiveness.

The aim of this presentation is to shed some light on the changing role of gateways and corridors in the context of global value system dynamics. To do so a logistics and value system perspective is taken on. After an explication of the multidimensional space of logistics decision making in global value systems it is discussed which current and future trends and dynamics of logistics systems can be identified. In a final outlook some key implications for gateways and corridors are derived.

Bio: Professor Werner Delfmann studied business administration and mathematics in Munster, Germany, where he received his doctorate at the Department of Industrial Enterprise Planning in 1976 and habilitated in 1982. After taking over a position as full professor at the University of Frankfort in 1985 he has been director of the Department of Business Policy and Logistics at the University of Cologne since 1988. From 1999-2001 he was dean of the faculty and from 1999-2003 Chairman of the Community of European Management Schools (CEMS). In addition, he has been a visiting professor and invited lecturer at several universities in Europe and overseas. His main research activities focus on logistics, strategic and operative management, controlling, operations research and environmental management. He is member of the board of the Institute of Trade Fair Management and Distribution Research since its foundation in 1999.

Christopher Stapleton

Date: 4 September 2007

Speaker: Christopher Stapleton Director, Christopher Stapleton Consulting Pty Ltd

Topic: Sydney transport; the sum of increments (PPT)

Bio: Chris is responsible for the preparation of a 40 year Integrated Transport Strategy for Sydney that has been receiving an amount of publicity over the last twelve months. Having studied Civil Engineering he specialised in transportation planning working in the UK, Europe, and Asia before immigrating to Australia. His work combines traffic engineering with planning, and, as a result he has taught Architectural students in a number of Universities. In 1991 he completed a Masters of the Built Environment; and has won numerous awards in the Planning Institute of Australia; this year he received the Achiever of the Year award from the NSW Section of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in Australia.

Jarrett Walker

Date: 28 August 2007

Speaker: Jarrett Walker, Senior Consultant, McCormick Rankin Cagney Pty Ltd (Australia)

Topic: Sydneys public transport crisis: A North American perspective Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Can Sydney learn from leading North American cities when it comes to public transport? Australians often look to the UK for models and inspiration, but North American cities are much more comparable to Australian ones in age, geography, and economic history. This presentation compares Sydney's PT network with those of similar cities in North America, and points out fundamental differences in the philosophy that guides public transport service design. These philosophical choices or attitudes - affecting issues such as connectivity, frequency, evening/weekend service, and public information - rarely emerge in the explicit public debate, but they are at the foundation of every decision our leaders make about public transport. The goal is to clarify these philosophical choices, and show how different cities have made these choices differently, so that Sydneysiders can reach their own judgments about the choices being made in Sydney today. The author worked for 15 years in public transport service design in North America, and is now a consultant based in Sydney.

Bio: Jarrett Walker is a Senior Consultant at McCormick Rankin Cagney in Sydney, with 15 years experience in North American public transport planning. In addition to redesigning many major bus networks, he has worked with city governments, including Seattle and Minneapolis, to define strategies that increase the value of public transport  both rail and bus  as an urban development tool. For agencies in Brisbane, Minneapolis, Vancouver, and Portland, he has developed consistent policies to govern service design, and strategies for building consensus on these policies. He holds a PhD from Stanford University, and is currently working on a book on public transport.

Heather Allen

Date: 21 August 2007

Speaker: Heather Allen, Sustainable Development Manager UITP (The International Association of Public Transport)

Topic: Sustainable cities and the social element of sustainability Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Access to markets, employment, health services, and education is necessary for the sustainable development of society, and transport in all its forms plays a critical role in shaping this. However, the results from urban areas of the full impact of a society that is predominately car based are not promising, and high levels of local pollution, safety concerns, escalating health and social costs, dangerous environments and reduced travel speeds all have a negative impact on urban quality of life. There is a growing body of evidence for putting public transport at the heart of creating sustainable communities and the positive effects this brings not only in terms of mobility but also on a local level as an employer and social actor. UITP, the international association of public transport launched its sustainable development charter in May 2003, now recognised as an international 'gold standard' has helped to increase the aspect of sustainability. The list of signatories has grown to more than 115 organisations and public transport actors who have all made a voluntary commitment to monitor and measure their own performance in social, environmental and economic terms, possibly the first sector to have gained this level of voluntary commitment. The social pillar is an integral part of this commitment, but is probably the least well documented and the most vulnerable in today's competitive, liberalised public transport market. Should this be the case and how does this fit with a growing international concern for social justice and the reduction of poverty?

Bio: Heather is responsible for the UITP Sustainable Development Charter and UITPs international advocacy and outreach in sustainable development. The charter is a voluntary commitment for UITP members to monitor, measure and report on their own performance. The charter has been cited as a key milestone to motivate the sector and increase the awareness of the contribution of public transport to achieving international goals; it has over 100 signatories. Heather is the main UITP contact for their work with international agencies such as the United Nations Commission of Sustainable Development, UNEP, UNDESA, United Nations Framework for Climate Change, UN-HABITAT and the World Health Organisation PEP partnership. She attended the World Summit on Sustainable Development as a key member of the UITP, UIC and UNIFE transport delegation. Heather is the coordinator for the International Diversity Initiative and the Design and Culture Platform in public transport for UITP.

David Gerard

Date: 31 July 2007

Speaker: Dr David Gerard, Executive Director, Center for the Study and Improvement of Regulation, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University

Topic: Characterizing risk regulations of US transportation fuels Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: We  draw on an original database of more than 200 regulations (individual rules) to examine factors that influence the development of US federal regulations governing the health, environmental, and safety risks associated with the production, distribution, and use of transportation fuels. First, we quantify a number of dimensions of the rulemaking process and develop metrics of regulatory stringency based on four factors (risk reduction, scope of regulated parties, compliance procedures, and deadline for compliance). Next, we use this data to examine the factors that influence both the number and direction of stringency changes between the proposed rule and the version of the rule that is finalized. We find that in over half of the cases the final rule is less stringent than the rule that was originally proposed. A number of factors contribute to this effect, including stakeholder participation (advocacy groups and industry), the type of risk regulated, the agency issuing the rule, as well as variables characterizing political control and the institutional setting. [with David E. Stikkers and Paul S. Fischbeck]

Bio: David Gerard is the Executive Director of the Center for the Study and Improvement of Regulation (CSIR) in the Department of Engineering and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Illinois. His area of expertise is examining the development, implementation and enforcement of regulations, and how the effect of these regulatory institutions on economic behavior, the environment and public safety. Two areas of central interest are risk regulations and the interrelationships between regulations and technological change. He was a principal investigator in the development of an interactive web tool that communicates traffic safety risks (TrafficSTATS). Other research interests include regulations governing U.S. transportation fuels, petroleum refineries, automobile emissions, fuel economy, and carbon sequestration. Dr Gerard has developed economics courses for scientists and engineers as part of Carnegie Mellons Engineering and Technology Innovation Management program, and he teaches courses on institutions, regulation, and public policy in the Department of Social and Decision Sciences.

Nicholas OBrien

Date: 26 June 2007

Speaker: Associate Professor Nicholas OBrien, Counter-Terrorism Charles Sturt University

Topic: The terrorist threat to transport infrastructure

Abstract: The presentation will focus on the terrorist threat to transport infrastructure using the attacks in London in July 2005 as a case study and also bringing in examples of other attacks on transport by terrorists elsewhere.

Bio: Before joining Charles Sturt University, Nick O'Brien represented the UK Association of Chief Police Officers - Terrorism and Allied Matters Committee (ACPO-TAM) and all the UK police forces as the Counter Terrorism and Extremism Liaison Officer (CTELO) at the British High Commission in Canberra. Nick covered Australasia and had a watching brief on the Asia and the Pacific region. Prior to this posting Nick was in charge of International Terrorism Operations in Special Branch at New Scotland Yard. He also had responsibility for the National Terrorist Financial Investigations Unit (NTFIU) and International Liaison. Nick has had national responsibility for all Special Branch training in the United Kingdom. Nick represented the UK at the G8 Counter Terrorist Practitioners Meetings and was the author of the G8 paper on 'Best Practices in Dealing with Suicide Terrorism'. Nick has visited both Sri Lanka and Israel to study the phenomenon of suicide attacks. Nick has also represented the UK at Europol and the European Police Working Group on Terrorism. Nick has spoken on Counter Terrorism at Conferences in Europe, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, Thailand, Canada, Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu and Malaysia. Nick has also visited a number of countries on terrorist related matters: France, Holland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Italy, Southern Ireland, Indonesia, Greece, the United States, Canada, Israel, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu, Thailand, the Philippines as well as Australasia. Nick is a visiting Fellow at the Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Co-operation in Indonesia. Nick first started working in the counter terrorism related area in 1981 and has worked on Irish as well as international terrorism. Academically Nick has a Post-Graduate Diploma in Personnel Management and a Master of Arts in Human Resource Management.

Chandra Bhat

Date: 19 June 2007

Speaker: Professor Chandra Bhat, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas at Austin

Topic: The Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value (MDCEV) model: Role of utility function parameters, identification considerations and model extensions Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Several consumer demand choices related to travel decisions are characterized by the choice of multiple alternatives simultaneously. Examples of such choice situations include vehicle type holdings and usage, and activity type choice and duration of time investment of participation. In the former case, a household may hold a mix of different kinds of vehicle types (for example, a sedan, a minivan, and a pick-up) and use the vehicles in different ways based on the preferences of individual members, considerations of maintenance/running costs, and the need to satisfy different functional needs.  In this case, the choice of vehicle type is a discrete choice, while the usage (say, in annual miles) of each chosen vehicle type is a continuous choice. In the case of activity type choice and duration, an individual may decide to participate in multiple kinds of recreational/social activities within a given time period (a discrete choice), and allocate different durations of participation for each activity (a continuous choice).  Other travel-related and consumer demand situations characterized by the choice of multiple alternatives include airline fleet mix and usage (for an airline carrier), carrier choice and transaction level (for a shipper), brand choice and purchase quantity for frequently purchased grocery items (for households or individuals), and stock selection and investment amounts (for households, individuals, or firms).

This presentation discusses a simple and parsimonious Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value (MDCEV) econometric approach to handle multiple discreteness (i.e., the choice of multiple alternatives at the same time) within the broader Kuhn-Tucker (KT) multiple discrete-continuous economic consumer demand framework. The paper examines several issues associated with the MDCEV model and other extant KT multiple discrete-continuous models. The paper proposes a new utility function form that enables clarity in the role of each parameter in the utility specification, and presents identification considerations associated with both the utility functional form as well as the stochastic nature of the utility specification. Extensions of the MDCEV model to accommodate a more generalized extreme value error structure for the stochastic specification, as well as randomly-varying coefficients, are discussed. A utility-consistent nesting approach to integrate the MDCEV model and a single discrete choice model to consider cases where consumers choose multiple alternatives simultaneously from a certain set of alternatives, but also choose only one alternative from among a subset of alternatives, is discussed. Such a combined system, over which random coefficients are specified, is used to analyze household vehicle holdings (vehicle body type, vintage, make, and model) and use. In addition, ongoing work on the application of the MDCEV model to other choice contexts is discussed. Data for the analysis is drawn from the 2000 San Francisco Bay Area Travel Survey. The model results indicate the important effects of household demographics, household location characteristics, built environment attributes, and vehicle attributes on household vehicle holdings and use. The model is then applied to predict the impact of land use and fuel cost changes on household vehicle holdings and usage. Such predictions can inform the design of proactive land-use, economic, and transportation policies to influence household vehicle holdings and usage in a way that has the potential to alleviate the negative impacts, such as traffic congestion, fuel consumption and air pollution, of automobile dependency.

Bio: Dr Chandra Bhat is a Professor of Civil Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, where he teaches courses in transportation systems analysis and transportation planning. He is also the Associate Chairman of the Department of Civil, Architectural & Environmental Engineering and the Adnan Abou-Ayyash Centennial Professor in Transportation Engineering. Dr Bhat is widely recognized nationally and internationally as a leading expert in the area of travel demand modeling and travel behavior analysis. His substantive research interests include land-use and travel demand modeling, activity-based travel modeling, policy evaluation of the effect of transportation control and congestion pricing measures on traffic congestion and mobile-source emissions, marketing research of competitive positioning strategies for transportation services, use of non-motorized modes of travel, and physical health and transportation. His methodological research interests and expertise are in the areas of econometric and mathematical modeling of consumer behavior, including discrete choice analysis, discrete-continuous econometric systems, and hazard duration models. His methodological works are widely referenced in the economics, marketing, and transportation fields, and have been included in econometric textbooks and software packages. He has authored several book chapters focusing on improved methods for choice modeling in general and land use-travel demand modeling in particular. Dr Bhats research has been funded by the National Science Foundation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Institute of Statistical Sciences, State Departments of Transportation, including TxDOT, the Bureau of Transportation Statistics, and the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Llew Russell

Date: 5 June 2007

Speaker: Llew Russell, Chief Executive Officer, Shipping Australia Ltd

Topic: The future of intermodal terminals in Australia Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: The presentation will cover the following areas:

  • What is Shipping Australia Ltd
  • Definition of an intermodal terminal
  • Why do we need intermodal terminals
  • Where are the intermodal terminals  now and future
  • What should an intermodal terminal look like
  • Metropolitan v regional intermodal terminals
  • Challenges with intermodal terminals / policy considerations
  • Other challenges facing the maritime industry and their impact on intermodal terminals
  • The future of intermodal terminals
  • Conclusion
  • Websites

Bio: Llew Russell is Chief Executive of Shipping Australia Ltd, a company which represents thirty-seven member shipping lines and shipping agencies, which carry a substantial proportion of Australias international trade and represents all types of shipping, from liner, bulk, cruise, breakbulk, and so on. In addition there are a similar number of corporate associate members. Llew has a bachelor of economics degree from the University of Queensland and a Master of Business Administration Degree from Heriot-Watt University of Edinburgh. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Logistics and Transport and a member of a number of relevant professional Associations. He is also an immediate past President of the State Chamber of Commerce (NSW), Chairman of the Sea Freight Council of NSW 1999-2004, a Director of Sydney Pilot Service Pty Ltd, and a member of the Australian Logistics Council and a member of its Security Steering Group. Llew is also a member of the Maritime Industry Security Forum.

Dieter Fox

Date: 29 May 2007

Speaker: Associate Professor Dieter Fox, Director of the Robotics and State Estimation Lab, Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Washington, Seattle.

Topic: Location-based activity recognition

Abstract: Knowledge of a person's location provides important context information for many applications, ranging from services such as location-enhanced emergency calling to personal guidance systems that help cognitively impaired individuals move safely through their community. Location information is also extremely helpful for estimating a person's high-level activities. In this talk we show how dynamic Bayesian networks and conditional random fields can be applied to estimate the location and activity of a person using information such as GPS readings or WiFi signal strength. The techniques track a person on graph structures that represent a street map or a skeleton of the free space in a building. We also show how to learn a user's significant places and daily movements through the community. Our models use multiple levels of abstraction so as to bridge the gap between raw sensor measurements and high level information such as a user's mode of transportation, her current goal, and her significant places (e.g. home or work place). Finally, we will discuss recent work on using a multi-sensor board so as to better estimate a person's activities.

Bio: Dieter Fox is Associate Professor and Director of the Robotics and State Estimation Lab in the Computer Science and Engineering Department at the University of Washington, Seattle. He obtained his PhD from the University of Bonn, Germany. Before joining UW, he spent two years as a postdoctoral researcher at the CMU Robot Learning Lab. His research focuses on probabilistic state estimation in robotics and activity recognition. Along with his colleagues, he introduced particle filters as a powerful tool for state estimation in robotics. More recently, he showed how to use hierarchical dynamic Bayesian networks and relational statistical learning techniques in order to extract high-level activity information from raw sensor data. Dr Fox has published over 100 technical papers and the text book "Probabilistic Robotics". He received various awards for his research, including an NSF CAREER award and best paper awards at robotics (IROS-98, ICRA-00, RoboCup-04) and Artificial Intelligence conferences (AAAI-98, AAAI-04).

Miguel Figliozzi

Date: 24 April 2007

Speaker: Dr Miguel Figliozzi, Senior Lecturer in Logistics Management, ITLS

Topic: Vehicle routing in congested urban areas: The cost of congestion from the carriers point of view

Abstract: Congestion is a common phenomenon in all major cities of the world, and Sydney is no exception. Direct and indirect costs incurred due to congestion have been widely studied and reported. A recent report by Australian Bureau of Transport Economics has estimated the economic costs of congestion in the Sydney region at a figure close to 7.8 billion dollars between 2005 and 2020. This seminar provides an overview of freight routing issues in congested urban areas, specifically analyzing congestion and travel time unreliability costs from the carriers perspective. Data from the daily activity of less than truckload (LTL) delivery tours in the Sydney region will be used to illustrate typical truck travel patterns and characteristics. I will present new strategic and operational approaches to estimate the impact of congestion in urban areas. Data collection and modeling challenges will be discussed. Finally, I will discuss how the public availability of historical and real-time travel time information can be used to reduce carriers congestion costs.

Bio: Dr Miguel Andres Figliozzi is a Senior Lecturer in Logistics Management at ITLS, which he joined in 2004. Miguel holds a PhD from University of Maryland College Park. His research was awarded by the prestigious INFORMS Transportation Science and Logistics dissertation committee. He has pioneered the study of sequential auctions in transportation and has published in the area of transportation auctions, real-time vehicle routing, and international freight transportation.  Miguels research areas are transportation logistics and supply chain management. His current interests are focused on these studies from a strategic perspective, which includes interaction between technology, information, and behaviour. Additional areas include, fleet management problems, port operations and ship scheduling, vendor management/inventory routing problems, pricing and auctions, and online problem in logistics.

Simon Washington

Date: 3 April 2007

Speaker: Professor Simon Washington, ITLS Visiting Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University

Topic: Evaluation of the first automated speed enforcement program on a US freeway: The Scottsdale Arizona experience Adobe PDF Document

Abstract: Speeding is recognized as one of the most contributors to traffic crashes. In 2004, 36 percent of all motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes were speeding, approximately twice the rate for drivers of passenger cars or light trucks (National Highway Traffic Safety, 2005). Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) now exist to reduce speeding related crashes by enforcing speed limits with camera-based technologies. These enforcement technologies are generically called "speed cameras" and have been effective on municipal streets and arterials in Arizona (Roberts and brown-Esplain, 2005). The City of Scottsdale began a speed enforcement program (SEP) in December of 1996. Between 1996 and 1998, four wet film mobile speed units and 6 wet film red light cameras were deployed for a total of 9 intersections on enforcement rotation, depending on the needs of the City. The cameras on city streets have helped Scottsdale improve safety (Washington and Shin, 2005). Scottsdale expanded these efforts in August of 2004 with a dual direction fixed speed enforcement system on 7700 Frank Lloyd Wright Blvd. This system covers three lanes of traffic Eastbound and three lanes of traffic Westbound on Frank Lloyd Wright Blvd. The city's recent experience on Frank Lloyd Wright Boulevard is that speed violations significantly decreased in one year period after installation of cameras. Accurately estimating the impacts of speed enforcement cameras is challenging for several reasons. First, many safety related factors such as traffic volume, the crash reporting threshold (legal requirement to report a crash), the probability of reporting, and the driving population are uncontrolled during the periods of observation. Second, 'spillover' effects can make the selection of comparison sites difficult. Third, the sites selected for the treatment may not be selected randomly, and as a result may suffer from regression to the mean effects. Fourth, a speed enforcement program may influence specific types of crashes-called target crashes-which often may be difficult to define and identify. Finally, crash severity needs to be considered to fully understand the safety impact of the treatment. This presentation presents an analysis of the 101 SEP. Presented are the estimates of the impact of the SEP on speeding behavior, estimates of the changes in mean speeds, estimates the impact of the SEP on traffic safety, and estimates of the impact on economic costs and/or benefits. Highlighted in the presentation are theoretical and practical challenges, as well as planned future analyses.

Bio: Dr Simon Washington is a Professor of Transportation in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU). Prior to joining ASU he was a faculty member at the University of Arizona and the Georgia Institute of Technology. Dr Washington's research and teaching interests include safety, planning, travel behaviour, and research design and statistical methods. Over the past 11 years Dr. Washington has been PI or Co-PI on over eight million dollars of externally supported research related to transportation safety and planning. He has managed and conducted safety research for the Federal Highway Administration, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the National Academies, and the Arizona, California, and Georgia Departments of Transportation. Dr Washington is the primary author with Drs. Karlaftis and Mannering on a textbook (publisher Chapman and Hall/CRC) titled "Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis." Dr Washington is author or coauthor on over 50 peer reviewed technical papers or book chapters, and has advised over 30 graduate students. At ITLS Dr Washington is the unit coordinator for Transport Policy, Decision Making and the Environment.

Yehuda Gur

Date: 27 March 2007

Speaker: Dr Yehuda Gur, Private Transportation Engineering Consultant, Israel

Topic: A country-wide travel demand model in Israel: Formulation and development

Abstract: Some recent developments presented the need for a country-wide travel demand model in Israel. Those include:

  1. The increased investment in, and planning of, the intercity transport network in Israel, both rail and highway;
  2. Government requirement for formal evaluation of any transport infrastructure investment;
  3. Continuous difficulties of the Metropolitan planning agencies to estimate properly the external and through travel.

A model which supports these tasks, and is developed with modest investment in a short time is being prepared. The presentation will describe the modeling approach selected, the model structure, and few intermediate results. Work is planned to be completed by September, 2007. In formulating the approach, a major concern was the data requirements and availability. Available travel habits survey data provides rather a poor description of intercity travel, in the range of 50 to 250 km. A decision was made to rely heavily on aggregate travel data, obtained using modern data collection tools.

Three new such tools were developed and applied. First, a network of about 100 video cameras were deployed around the major road network. Second, time and location data from a few hundred GPS equipped vehicles was gathered. Third, continuous location data of a few thousand varying cellular phones was gathered for 13 weeks. These data were designated to provide: a person trip table by time of day, a description of inter-city travel as tours, and link travel times by time of day, for travel time estimation and assignment model calibration. The selected model is an aggregate, regular 4 step tour based model. Unique features of the model include: a probabilistic modal split model, with a ring based approach for presenting access impedance, a tour generation model and a tour-table-to-trip-table translation model. A number of model elements have not yet been decided. A major issue relates to the way of handling time of day in the trip table and assignment model. Should a dynamic assignment model be used? How to formulate it? Should the tour generation model be formulated by trip purpose? By time of day?

Bio: Dr Gur is a private transportation Engineering Consultant, working in Israel. He is presently participating in the preparation and implementation of a reorganization plan for Metro Tel Aviv, and the development of a country-wide travel demand model. Dr Gur received his BSc and MSc in Civil Engineering from the Technion, Israel, and his PhD from Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. He devoted his career for the development of transport planning processes and tools and their application in various planning agencies. During the 1970's he lead or assisted, primarily as a consultant, in the development of planning processes of the planning agencies of Metro New York, Chicago, Dallas and Cleveland in the US, as well as with the US DOT. In the early 1980's Dr Gur returned to Israel, and worked, until the late 1990's, as a Senior Research Associate in the Technion. His main research efforts dealt with the development of advanced network analysis tools, including a transport  land use model, a queued assignment model and more. During the 1990's, Dr Gur developed for the Department of Treasury the PRAT procedure for the evaluation of the worthiness of transport projects.

Michiel Bliemer

Date: 13 March 2007

Speaker: Associate Professor Michiel Bliemer, ITLS Visiting Professor, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

Topic: Rewarding instead of charging road users: Effects and implications from a survey and a pilot study in the Netherlands

Abstract: Road pricing needs no introduction. Many countries have already introduced or are looking at introducing different forms of charging schemes for a range of objectives (congestion, pollution, safety, revenues, etc.). The main problem is usually public acceptance. In order to overcome this problem, rewards instead of charges have been considered, and this led to an actual pilot study in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the pilot, approximately 300 car drivers between two cities volunteered to participate. If these car drivers avoided driving between 7:30am and 9:30am (the congested rush hours), they got rewarded either with money (3 to 7 euros per day), or they earned credits for a free navigation system. This was enforced using cameras and on board units. In the presentation, this pilot is outlined in more detail, and preliminary outcomes regarding travelers' behavior to such rewards are presented. Furthermore, forecasts using traffic simulation models are made to investigate what the impact would be on the network traffic conditions if such a rewarding scheme would attract a larger amount of participants and what the influence of the reward level is. First results of these model studies will be presented as well.

Bio: After finishing his Masters degree in Econometrics and Operations Research, Michiel Bliemer received his PhD in transportation planning and traffic engineering on the topic of dynamic traffic assignment with heterogeneous travelers. Currently, he works as Associate Professor at Delft University of Technology in The Netherlands and since three years as Adjunct Professor at the Institute of Transport and Logistics studies in Sydney. Main research topics include (large scale) analytical dynamic network models for forecasting future network conditions and effects of dynamic traffic management measures, particularly the impact of road pricing. Another important research topic is the design of efficient stated choice experiments for estimating discrete choice models. Other topics of interest are travel choice behavior under uncertainty, dynamic queuing models, and optimal control problems with conflicting interests using game theory.