Professor Georges Emile Raymond Grau

Professor of Vascular Immunology
Pathology, School of Medical Sciences
Bosch Institute

K25 - Medical Foundation Building
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia

T: +61 2 9036 3260
F: +61 2 9036 3177

W: Related website

Biographical details

2006 - present: Professor, Chair of Vascular Immunology, Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney [More...]

Research interests

Immunopathology of microvascular lesions, particularly of cerebral and pulmonary complications of infectious and auto-immune diseases, especially in cerebral malaria, septic shock and multiple sclerosis. Analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interactions between microvascular endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. Experience in various in vivo and in vitro experimental systems as well as in clinical studies. More recently, focus on the neurovascular lesion of murine and human cerebral malaria, using co-culture model systems involving brain endothelium, P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, as well as circulating cells, particularly platelets and monocytes.

Additional keywords: endothelium; cytokines; platelets; microparticles; brain diseases; cerebral malaria; sepsis; septic shock

PhD and Masters' project opportunities

Investigating mechanisms of microparticle production by microvascular endothelial cells and defining clinically useful inhibitors   +

+ indicates the opportunity is full and unavailable.

Current national competitive grants*


Microparticles are pathogenic elements in the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria
Combes V, Grau G, Wheway J
NHMRC Project Grants ($584,700 over 3 years)

The astrocyte: a crossroads in cerebral malaria pathogenesis
Hunt N, Ball H, Grau G
NHMRC Project Grants ($577,350 over 3 years)

The link between the angiogenesis of live birth and cancer: a lizard model
Thompson M, Murphy C, Grau G
ARC Discovery Projects ($550,000 over 3 years)

* Grants administered through the University of Sydney


Infection and immunity; Inflammation; Lung diseases; Immunology; Malaria


2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009


  • El-Assaad, F., Combes, V., Grau, G., Jambou, R. (2014), Potential efficacy of citicoline as adjunct therapy in the treatment of cerebral malaria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58(1), 602-605. [Abstract]
  • Wheway, J., Latham, S., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2014), Endothelial Microparticles Interact with and Support the Proliferation of T Cells. Journal of Immunology. 193(7), 3378-3387. [Abstract]
  • Khaw, L., Ball, H., Mitchell, A., Grau, G., Stocker, R., Golenser, J., Hunt, N. (2014), Brain endothelial cells increase the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum through production of soluble factors. Experimental Parasitology. 145(C), 34-41. [Abstract]
  • Pai, S., Qin, J., Cavanagh, L., Mitchell, A., El-Assaad, F., Jain, R., Combes, V., Hunt, N., Grau, G., Weninger, W. (2014), Real-Time Imaging Reveals the Dynamics of Leukocyte Behaviour during Experimental Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis. PLoS Pathogens. 10(7), e1004236. [Abstract]
  • Jaiswal, R., Raymond Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2014), Cellular communication via microparticles: role in transfer of multidrug resistance in cancer. Future Oncology. 10(4), 655-669. [Abstract]
  • El-Assaad, F., Wheway, J., Hunt, N., Grau, G., Combes, V. (2014), Production, fate and pathogenicity of plasma microparticles in murine cerebral malaria. PLoS Pathogens. 10(3), e1003839. [Abstract]
  • Wen, B., Combes, V., Bonhoure, A., Weksler, B., Couraud, P., Grau, G. (2014), Endotoxin-induced monocytic microparticles have contrasting effects on endothelial inflammatory responses. PloS One. 9(3), e91597. [Abstract]
  • Hunt, N., Ball, H., Hansen, A., Khaw, L., Guo, J., Bakmiwewa, S., Mitchell, A., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2014), Cerebral malaria: gamma-interferon redux. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 4, 113. [Abstract]
  • Ampawong, S., Chaisri, U., Viriyavejakul, P., Nontprasert, A., Grau, G., Pongponratn, E. (2014), Electron microscopic features of brain edema in rodent cerebral malaria in relation to glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 7(5), 2056-2067. [Abstract]


  • Walters, S., Kieckbusch, J., Nagalingam, G., Swain, A., Latham, S., Grau, G., Britton, W., Combes, V., Saunders, B. (2013), Microparticles from Mycobacteria-Infected Macrophages Promote Inflammation and Cellular Migration. Journal of Immunology. 190(2), 669-677. [Abstract]
  • Latham, S., Chaponnier, C., Dugina, V., Couraud, P., Grau, G., Combes, V. (2013), Cooperation between β- and γ-cytoplasmic actins in the mechanical regulation of endothelial microparticle formation. FASEB Journal. 27(2), 672-683. [Abstract]
  • Gong, J., Luk, F., Jaiswal, R., George, A., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2013), Microparticle drug sequestration provides a parallel pathway in the acquisition of cancer drug resistance. European Journal of Pharmacology. 721, 116-125. [Abstract]
  • El-Assaad, F., Wheway, J., Mitchell, A., Lou, J., Hunt, N., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2013), Cytoadherence of Plasmodium berghei-infected red blood cells to murine brain and lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Infection and Immunity. 81(11), 3984-3991. [Abstract]
  • Lu, J., Luk, F., Gong, J., Jaiswal, R., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2013), Microparticles mediate MRP1 intercellular transfer and the re-templating of intrinsic resistance pathways. Pharmacological Research. 76, 77¿83. [Abstract]
  • Razakandrainibe, R., Combes, V., Grau, G., Jambou, R. (2013), Crossing the wall: The opening of endothelial cell junctions during infectious diseases. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 45(7), 1165-1173. [Abstract]
  • Li, C., Eaton, S., Young, P., Lee, M., Shuttleworth, R., Humphreys, D., Grau, G., Combes, V., Bebawy, M., Gong, J., Brammah, S., Buckland, M., Suter, C. (2013), Glioma microvesicles carry selectively packaged coding and noncoding RNAs which alter gene expression in recipient cells. RNA Biology. 10(8), 1333-1344. [Abstract]
  • Dietmann, A., Millonig, A., Combes, V., Couraud, P., Kachlany, S., Grau, G. (2013), Effects of aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin on endothelial cells. Microbial Pathogenesis. 61-62, 43-50. [Abstract]
  • Jaiswal, R., Luk, F., Dalla, P., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2013), Breast Cancer-Derived Microparticles Display Tissue Selectivity in the Transfer of Resistance Proteins to Cells. PloS One. 8(4), e61515. [Abstract]
  • Bebawy, M., Roseblade, A., Luk, F., Rawling, T., Ung, A., Grau, G. (2013), Cell-derived microparticles: new targets in the therapeutic management of disease. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical sciences. 16(2), 238-253. [Abstract]
  • Wheway, J., Obeid, S., Couraud, P., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2013), The brain microvascular endothelium supports t cell proliferation and has potential for alloantigen presentation. PloS One. 8(1), e52586. [Abstract]
  • Khaw, L., Ball, H., Golenser, J., Combes, V., Grau, G., Wheway, J., Mitchell, A., Hunt, N. (2013), Endothelial Cells Potentiate Interferon-γ Production in a Novel Tripartite Culture Model of Human Cerebral Malaria. PloS One. 8(7), e69521. [Abstract]
  • Liu, H., Zhang, W., Jia, Y., Yu, Q., Grau, G., Peng, L., Ran, Y., Yang, Z., Deng, H., Lou, J. (2013), Single-cell clones of liver cancer stem cells have the potential of differentiating into different types of tumor cells. Cell Death & Disease. 4, e857. [Abstract]
  • Lee, J., Siegele, R., Pastuovic, Z., Hackett, M., Hunt, N., Grau, G., Cohen, D., Lay, P. (2013), Light and heavy ion beam analysis of thin biological sections. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 306, 129-133.


  • Hackett, M., Lee, J., El-Assaad, F., McQuillan, J., Carter, E., Grau, G., Hunt, N., Lay, P. (2012), FTIR Imaging of Brain Tissue Reveals Crystalline Creatine Deposits Are an ex Vivo Marker of Localized Ischemia during Murine Cerebral Malaria: General Implications for Disease Neurochemistry. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 3(12), 1017-1024. [Abstract]
  • Combes, V., Guillemin, G., Chan-Ling, T., Hunt, N., Grau, G. (2012), The crossroads of neuroinflammation in infectious diseases: endothelial cells and astrocytes. Trends in Parasitology. 28(8), 311-319. [Abstract]
  • Faille, D., El-Assaad, F., Mitchell, A., Alessi, M., Chimini, G., Fusai, T., Grau, G., Combes, V. (2012), Endocytosis and intracellular processing of platelet microparticles by brain endothelial cells. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. 16(8), 1731-1738. [Abstract]
  • Gong, J., Jaiswal, R., Mathys, J., Combes, V., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2012), Microparticles and their emerging role in cancer multidrug resistance. Cancer Treatment Reviews. 38(3), 226-234. [Abstract]
  • Razakandrainibe, R., Pelleau, S., Grau, G., Jambou, R. (2012), Antigen presentation by endothelial cells: what role in the pathophysiology of malaria?. Trends in Parasitology. 28(4), 151-160. [Abstract]
  • Grau, G., Craig, A. (2012), Cerebral malaria pathogenesis: revisiting parasite and host contributions. Future Microbiology. 7(2), 291-302. [Abstract]
  • Craig, A., Grau, G., Janse, C., Kazura, J., Milner, D., Barnwell, J., Turner, G., Langhorne, J. (2012), The role of animal models for research on severe malaria. PLoS Pathogens. 8(2), e1002401. [Abstract]
  • Hafalla, J., Claser, C., Couper, K., Grau, G., Renia, L., de Souza, J., Riley, E. (2012), The CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathways independently regulate host resistance to Plasmodium-induced acute immune pathology. PLoS Pathogens. 8(2), e1002504. [Abstract]
  • Jaiswal, R., Gong, J., Sambasivam, S., Combes, V., Mathys, J., Davey, R., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2012), Microparticle-associated nucleic acids mediate trait dominance in cancer. The FASEB Journal. 26(1), 420-429. [Abstract]
  • Jaiswal, R., Luk, F., Gong, J., Mathys, J., Grau, G., Bebawy, M. (2012), Microparticle conferred microRNA profiles - implications in the transfer and dominance of cancer traits. Molecular Cancer. 11, 37. [Abstract]


  • Hempel, C., Combes, V., Hunt, N., Lindholm Kurtzhals, J., Raymond Grau, G. (2011), CNS Hypoxia Is More Pronounced in Murine Cerebral than Noncerebral Malaria and Reversed by Erythropoietin. American Journal of Pathology. 179(4), 1939-1950. [Abstract]
  • Saggu, R., Faille, D., Grau, G., Cozzone, P., Viola, A. (2011), In the eye of experimental cerebral malaria. The American Journal of Pathology. 179(3), 1104-1109. [Abstract]
  • Ampawong, S., Combes, V., Hunt, N., Radford, J., Chan-Ling, T., Pongponratn, E., Grau, G. (2011), Quantitation of brain edema and localisation of aquaporin 4 expression in relation to susceptibility to experimental cerebral malaria. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 4(6), 566-574. [Abstract]
  • Hackett, M., McQuillan, J., El-Assaad, F., Aitken, J., Levina, A., Cohen, D., Siegele, R., Carter, E., Grau, G., Hunt, N., Lay, P. (2011), Chemical alterations to murine brain tissue induced by formalin fixation: implications for biospectroscopic imaging and mapping studies of disease pathogenesis. The Analyst. 136(14), 2941-2952. [Abstract]
  • El-Assaad, F., Hempel, C., Combes, V., Mitchell, A., Ball, H., Kurtzhals, J., Hunt, N., Mathys, J., Grau, G. (2011), Differential microRNA expression in experimental cerebral and non-cerebral malaria. Infection and Immunity. 79(6), 2379-2384. [Abstract]
  • Moxon, C., Grau, G., Craig, A. (2011), Malaria: modification of the red blood cell and consequences in the human host. British Journal of Haematology. 154(6), 670-679. [Abstract]
  • Nantakomol, D., Dondorp, A., Krudsood, S., Udomsangpetch, R., Pattanapanyasat, K., Combes, V., Grau, G., White, N., Viriyavejakul, P., Day, N., Chotivanich, K. (2011), Circulating red cell-derived microparticles in human malaria. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 203(5), 700-706. [Abstract]
  • Wassmer, S., Moxon, C., Taylor, T., Grau, G., Molyneux, M., Craig, A. (2011), Vascular endothelial cells cultured from patients with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria exhibit differential reactivity to TNF. Cellular Microbiology. 13(2), 198-209. [Abstract]
  • McQuillan, J., Mitchell, A., Ho, Y., Combes, V., Ball, H., Golenser, J., Grau, G., Hunt, N. (2011), Coincident parasite and CD8 T cell sequestration is required for development of experimental cerebral malaria. International Journal for Parasitology. 41(2), 155-163. [Abstract]
  • Jambou, R., El-Assaad, F., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2011), In vitro culture of Plasmodium berghei-ANKA maintains infectivity of mouse erythrocytes inducing cerebral malaria. Malaria Journal. 10(1), 346. [Abstract]
  • Hee, L., Dinudom, A., Mitchell, A., Grau, G., Cook, D., Hunt, N., Ball, H. (2011), Reduced activity of the epithelial sodium channel in malaria-induced pulmonary edema in mice. International Journal for Parasitology. 41(1), 81-88. [Abstract]
  • Ling, Z., Combes, V., Grau, G., King, N. (2011), Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease - an opinion. Frontiers in Immunology. 2, 67. [Abstract]
  • Hackett, M., Siegele, R., El-Assaad, F., McQuillan, J., Aitken, J., Carter, E., Grau, G., Hunt, N., Cohen, D., Lay, P. (2011), Investigation of the mouse cerebellum using STIM and l-PIXE spectrometric and FTIR spectroscopic mapping and imaging. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B. 269(20), 2260-2263.
  • Barbier, M., Faille, D., Loriod, B., Textoris, J., Camus, C., Puthier, D., Flori, L., Wassmer, S., Victorero, G., Alessi, M., Fusaï, T., Nguyen, C., Grau, G., Rihet, P. (2011), Platelets alter gene expression profile in human brain endothelial cells in an in vitro model of cerebral malaria. PLoS One. 6(5), e19651. [Abstract]


  • Mitchell, A., Pradel, L., Chasson, L., Van Rooijen, N., Grau, G., Hunt, N., Chimini, G. (2010), Technical Advance: Autofluorescence as a tool for myeloid cell analysis. Journal of leukocyte biology. 88(3), 597-603. [Abstract]
  • Hunt, N., Grau, G., Engwerda, C., Barnum, S., van der Heyde, H., Hansen, D., Schofield, L., Golenser, J. (2010), Murine cerebral malaria: the whole story. Trends in parasitology. , 272-4. [Abstract]
  • Combes, V., El-Assaad, F., Faille, D., Jambou, R., Hunt, N., Grau, G. (2010), Microvesiculation and cell interactions at the brain-endothelial interface in cerebral malaria pathogenesis. Progress in Neurobiology. 91(2), 140-151. [Abstract]
  • Bridges, D., Bunn, J., van Mourik, J., Grau, G., Preston, R., Molyneux, M., Combes, V., O'Donnell, J., de Laat, B., Craig, A. (2010), Rapid activation of endothelial cells enables P. falciparum adhesion to platelet decorated von Willebrand factor strings. Blood. 115(7), 1472-4. [Abstract]
  • Jambou, R., Combes, V., Jambou, M., Weksler, B., Couraud, P., Grau, G. (2010), Plasmodium falciparum Adhesion on Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Involves Transmigration-Like Cup Formation and Induces Opening of Intercellular Junctions. PLoS Pathogens. 6(7), e1001021. [Abstract]
  • Carpintero, R., Gruaz, L., Brandt, K., Scanu, A., Faille, D., Combes, V., Grau, G., Burger, D. (2010), HDL Interfere with the Binding of T Cell Microparticles to Human Monocytes to Inhibit Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production. Plos One. 5(7), e11869. [Abstract]
  • Couper, K., Barnes, T., Hafalla, J., Combes, V., Ryffel, B., Secher, T., Grau, G., Riley, E., de Souza, J. (2010), Parasite-Derived Plasma Microparticles Contribute Significantly to Malaria Infection-Induced Inflammation through Potent Macrophage Stimulation. Plos Pathogens. 6(1), e1000744. [Abstract]
  • Pankoui Mfonkeu, J., Gouado, I., Fotso Kuaté, H., Zambou, O., Amvam Zollo, P., Grau, G., Combes, V. (2010), Elevated cell-specific microparticles are a biological marker for cerebral dysfunctions in human severe malaria. PloS One. 5(10), e13415. [Abstract]
  • Mfonkeu, J., Gouado, I., Kuate, H., Zambou, O., Combes, V., Grau, G., Zollo, P. (2010), Biochemical markers of nutritional status and childhood malaria severity in Cameroon. British Journal of Nutrition. 104(6), 886-892. [Abstract]


  • Zhang, W., Wu, L., Liu, H., Ye, L., Xin, Y., Grau, G., Lou, J. (2009), Abnormal blood vessels formed by human liver cavernous hemangioma endothelial cells in nude mice are suitable for drug evaluation. Microvascular Research. 78(3), 379-385. [Abstract]
  • Gouado, I., Pankoui M, J., Fotso K, H., Zambou, O., Nguélé, S., Combes, V., Grau, G., Amvam Z, P. (2009), Physiopathologic factors resulting in poor outcome in childhood severe malaria in Cameroon. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 28(12), 1081-1084. [Abstract]
  • Bechah, Y., Capo, C., Grau, G., Raoult, D., Mege, J. (2009), Rickettsia prowazekii infection of endothelial cells increases leukocyte adhesion through alphabeta integrin engagement. Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 15 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), 249-50. [Abstract]
  • Faille, D., El-Assaad, F., Alessi, M., Fusai, T., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2009), Platelet-endothelial cell interactions in cerebral malaria: The end of a cordial understanding. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 102(6), 1093-1102. [Abstract]
  • Faille, D., Combes, V., Mitchell, A., Fontaine, A., Juhan-Vague, I., Alessi, M., Chimini, G., Fusaï, T., Grau, G. (2009), Platelet microparticles: a new player in malaria parasite cytoadherence to human brain endothelium. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 23(10), 3449-58. [Abstract]
  • Bebawy, M., Combes, V., Lee, E., Jaiswal, R., Gong, J., Bonhoure, A., Grau, G. (2009), Membrane microparticles mediate transfer of P-glycoprotein to drug sensitive cancer cells. Leukemia : official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K. 23(9), 1643-9. [Abstract]
  • Jambou, R., El-Assaad, F., Combes, V., Grau, G. (2009), Citicoline (CDP-choline): What role in the treatment of complications of infectious diseases. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 41(7), 1467-1470. [Abstract]
  • Larkin, D., de Laat, B., Jenkins, P., Bunn, J., Craig, A., Terraube, V., Preston, R., Donkor, C., Grau, G., van Mourik, J., O'Donnell, J. (2009), Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with circulating ultra-large von Willebrand multimers and ADAMTS13 inhibition. PLoS Pathogens. 5(3), e1000349. [Abstract]
  • Bruzzone, R., Dubois-Dalcq, M., Grau, G., Griffin, D., Kristensson, K. (2009), Infectious diseases of the nervous system and their impact in developing countries. PLoS Pathogens. 5(2), e1000199. [Abstract]