Associate Professor Georgina Long

Principal Research Fellow and Associate Professor
Surgery, Central Clinical School
Sydney Melanoma Unit

T: +61 2 9911 7200
Curriculum vitae

Biographical details

Dr Georgina Long BSc PhD MBBS FRACP is a clinical researcher and Medical Oncologist at Melanoma Institute Australia, University of Sydney, Australia. She was a Fulbright Postdoctoral Scholar at Scripps Research Institute. She is an investigator on Phase I, II and III clinical trials in adjuvant and metastatic melanoma, and, with her colleagues at Westmead, spear-headed the investigation of BRAF inhibitor activity in the brain. She is chief investigator on NHMRC funded research into the molecular biology of melanoma, with a particular focus on clinical and biomarker correlates of systemic therapy sensitivity and resistance. Since commencing at Melanoma Institute Australia in 2009, she has authored multiple publications in clinical and translational research in melanoma, and is a regular invited speaker at international conferences.

International links

United States. (M.D Anderson, Harvard, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Washington University, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Pennsylvania, John Wayne Cancer Centre) Collaborations across multiple USA institutions including both clinical and translational studies of melanoma epidemiology, prognosis, resistance/response to systemic therapies.


2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011


  • Menzies, A., Lum, T., Wilmott, J., Hyman, J., Kefford, R., Thompson, J., O'Toole, S., Long, G., Scolyer, R. (2014), Intrapatient Homogeneity of BRAFV600E Expression in Melanoma. The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 38(3), 377-382. [Abstract]
  • Zimmer, L., Haydu, L., Menzies, A., Scolyer, R., Kefford, R., Thompson, J., Schadendorf, D., Long, G. (2014), Incidence of New Primary Melanomas After Diagnosis of Stage III and IV Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32(8), 816-823. [Abstract]
  • Shi, H., Hugo, W., Kong, X., Hong, A., Koya, R., Moriceau, G., Chodon, T., Guo, R., Johnson, D., Dahlman, K., Kelley, M., Kefford, R., Chmielowski, B., Glaspy, J., Sosman, J., van Baren, N., Long, G., Ribas, A., Lo, R. (2014), Acquired Resistance and Clonal Evolution in Melanoma during BRAF Inhibitor Therapy. Cancer Discovery. 4(1), 80-93. [Abstract]
  • Shi, H., Hong, A., Kong, X., Koya, R., Song, C., Moriceau, G., Hugo, W., Yu, C., Ng, C., Chodon, T., Scolyer, R., Kefford, R., Ribas, A., Long, G., Lo, R. (2014), A Novel AKT1 Mutant Amplifies an Adaptive Melanoma Response to BRAF Inhibition. Cancer Discovery. 4(1), 69-79. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Long, G. (2014), Systemic treatment for BRAF-mutant melanoma: where do we go next?. The Lancet Oncology. 15(9), e371-e381. [Abstract]
  • Falchook, G., Long, G., Kurzrock, R., Kim, K., Arkenau, H., Brown, M., Hamid, O., Infante, J., Millward, M., Pavlick, A., Chin, M., O'Day, S., Blackman, S., Curtis, M., Lebowitz, P., Ma, B., Ouellet, D., Kefford, R. (2014), Dose Selection, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of BRAF-inhibitor Dabrafenib (GSK2118436). Clinical Cancer Research. 20(17), 4449-4458. [Abstract]
  • Carlino, M., Haydu, L., Kakavand, H., Menzies, A., Hamilton, A., Yu, B., Ng, C., Cooper, W., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., O'Toole, S., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2014), Correlation of BRAF and NRAS mutation status with outcome, site of distant metastasis and response to chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma. British Journal of Cancer. 111(2), 292-299. [Abstract]
  • Ackerman, A., Klein, O., McDermott, D., Wang, W., Ibrahim, N., Lawrence, D., Gunturi, A., Flaherty, K., Hodi, F., Kefford, R., Menzies, A., Atkins, M., Long, G., Sullivan, R. (2014), Outcomes of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with immunotherapy prior to or after BRAF inhibitors. Cancer. 120(11), 1695-1701. [Abstract]
  • Carlino, M., Todd, J., Gowrishankar, K., Mijatov, B., Pupo, G., Fung, C., Snoyman, S., Hersey, P., Long, G., Kefford, R., Rizos, H. (2014), Differential activity of MEK and ERK inhibitors in BRAF inhibitor resistant melanoma. Molecular Oncology. 8(3), 544-554. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Long, G. (2014), Dabrafenib and trametinib, alone and in combination for BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Clinical Cancer Research. 20(8), 2035-2043. [Abstract]
  • Parmenter, T., Kleinschmidt, M., Kinross, K., Bond, S., Li, J., Kaadige, M., Rao, A., Sheppard, K., Hugo, W., Pupo, G., Pearson, R., McGee, S., Long, G., Scolyer, R., Rizos, H., Lo, R., Cullinane, C., Ayer, D., Ribas, A., Johnstone, R., Hicks, R., McArthur, G. (2014), Response of BRAF-mutant melanoma to BRAF inhibition is mediated by a network of transcriptional regulators of glycolysis. Cancer Discovery. 4(4), 423-433. [Abstract]
  • Brown, M., Long, G. (2014), The use of vemurafenib in Australian patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma containing the V600 BRAF gene mutation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology. 10 Suppl S3, 1-15. [Abstract]
  • Rizos, H., Menzies, A., Pupo, G., Carlino, M., Fung, C., Hyman, J., Haydu, L., Mijatov, B., Becker, T., Boyd, S., Howle, J., Saw, R., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2014), BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms in metastatic melanoma: spectrum and clinical impact. Clinical Cancer Research. 20(7), 1965-1977. [Abstract]
  • Kakavand, H., Crainic, O., Lum, T., O'Toole, S., Kefford, R., Thompson, J., Wilmott, J., Long, G., Scolyer, R. (2014), Concordant BRAFV600E mutation status in primary melanomas and associated naevi: implications for mutation testing of primary melanomas. Pathology. 46(3), 193-198. [Abstract]
  • Lyle, M., Long, G. (2014), The role of systemic therapies in the management of melanoma brain metastases. Current Opinion in Oncology. 26(2), 222-229. [Abstract]
  • Flaherty, K., Hennig, M., Lee, S., Ascierto, P., Dummer, R., Eggermont, A., Hauschild, A., Kefford, R., Kirkwood, J., Long, G., Lorigan, P., Mackensen, A., McArthur, G., O'Day, S., Patel, P., Robert, C., Schadendorf, D. (2014), Surrogate endpoints for overall survival in metastatic melanoma: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. The Lancet Oncology. 15(3), 297-304. [Abstract]
  • Azer, M., Menzies, A., Haydu, L., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2014), Patterns of response and progression in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma metastatic to the brain who were treated with dabrafenib. Cancer. 120(4), 530-536. [Abstract]
  • Wilmott, J., Haydu, L., Menzies, A., Lum, T., Hyman, J., Thompson, J., Hersey, P., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2014), Dynamics of Chemokine, Cytokine, and Growth Factor Serum Levels in BRAF-Mutant Melanoma Patients during BRAF Inhibitor Treatment. Journal of Immunology. 192(5), 2505-2513. [Abstract]
  • Chien, A., Haydu, L., Biechele, T., Kulikauskas, R., Rizos, H., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Moon, R., Long, G. (2014), Targeted BRAF Inhibition Impacts Survival in Melanoma Patients with High Levels of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling. PloS One. 9(4), e94748. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Haydu, L., Carlino, M., Azer, M., Carr, P., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2014), Inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity of response and progression to targeted therapy in metastatic melanoma. PloS one. 9(1), e85004. [Abstract]


  • Kim, K., Kefford, R., Pavlick, A., Infante, J., Ribas, A., Sosman, J., Fecher, L., Millward, M., McArthur, G., Hwu, P., Gonzalez, R., Ott, P., Long, G., Gardner, O., Ouellet, D., Xu, Y., Demarini, D., Le, N., Patel, K., Lewis, K. (2013), Phase II Study of the MEK1/MEK2 Inhibitor Trametinib in Patients With Metastatic BRAF-Mutant Cutaneous Melanoma Previously Treated With or Without a BRAF Inhibitor. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 31(4), 482-489. [Abstract]
  • Klein, O., Clements, A., Menzies, A., O'Toole, S., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2013), BRAF inhibitor activity in V600R metastatic melanoma. European Journal of Cancer. 49(5), 1073-1079. [Abstract]
  • Long, G., Wilmott, J., Capper, D., Preusser, M., Zhang, Y., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., von Deimling, A., Scolyer, R. (2013), Immunohistochemistry Is Highly Sensitive and Specific for the Detection of V600E BRAF Mutation in Melanoma. American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 37(1), 61-65. [Abstract]
  • Carlino, M., Saunders, C., Haydu, L., Menzies, A., Martin Curtis, C., Lebowitz, P., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2013), (18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) heterogeneity of response is prognostic in dabrafenib treated BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma. European Journal of Cancer. 49(2), 395-402. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Long, G. (2013), New combinations and immunotherapies for melanoma: latest evidence and clinical utility. Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology. 5(5), 278-285. [Abstract]
  • Lyle, M., Long, G. (2013), Diagnosis and Treatment of KIT-Mutant Metastatic Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 31(26), 3176-3181. [Abstract]
  • Nathanson, K., Martin, A., Wubbenhorst, B., Greshock, J., Letrero, R., D'Andrea, K., O'Day, S., Infante, J., Falchook, G., Arkenau, H., Millward, M., Brown, M., Pavlick, A., Davies, M., Ma, B., Gagnon, R., Curtis, M., Lebowitz, P., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2013), Tumor Genetic Analyses of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Treated with the BRAF Inhibitor Dabrafenib (GSK2118436). Clinical Cancer Research. 19(17), 4868-4878. [Abstract]
  • Ascierto, P., Minor, D., Ribas, A., Lebbe, C., O'Hagan, A., Arya, N., Guckert, M., Schadendorf, D., Kefford, R., Grob, J., Hamid, O., Amaravadi, R., Simeone, E., Wilhelm, T., Kim, K., Long, G., Martin, A., Mazumdar, J., Goodman, V., Trefzer, U. (2013), Phase II Trial (BREAK-2) of the BRAF Inhibitor Dabrafenib (GSK2118436) in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 31(26), 3205-3211. [Abstract]
  • Anforth, R., Blumetti, T., Clements, A., Kefford, R., Long, G., Fernandez-Penas, P. (2013), Systemic Retinoids for the Chemoprevention of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Verrucal Keratosis in a Cohort of Patients on BRAF inhibitors. The British Journal of Dermatology. 169(6), 1310-1313. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Long, G. (2013), Recent advances in melanoma systemic therapy. BRAF inhibitors, CTLA4 antibodies and beyond. European Journal of Cancer. 49(15), 3229-3241. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2013), Paradoxical oncogenesis: are all BRAF inhibitors equal?. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. 26(5), 611-615. [Abstract]
  • Carlino, M., Gowrishankar, K., Saunders, C., Pupo, G., Snoyman, S., Zhang, X., Saw, R., Becker, T., Kefford, R., Long, G., Rizos, H. (2013), Anti-proliferative effects of continued mitogen activated protein kinase pathway inhibition following acquired resistance to BRAF and/or MEK inhibition in melanoma. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 12(7), 1332-1342. [Abstract]
  • Trunzer, K., Pavlick, A., Schuchter, L., Gonzalez, R., McArthur, G., Hutson, T., Moschos, S., Flaherty, K., Kim, K., Weber, J., Hersey, P., Long, G., Lawrence, D., Ott, P., Amaravadi, R., Lewis, K., Puzanov, I., Lo, R., Koehler, A., Kockx, M., Spleiss, O., Schell-Steven, A., Gilbert, H., Cockey, L., Bollag, G., Lee, R., Joe, A., Sosman, J., Ribas, A. (2013), Pharmacodynamic effects and mechanisms of resistance to vemurafenib in patients with metastatic melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 31(14), 1767-1774. [Abstract]
  • Long, G., Wilmott, J., Haydu, L., Tembe, V., Sharma, R., Rizos, H., Thompson, J., Howle, J., Scolyer, R., Kefford, R. (2013), Effects of BRAF inhibitors on human melanoma tissue before treatment, early during treatment and on progression. Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research. 26(4), 499-508. [Abstract]
  • Klein, O., Ribas, A., Chmielowski, B., Walker, G., Clements, A., Long, G., Kefford, R. (2013), Facial Palsy As a Side Effect of Vemurafenib Treatment in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 31(12), e215-217. [Abstract]
  • Klein, O., Clements, A., Menzies, A., O'Toole, S., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2013), BRAF inhibitor activity in V600R metastatic melanoma - Response. European Journal of Cancer. , 1797-1798. [Abstract]
  • Wilmott, J., Menzies, A., Haydu, L., Capper, D., Preusser, M., Zhang, Y., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., von Deimling, A., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2013), BRAF(V600E) protein expression and outcome from BRAF inhibitor treatment in BRAF(V600E) metastatic melanoma. British Journal of Cancer. 108(4), 924-931. [Abstract]
  • Long, G., Margolin, K. (2013), Multidisciplinary approach to brain metastasis from melanoma. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book. 2013, 393-398. [Abstract]
  • Anforth, R., Fernandez-Peñas, P., Long, G. (2013), Cutaneous toxicities of RAF inhibitors. The Lancet Oncology. 14(1), e11-18. [Abstract]
  • Hu, W., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Long, G., Scolyer, R., Wu, Q., Zhang, X., Mei, Y., Wu, M. (2013), AEBP1 upregulation confers acquired resistance to BRAF (V600E) inhibition in melanoma. Cell Death & Disease. 4, e914. [Abstract]


  • Flaherty, K., Infante, J., Daud, A., Gonzalez, R., Kefford, R., Sosman, J., Hamid, O., Schuchter, L., Cebon, J., Ibrahim, N., Kudchadkar, R., Burris, H., Falchook, G., Algazi, A., Lewis, K., Long, G., Puzanov, I., Lebowitz, P., Singh, A., Little, S., Sun, P., Allred, A., Ouellet, D., Kim, K., Patel, K., Weber, J. (2012), Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. The New England journal of medicine. 367(18), 1694-1703. [Abstract]
  • Long, G., Trefzer, U., Davies, M., Kefford, R., Ascierto, P., Chapman, P., Puzanov, I., Hauschild, A., Robert, C., Algazi, A., Mortier, L., Tawbi, H., Wilhelm, T., Zimmer, L., Switzky, J., Swann, S., Martin, A., Guckert, M., Goodman, V., Streit, M., Kirkwood, J., Schadendorf, D. (2012), Dabrafenib in patients with Val600Glu or Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma metastatic to the brain (BREAK-MB): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Oncology. 13(11), 1087-1095. [Abstract]
  • Wilmott, J., Tembe, V., Howle, J., Sharma, R., Thompson, J., Rizos, H., Lo, R., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2012), Intratumoral molecular heterogeneity in a BRAF-mutant, BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma: a case illustrating the challenges for personalized medicine. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 11(12), 2704-2708. [Abstract]
  • Wilmott, J., Scolyer, R., Long, G., Hersey, P. (2012), Combined targeted therapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced melanoma. Oncoimmunology. 1(6), 997-999. [Abstract]
  • Anforth, R., Blumetti, T., Kefford, R., Sharma, R., Scolyer, R., Kossard, S., Long, G., Fernandez-Pe��as, P. (2012), Cutaneous Manifestations of Dabrafenib (GSK2118436): A Selective Inhibitor of Mutant BRAF in patients with Metastatic Melanoma. British Journal of Dermatology. 167(5), 1153-1160. [Abstract]
  • Zimmer, L., Hillen, U., Livingstone, E., Lacouture, M., Busam, K., Carvajal, R., Egberts, F., Hauschild, A., Kashani-Sabet, M., Goldinger, S., Dummer, R., Long, G., McArthur, G., Scherag, A., Sucker, A., Schadendorf, D. (2012), Atypical Melanocytic Proliferations and New Primary Melanomas in Patients With Advanced Melanoma Undergoing Selective BRAF Inhibition. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 30(19), 2375-2383. [Abstract]
  • Murali, R., Brown, P., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Thompson, J., Atkins, M., Long, G. (2012), Number of primary melanomas is an independent predictor of survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 118(18), 4519-4529. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Haydu, L., Visintin, L., Carlino, M., Howle, J., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., Scolyer, R., Long, G. (2012), Distinguishing Clinicopathologic Features of Patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-Mutant Metastatic Melanoma. Clinical Cancer Research. 18(12), 3242-3249. [Abstract]
  • Murali, R., Haydu, L., Long, G., Quinn, M., Saw, R., Shannon, K., Spillane, A., Stretch, J., Kefford, R., Thompson, J., Scolyer, R. (2012), Clinical and Pathologic Factors Associated with Distant Metastasis and Survival in Patients with Thin Primary Cutaneous Melanoma. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 19(6), 1782-1789. [Abstract]
  • Falchook, G., Long, G., Kurzrock, R., Kim, K., Arkenau, T., Brown, M., Hamid, O., Infante, J., Millward, M., Pavlick, A., O'Day, S., Blackman, S., Curtis, C., Lebowitz, P., Ma, B., Ouellet, D., Kefford, R. (2012), Dabrafenib in patients with melanoma, untreated brain metastases, and other solid tumours: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. The Lancet. 379(9829), 1893-1901. [Abstract]
  • Shi, H., Moriceau, G., Kong, X., Koya, R., Nazarian, R., Pupo, G., Bacchiocchi, A., Dahlman, K., Chmielowski, B., Sosman, J., Halaban, R., Kefford, R., Long, G., Ribas, A., Lo, R. (2012), Preexisting MEK1 Exon 3 Mutations in V600E/KBRAF Melanomas Do Not Confer Resistance to BRAF Inhibitors. Cancer Discovery. 2(5), 414-424. [Abstract]
  • Wilmott, J., Long, G., Howle, J., Haydu, L., Sharma, R., Thompson, J., Kefford, R., Hersey, P., Scolyer, R. (2012), Selective BRAF inhibitors induce marked T cell infiltration into human metastatic melanoma. Clinical Cancer Research. 18(5), 1386-1394. [Abstract]
  • Carlino, M., Fogarty, G., Long, G. (2012), Treatment of melanoma brain metastases: a new paradigm. Cancer Journal. 18(2), 208-212. [Abstract]
  • Shi, H., Moriceau, G., Kong, X., Lee, M., Lee, H., Koya, R., Ng, C., Chodon, T., Scolyer, R., Dahlman, K., Sosman, J., Kefford, R., Long, G., Nelson, S., Ribas, A., Lo, R. (2012), Melanoma whole-exome sequencing identifies (V600E)B-RAF amplification-mediated acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance. Nature Communications. 3(2), 724. [Abstract]
  • Menzies, A., Long, G., Murali, R. (2012), Dabrafenib and its potential for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 6, 391-405. [Abstract]


  • Scolyer, R., Long, G., Thompson, J. (2011), Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care. Molecular oncology. 5(2), 124-36. [Abstract]
  • Long, G., Menzies, A., Nagrial, A., Haydu, L., Hamilton, A., Mann, G., Hughes, T., Thompson, J., Scolyer, R., Kefford, R. (2011), Prognostic and Clinicopathologic Associations of Oncogenic BRAF in Metastatic Melanoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 29(10), 1239-1246. [Abstract]
  • Arkenau, H., Kefford, R., Long, G. (2011), Targeting BRAF for patients with melanoma. British journal of cancer. 104(3), 392-8. [Abstract]