Intelligence Tests

Gap-fill Exercise

Fill in all the gaps, then press "Check" to check your answers. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if an answer is giving you trouble. You can also click on the "[?]" button to get a clue. Note that you will lose points if you ask for hints or clues!

Intelligence tests have been of three kinds. Verbal paper-and-pencil tests, non-verbal paper-and-pencil tests, where the tasks are presented by means of pictures and diagrams, and tests which require the of objects. Some, such as the Binet test , are given to subjects ; most verbal and non-verbal tests can be done by a group of subjects writing at the same time.
The subjects are told to do their tasks within a certain time, their results are marked, and the result of each is with a scale indicating what may be expected of children of the same age, i.e. what marks are expected of the relatively few bright ones, what marks are expected of the few dull ones, and what marks are expected of the bulk of the with whom the is being made. This 'calibration' of the test has been made beforehand and we are not concerned with the methods employed. One thing, however, we have to notice, and that is that the of the intelligence of any subject is essentially a affair.
The results of assessment are expressed in various ways, the most familiar being in terms of what is called the Intelligence Quotient. For our purposes we need not consider how this has been devised, it is enough to say that an I.Q. round about 100 is 'average', while more than 105 or less than 95 are above or below the average .
Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a 'valid' or 'fair' comparison. It is here that some of the difficulties, which interest us, begin. Any test performed involves at least three factors: the to do one's best, the knowledge required for what you have to do, and the intellectual to do it. The first two must be held equal for all who are being compared, if any comparison in terms of intelligence is to be made. In school in our culture these can be made with fair , and the value of intelligence testing has been proved up to the hilt. Its value lies, of course, in its providing a satisfactory basis for . No one is in the least interested in the marks little Basil gets on his test, what we are interested in is whether we can infer from his mark on the test that Basil will do better or worse than other children of his age at other tasks which we think require 'general intelligence'. On the whole such can be made with a certain degree of confidence, but only if Basil can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the others with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not by lack of relevant information which they possessed.
(From Social Psychology, by W. J. H. Sprott.)