Citing images & diagrams

You need to cite images, diagrams and artistic works as you would cite any other type of work.

The citation format should follow the bibliographic style that you are using for your text, i.e. APA, Harvard, Chicago, MLA systems. A number of referencing systems are used throughout the University and the examples, given here in APA format, are guides only: be sure to look up the correct style used in your area and refer back to your favourite style handbook if in doubt.

Don't forget that you can set preferences in your referencing software (EndNote, Refworks etc.), in Word, in Google Scholar, and on publisher websites to export citations in the various styles.


You should give as much information as possible about the images that you have used, including these basics:

  • creator's name (author, artist, photographer etc.)
  • date the work was published or created
  • title of the work
  • place of publication
  • publisher
  • type of material (for photographs, charts, online images)
  • website address and access date
  • name of the institution or museum where the work is located (for artworks and museum exhibits)
  • dimensions of the work (for artworks)

 


The following are examples of the main types of sources you are likely to use:

1. Citing images you created for a unit of study

If you created most of the images as part of course work material, the University will own the intellectual property in the works under the Copyright Act and its IP Rule. However, you can still identify yourself as the creator of the work.

Include the following blanket statement at the beginning of your lecture or presentation. This will avoid the need for separate citations for each of your works and you will only need to include citations for any third party images or diagrams you add to the lecture.


"Unless otherwise indicated, [insert description of material, e.g. images] included in this lecture were created by [insert your name] © University of Sydney 2009"

 

2. Citing images from your published works

If the images and diagrams you use in a lecture have come from your own publications, you may no longer own the copyright, although you will usually be able to use the images for teaching purposes. Check with your publisher, the journal website, or via the Sherpa/Romeo website or OAKlist database.

Include the following blanket statement at the beginning of your lecture or presentation. This will avoid the need to cite each of your works and you will only need to include citations for any third party images or diagrams you add to the lecture.

 

"Unless otherwise indicated, [insert description of material, e.g. images] included in this lecture have been drawn from [insert citation of work]"

 



Example 1
Unless otherwise indicated, all photographs included in this lecture have been drawn from Short, A. (2007). Beaches of the New South Wales Coast. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Sydney University Press.

 

 

3. Images from published books or journal articles

If you use images or diagrams from books or journal articles, you should include the following information:

  • title of work
  • figure or plate number
  • author of the book or journal article
  • date
  • title of the book or journal article
  • journal title (if applicable)
  • publication details including volume & part in the case of journals
  • page on which the work appears
  • the date of access if the item was retrieved from the internet or an electronic database
  • website address (if applicable)

 

You can either,

include the full citation with each image in your text or PowerPoint screen as shown in example 2,

Diagram to illustrate citation example


Example 2



Figure. 1. LED placement and definition of joint angles.
From:
Furuya, S. & Kinoshita, H. (2008) Expertise-dependent modulation of muscular and non-muscular torques in multi-joint arm movements during piano keystroke. Neuroscience 156 (2), 392.
Retrieved 5 November, 2008, from Science Direct.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.07.028

 



or,

add a brief reference to each image and include the full reference in the list added at the beginning or end of your lecture notes, as shown in examples 3 and 4a & 4b.

Diagram to illustrate citation example


Example 3





 

Figure. 1. LED placement and definition of joint angles.
From:
Furuya, S. & Kinoshita, H. (2008) Expertise-dependent modulation of muscular and non-muscular torques in multi-joint arm movements during piano keystroke.

 

 


Then in your list of references, provide the full reference:

 

Furuya, S. & Kinoshita, H. (2008) Expertise-dependent modulation of muscular and non-muscular torques in multi-joint arm movements during piano keystroke. Neuroscience 156 (2), 392.
Retrieved 5 November, 2008, from Science Direct.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.07.028

 



Example 4a
scanned image used to illustrate citation example


Example 4b

Sources used in today's lecture

 

Keyes, R.S. (1989). The male journey in Japanese prints. California: University of California Press.

 

Short, A. (2007). Beaches of the New South Wales Coast. (2nd ed.). Sydney: Sydney University Press.

 

Smith, B. (1964). Japan: a history in art. New York: Doubleday.


 

 

4. Images from websites

Websites and databases vary in the amount of bibliographic information they contain.

Include as many as possible of the same pieces of information, in the same order, as you would for a reference to a fixed-media source, (see above lists) and then add sufficient electronic retrieval information to enable others to locate the sources you cite.

 



Example 5
Photo of earth from space

Schmalz, J. (2006), Pacific Typhoons [Photograph]. Retrieved 22 October, 2008, from NASA, Visible Earth http://www.visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php?id=20946

 

If you were granted permission by the creator to reproduce the image, then include a statement indicating so. See example 6.



Example 6
Photo of a 3d sculpture of a white copyright symbol


Japester68 (2008), Copyright by David Brown [Photograph]. Retrieved 15 January, 2009, from Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/23682063@N08/3052168711/in/set-72157609787280783/
Reproduced with permission from the creator.

 

For an image without copyright restrictions, use the word ‘courtesy’ in the credit. See example 7.



Example 7
Original map showing New Holland South Land

Hollandia Nova Terre Australe [New Holland South Land], 1663.
engraving
F910.8/T
Map courtesy of State Library of New South Wales.
Retrieved 15 January, 2009, from State Library of New South Wales
http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/events/exhibitions/2006/firstsight/images/s11.html

 

Further info


APA website
http://www.apastyle.org
http://www.apastyle.org/elecmedia.html

The Library has developed comprehensive guides for the citation styles most commonly used within the University. To view these guides, please visit the "Referencing and Citation Styles" guides section of the website.

Gelfand H. (2002). Mastering APA style: student's workbook and training guide. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
http://opac.library.usyd.edu.au/record=b3266138

is one of several books in the library on referencing styles.