Dr Paul Ginns

Senior Lecturer in Educational Psychology
Research Progress Manager - Division of Doctoral Studies

A35 - Education Building
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 93512611
Fax +61 2 93515027

Website Contact details

Biographical details

Paul is an active educational researcher, and has worked independently and in collaboration with both Australian and international colleagues on a wide variety of educational research projects.

Paul uses numerous research methodologies (for example, experimental and survey-based research) and analytic methods, including general linear models, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, structural modelling and meta-analysis. His research has two broad foci:

  • How the university student experience might be improved through institutionally-aligned, student-focused teaching evaluation systems.
  • Applying the principles of cognitive science to instructional design.

In his research into the university experience, Paul has sought to understand the systemic relations between university students’ approaches to and engagement in learning; the quality of the learning environment; and student learning outcomes, with the ultimate goal of improving all parts of this teaching and learning system. His success in this field led him to be commissioned to write for the national project, “Rewarding and recognising quality teaching and learning in higher education”, funded by the Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (now the Australian Learning and Teaching Council).

The second focus of Paul’s draws on theories of the human cognitive architecture – consisting of a limited working memory that can be circumvented for learning and problem-solving by the long-term memory store – to maximise the effectiveness and efficiency of learning by managing the cognitive load. In this field, Paul has published both original research and meta-analytic reviews of specific instructional design effects.

Research interests

Learning sciences; psychology of education
  • Assessment and evaluation
  • Learning technologies and new media
  • Learning, cognition and motivation

Current research students

Project title Degree Research student
Academic honesty. PhD Bradford BARNHARDT
The long-term effects of computerised adaptive working memory training and its effect on academic achievement and executive function. MPhil David HEGARTY
Embodying Cognitive Load Theory: Does Gesturing Enhance Learning Through Mathematics Worked Examples? PhD Fang-tzu HU
Cognitive Load Theory Perspective: Will Gesturing Enhance Learning? MPhil Michael TANG

Selected grants

2009

  • Exploring the Effects of Boarding School on Academic and Non-academic Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of Boarding and Day Students; Martin A, Hawkes T, Ginns P, Hawkes T; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Projects (LP).

Selected publications

Download citations: PDF RTF Endnote

Books

  • KEMBER, D., Ginns, P. (2012). Evaluating Teaching and Learning: A practical handbook for colleges, universities and the scholarship of teaching. New York: Routledge imprint of Taylor & Francis.

Book Chapters

  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Papworth, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, M. (2013). Aboriginal/Indigenous Students in High School: Understanding their Motivation, Engagement, Academic Buoyancy, and Achievement. In Gregory Arief D. Liem, Allan B. I. Bernardo (Eds.), Advancing Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Educational Psychology: A Festschrift for Dennis M. McInerney, (pp. 273-294). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Papworth, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, M. (2013). The Role of Academic Buoyancy in Aboriginal/Indigenous Students' Educational Intentions: Sowing the Early Seeds of Success for Post-school Education and Training. In Rhonda G. Craven, Janet Mooney (Eds.), Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education, (pp. 57-79). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.
  • Ginns, P. (2011). Quantitative Modelling of Experimental Data in Educational Research: Current Practice and Future Possibilities. In Markauskaite L, Freebody P, Irwin J (Eds.), Methodological Choice and Design: Scholarship, Policy and Practice in Social and Educational Research, (pp. 225-232). New York: Springer.
  • Ginns, P., Liem, A., Martin, A. (2011). The role of personality in learning processes and learning outcomes in applied settings. In S. Boag & N. Tiliopoulos (Eds.), Personality and Individual Differences: Theory, Assessment and Application, (pp. 93-102). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Journals

  • Barnhardt, B., Ginns, P. (2014). An alienation-based framework for student experience in higher education: new interpretations of past observations in student learning theory. Higher Education: the international journal of higher education and educational planning, Online first. [More Information]
  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Brackett, M., Malmberg, L., Hall, J. (2013). Academic buoyancy and psychological risk: Exploring reciprocal relationships. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 128-133. [More Information]
  • Martin, A., Wilson, R., Liem, G., Ginns, P. (2013). Academic momentum at university/college: exploring the roles of prior learning, life experience, and ongoing performance in academic achievement across time. Journal of Higher Education, 84(5), 640-674. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Martin, A., Marsh, H. (2013). Designing Instructional Text in a Conversational Style: A Meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 25(4), 445-472. [More Information]
  • Zeng, L., Webster, B., Ginns, P. (2013). Measuring the research experience of research postgraduate students in Hong Kong. Higher Education Research and Development, 32(4), 672-686. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Martin, A., Papworth, B. (2013). Student Learning Theory goes (back) to (high) school. Instructional Science, Online first. [More Information]
  • Barkl, S., Porter, A., Ginns, P. (2012). Cognitive training for children: effects on inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning,and mathematics achievement in an Australian school setting. Psychology in the Schools, 49(9), 828-842. [More Information]
  • Liem, A., Ginns, P., Martin, A., Stone, B., Herrett, M. (2012). Personal best goals and academic and social functioning: A longitudinal perspective. Learning and Instruction, 22(3), 222-230. [More Information]
  • Fryer, L., Ginns, P., Walker, R., Nakao, K. (2012). The adaptation and validation of the CEQ and the R-SPQ-2F to the Japanese tertiary environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 549-563. [More Information]
  • Marsh, H., Ginns, P., Morin, A., Nagengast, B., Martin, A. (2011). Use of Student Ratings to Benchmark Universities: Multilevel Modeling of Responses to the Australian Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 733-748. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P. (2010). A mind is a terrible thing to waste: Enhancing student learning through a focus on cognitive architecture. Synergy, (30), 28-32.
  • Martin, A., Marsh, H., Cheng, J., Ginns, P. (2010). Fathers and male teachers: Effects on boys' academic and non-academic development. Childhood Education, 86, 404-408.
  • Dolmans, D., Wolfhagen, I., Ginns, P. (2010). Measuring approaches to learning in a problem based learning context. International Journal of Medical Education, 1, 55-60. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Fraser, J. (2010). Personalization enhances learning anatomy terms. Medical Teacher, 32(9), 776-778. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Kitay, J., Prosser, M. (2010). Transfer of academic staff learning in a research-intensive university. Teaching in Higher Education, 15(3), 235-246.
  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2009). Developing and testing a student-focussed teaching evaluation survey for university instructors. Psychological Reports, 104(3), 1019-1032.
  • Ellis, R., Ginns, P., Piggott, L. (2009). E-learning in higher education: some key aspects and their relationship to approaches to study. Higher Education Research and Development, 28(3), 303-318.
  • Ginns, P., Ellis, R. (2009). Evaluating the quality of e-learning at the degree level in the student experience of blended learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(4), 652-663. [More Information]
  • Hendry, G., Ginns, P. (2009). Readiness for self-directed learning: validation of a new scale with medical students. Medical Teacher, 31(10), 918-920. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Marsh, H., Behnia, M., Cheng, J., Scalas, L. (2009). Using postgraduate students' evaluations of research experience to benchmark departments and faculties: Issues and challenges. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 577-598.
  • Ginns, P., Kitay, J., Prosser, M. (2008). Developing conceptions of teaching and the scholarship of teaching through a Graduate Certificate in Higher Education. International Journal for Academic Development, 13(3), 175-185. [More Information]
  • Leung, D., Ginns, P., KEMBER, D. (2008). Examining the cultural specificity of approaches to learning in universities in Hong Kong and Sydney. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(3), 251-266. [More Information]
  • Brew, A., Ginns, P. (2008). The relationship between engagement in the scholarship of teaching and learning and students' course experiences. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 535-545. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Ellis, R. (2007). Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between On-line and Face-to-face Teaching and Learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(1), 53-64. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Prosser, M., Barrie, S. (2007). Students' perceptions of teaching quality in higher education: The perspective of currently enrolled students. Studies in Higher Education, 32(5), 603-615.
  • Barrie, S., Ginns, P. (2007). The linking of institutional performance indicators to improvements in teaching and learning in classrooms. Quality in Higher Education, 13(3), 275-286.
  • Freeman, M., Blayney, P., Ginns, P. (2006). Anonymity and in-class learning: The case for electronic response systems. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (Online), 22(4), 568-580.
  • Ginns, P. (2006). Integrating information: A meta-analysis of the spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity effects. Learning and Instruction, 16(6), 511-525.
  • Dolmans, D., Ginns, P. (2005). A short questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of tutors in PBL: validity and reliability. Medical Teacher, 27(6), 534-538.
  • Barrie, S., Ginns, P., Prosser, M. (2005). Early impact and outcomes of an institutionally aligned, student focused learning perspective on teaching quality assurance. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(6), 641-656. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P. (2005). Imagining instructions: Mental practice in highly cognitive domains. Australian Journal of Education, 49(2), 128-140.
  • Ginns, P. (2005). Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction, 15(4), 313-331.
  • Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., Ginns, P. (2005). Phenomenographic pedagogy and a revised Approaches to Teaching Inventory. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(4), 349-360.
  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2004). Reliability Of Single-Item Ratings Of Quality In Higher Education: A Replication. Psychological Reports, 95(3), 1023-1030.

Conferences

  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P. (2012). Students' goals and their longitudinal effect on learner beliefs and motivations to learn (Symposium). 13th International Conference on Motivation 2012: Motivation in all Spheres of Life.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Nakao, K. (2012). The longitudinal effect of future-oriented goals on task motivation (Symposium). 1st International Conference on Time Perspective: Converging Paths in Psychology Time Theory and Research. University of Coimbra Press.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2011). The effect of students’ reasons to study and not study on their approaches to learning and achievement: A SEM panel study in Japanese Higher Education. Symposium (Chair: Erica Sainsbury): Motivational perspectives on study behaviours and learning outcomes. 14th European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) conference 2011.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2011). Why I do and don’t study: The longitudinal effect of amotivation and instrumental goals on regulatory strategies. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference 2011 - Incitingthe Social Imagination: Education Research for the PublicGood, Not published: Not Published.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2010). Self-regulation: Goals are important but what about those reasons not to study. 12th International Conference on Motivation.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2010). Students self-reported patterns of learning approaches: Assessing other associated motivations. European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Higher Education SIG Conference, 2010.
  • Punmongkol, P., Walker, R., Ginns, P. (2010). The regulation of academic emotions. 12th International Conference on Motivation.
  • Govendir, M., Ginns, P., Symons, R., Tammen, I. (2009). Improving the research higher degree experience at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Annual Conference 2009, Sydney, NSW: HERDSA Inc.
  • Ginns, P., Hollender, N., Reimann, P. (2006). Meta-analysis of the Minimalist Training Model. American Educational Research Association 2006 Annual Meeting, Washington DC USA: AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION.
  • Ginns, P., Behnia, M. (2006). Quality assurance of research degrees: the Student Research Experience Questionnaire. American Educational Research Association 2006 Annual Meeting, Washington DC USA: AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION.
  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2006). Response Modality Effects on CEQ and SCEQ responses. AUQF 2006, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Universities Quality Agency.
  • Ginns, P. (2004). Quality Assurance And Improvement Of The Research Higher Degree Experience At The University Of Sydney. The Third Australian Universities Quality Forum (AUQF): Quality in a Time of Change, Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Universities Quality Agency.

Reference Works

  • Ginns, P. (2012). Imagination effect. In Norbert M. Seel (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. (pp. 1484-1487). New York: Springer.

2014

  • Barnhardt, B., Ginns, P. (2014). An alienation-based framework for student experience in higher education: new interpretations of past observations in student learning theory. Higher Education: the international journal of higher education and educational planning, Online first. [More Information]

2013

  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Papworth, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, M. (2013). Aboriginal/Indigenous Students in High School: Understanding their Motivation, Engagement, Academic Buoyancy, and Achievement. In Gregory Arief D. Liem, Allan B. I. Bernardo (Eds.), Advancing Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Educational Psychology: A Festschrift for Dennis M. McInerney, (pp. 273-294). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Brackett, M., Malmberg, L., Hall, J. (2013). Academic buoyancy and psychological risk: Exploring reciprocal relationships. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 128-133. [More Information]
  • Martin, A., Wilson, R., Liem, G., Ginns, P. (2013). Academic momentum at university/college: exploring the roles of prior learning, life experience, and ongoing performance in academic achievement across time. Journal of Higher Education, 84(5), 640-674. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Martin, A., Marsh, H. (2013). Designing Instructional Text in a Conversational Style: A Meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 25(4), 445-472. [More Information]
  • Zeng, L., Webster, B., Ginns, P. (2013). Measuring the research experience of research postgraduate students in Hong Kong. Higher Education Research and Development, 32(4), 672-686. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Martin, A., Papworth, B. (2013). Student Learning Theory goes (back) to (high) school. Instructional Science, Online first. [More Information]
  • Martin, A., Ginns, P., Papworth, B., Ghasemi-Nejad, M. (2013). The Role of Academic Buoyancy in Aboriginal/Indigenous Students' Educational Intentions: Sowing the Early Seeds of Success for Post-school Education and Training. In Rhonda G. Craven, Janet Mooney (Eds.), Seeding Success in Indigenous Australian Higher Education, (pp. 57-79). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.

2012

  • Barkl, S., Porter, A., Ginns, P. (2012). Cognitive training for children: effects on inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning,and mathematics achievement in an Australian school setting. Psychology in the Schools, 49(9), 828-842. [More Information]
  • KEMBER, D., Ginns, P. (2012). Evaluating Teaching and Learning: A practical handbook for colleges, universities and the scholarship of teaching. New York: Routledge imprint of Taylor & Francis.
  • Ginns, P. (2012). Imagination effect. In Norbert M. Seel (Eds.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. (pp. 1484-1487). New York: Springer.
  • Liem, A., Ginns, P., Martin, A., Stone, B., Herrett, M. (2012). Personal best goals and academic and social functioning: A longitudinal perspective. Learning and Instruction, 22(3), 222-230. [More Information]
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P. (2012). Students' goals and their longitudinal effect on learner beliefs and motivations to learn (Symposium). 13th International Conference on Motivation 2012: Motivation in all Spheres of Life.
  • Fryer, L., Ginns, P., Walker, R., Nakao, K. (2012). The adaptation and validation of the CEQ and the R-SPQ-2F to the Japanese tertiary environment. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 549-563. [More Information]
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Nakao, K. (2012). The longitudinal effect of future-oriented goals on task motivation (Symposium). 1st International Conference on Time Perspective: Converging Paths in Psychology Time Theory and Research. University of Coimbra Press.

2011

  • Ginns, P. (2011). Quantitative Modelling of Experimental Data in Educational Research: Current Practice and Future Possibilities. In Markauskaite L, Freebody P, Irwin J (Eds.), Methodological Choice and Design: Scholarship, Policy and Practice in Social and Educational Research, (pp. 225-232). New York: Springer.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2011). The effect of students’ reasons to study and not study on their approaches to learning and achievement: A SEM panel study in Japanese Higher Education. Symposium (Chair: Erica Sainsbury): Motivational perspectives on study behaviours and learning outcomes. 14th European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) conference 2011.
  • Ginns, P., Liem, A., Martin, A. (2011). The role of personality in learning processes and learning outcomes in applied settings. In S. Boag & N. Tiliopoulos (Eds.), Personality and Individual Differences: Theory, Assessment and Application, (pp. 93-102). New York: Nova Science Publishers.
  • Marsh, H., Ginns, P., Morin, A., Nagengast, B., Martin, A. (2011). Use of Student Ratings to Benchmark Universities: Multilevel Modeling of Responses to the Australian Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 733-748. [More Information]
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2011). Why I do and don’t study: The longitudinal effect of amotivation and instrumental goals on regulatory strategies. American Educational Research Association Annual Conference 2011 - Incitingthe Social Imagination: Education Research for the PublicGood, Not published: Not Published.

2010

  • Ginns, P. (2010). A mind is a terrible thing to waste: Enhancing student learning through a focus on cognitive architecture. Synergy, (30), 28-32.
  • Martin, A., Marsh, H., Cheng, J., Ginns, P. (2010). Fathers and male teachers: Effects on boys' academic and non-academic development. Childhood Education, 86, 404-408.
  • Dolmans, D., Wolfhagen, I., Ginns, P. (2010). Measuring approaches to learning in a problem based learning context. International Journal of Medical Education, 1, 55-60. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Fraser, J. (2010). Personalization enhances learning anatomy terms. Medical Teacher, 32(9), 776-778. [More Information]
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2010). Self-regulation: Goals are important but what about those reasons not to study. 12th International Conference on Motivation.
  • Fryer, L., Walker, R., Ginns, P., Debus, R. (2010). Students self-reported patterns of learning approaches: Assessing other associated motivations. European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Higher Education SIG Conference, 2010.
  • Punmongkol, P., Walker, R., Ginns, P. (2010). The regulation of academic emotions. 12th International Conference on Motivation.
  • Ginns, P., Kitay, J., Prosser, M. (2010). Transfer of academic staff learning in a research-intensive university. Teaching in Higher Education, 15(3), 235-246.

2009

  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2009). Developing and testing a student-focussed teaching evaluation survey for university instructors. Psychological Reports, 104(3), 1019-1032.
  • Ellis, R., Ginns, P., Piggott, L. (2009). E-learning in higher education: some key aspects and their relationship to approaches to study. Higher Education Research and Development, 28(3), 303-318.
  • Ginns, P., Ellis, R. (2009). Evaluating the quality of e-learning at the degree level in the student experience of blended learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(4), 652-663. [More Information]
  • Govendir, M., Ginns, P., Symons, R., Tammen, I. (2009). Improving the research higher degree experience at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Annual Conference 2009, Sydney, NSW: HERDSA Inc.
  • Hendry, G., Ginns, P. (2009). Readiness for self-directed learning: validation of a new scale with medical students. Medical Teacher, 31(10), 918-920. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Marsh, H., Behnia, M., Cheng, J., Scalas, L. (2009). Using postgraduate students' evaluations of research experience to benchmark departments and faculties: Issues and challenges. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 577-598.

2008

  • Ginns, P., Kitay, J., Prosser, M. (2008). Developing conceptions of teaching and the scholarship of teaching through a Graduate Certificate in Higher Education. International Journal for Academic Development, 13(3), 175-185. [More Information]
  • Leung, D., Ginns, P., KEMBER, D. (2008). Examining the cultural specificity of approaches to learning in universities in Hong Kong and Sydney. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(3), 251-266. [More Information]
  • Brew, A., Ginns, P. (2008). The relationship between engagement in the scholarship of teaching and learning and students' course experiences. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 535-545. [More Information]

2007

  • Ginns, P., Ellis, R. (2007). Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between On-line and Face-to-face Teaching and Learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(1), 53-64. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P., Prosser, M., Barrie, S. (2007). Students' perceptions of teaching quality in higher education: The perspective of currently enrolled students. Studies in Higher Education, 32(5), 603-615.
  • Barrie, S., Ginns, P. (2007). The linking of institutional performance indicators to improvements in teaching and learning in classrooms. Quality in Higher Education, 13(3), 275-286.

2006

  • Freeman, M., Blayney, P., Ginns, P. (2006). Anonymity and in-class learning: The case for electronic response systems. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (Online), 22(4), 568-580.
  • Ginns, P. (2006). Integrating information: A meta-analysis of the spatial contiguity and temporal contiguity effects. Learning and Instruction, 16(6), 511-525.
  • Ginns, P., Hollender, N., Reimann, P. (2006). Meta-analysis of the Minimalist Training Model. American Educational Research Association 2006 Annual Meeting, Washington DC USA: AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION.
  • Ginns, P., Behnia, M. (2006). Quality assurance of research degrees: the Student Research Experience Questionnaire. American Educational Research Association 2006 Annual Meeting, Washington DC USA: AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION.
  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2006). Response Modality Effects on CEQ and SCEQ responses. AUQF 2006, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Universities Quality Agency.

2005

  • Dolmans, D., Ginns, P. (2005). A short questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of tutors in PBL: validity and reliability. Medical Teacher, 27(6), 534-538.
  • Barrie, S., Ginns, P., Prosser, M. (2005). Early impact and outcomes of an institutionally aligned, student focused learning perspective on teaching quality assurance. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 30(6), 641-656. [More Information]
  • Ginns, P. (2005). Imagining instructions: Mental practice in highly cognitive domains. Australian Journal of Education, 49(2), 128-140.
  • Ginns, P. (2005). Meta-analysis of the modality effect. Learning and Instruction, 15(4), 313-331.
  • Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., Ginns, P. (2005). Phenomenographic pedagogy and a revised Approaches to Teaching Inventory. Higher Education Research and Development, 24(4), 349-360.

2004

  • Ginns, P. (2004). Quality Assurance And Improvement Of The Research Higher Degree Experience At The University Of Sydney. The Third Australian Universities Quality Forum (AUQF): Quality in a Time of Change, Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Universities Quality Agency.
  • Ginns, P., Barrie, S. (2004). Reliability Of Single-Item Ratings Of Quality In Higher Education: A Replication. Psychological Reports, 95(3), 1023-1030.

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