The Internet and social networking

The Internet is a rich resource for teaching and learning. Web 2.0 refers to a more recent 2nd generation collection of web-based tools, usually involving social networking (sites like facebook) and amateur publishing (like blogs and youTube). Below are resources which provide more detailed information and examples for education.

"Web 2.0" refers to what is perceived as a second generation of web development and web design. It is characterized as facilitating communication, information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration on the World Wide Web. It has led to the development and evolution of web-based communities, hosted services, and web applications. Examples include social-networking sites, video-sharing sites, wikis, blogs, mashups and folksonomies. The concept of "Web 2.0" began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International in 2004. In the initial brainstorming, they formulated their sense of Web 2.0 by examples: personal website is Web 1.0, while blog is Web 2.0; content management system is Web 1.0, while wiki is Web 2.0; publishing is Web 1.0, while participation is Web 2.0; etc (O'Reilly, 2005-a). Later, O'Reilly (2005-b) further defined Web 2.0 as the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences. One year after that, O'Reilly updated the definition: Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform. Chief among those rules is this: Build applications that harness network effects to get better the more people use them. (O'Reilly, 2006).


  • References
  • O'Reilly, T. (2005). What Is Web 2.0. Retrieved 29 June, 2009, from
  • O'Reilly, T. (2005). Web 2.0: Compact Definition? Retrieved 29 June, 2009, from
  • O'Reilly, T. (2006). Web 2.0 Compact Definition: Trying Again Retrieved 29 June, 2009, from

Online and blended learning

  • Short guide for online classes
    A protocol in the form of notes for teaching and learning on the internet. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Moodle is a Learning Management System. It is a software package for producing Internet-based courses and web sites. It is a global development project designed to support a social constructionist framework of education. Moodle is provided freely as Open Source software (under the GNU Public License). Basically this means Moodle is copyrighted, but that you have additional freedoms. You are allowed to copy, use and modify Moodle provided that you agree to: provide the source to others; not modify or remove the original license and copyrights, and apply this same license to any derivative work. The word Moodle was originally an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, which is mostly useful to programmers and education theorists. It's also a verb that describes the process of lazily meandering through something, doing things as it occurs to you to do them, an enjoyable tinkering that often leads to insight and creativity. As such it applies both to the way Moodle was developed, and to the way a student or teacher might approach studying or teaching an online course.
  • Study on the Moodling experience within a secondary school
    Ayse Kok conducted a study on the Moodling experience within a secondary school. The study reveals that secondary school teachers are willing to participate in a virtual learning environment in addition to the traditional methods of teaching despite the lack of infrastructure and the inadequate ICT literacy skills of the teachers. Based on a focus discussion group with the foreign language teachers, Ayse depicts the critical points that need to be taken into consideration so that an effective collaborative online platform for both teachers and students to learn together can exist. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Blackboard
    Blackboard is a commercial Learning Management System, and is used by the University of Sydney to deliver online classes. The Blackboard Learning System is a Web-based server software platform. Features include course management, a customizable open architecture, and a scalable design that allows for integration with student information systems and authentication protocols. It may be installed on local servers or hosted by Blackboard ASP Solutions. Its main purposes are to add online elements to courses traditionally delivered face-to-face and to develop completely online courses with few or no face-to-face meetings. Example of school blackboard sites: Strathcona Girls School (pdf). (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)

Social Networking

  • Social Networking Services are building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. Most social network services are web based and provide a variety of ways for users to interact, such as e-mail and instant messaging services. The main types of social networking services are those which contain category divisions (such as former school-year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages) and a recommendation system linked to trust. Popular methods now combine many of these. Famous social networking sites include Facebook, MySpace, Twitter and LinkedIn. Watch a video on Social Networking Services. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Social Bookmarking is a Web-based service that displays shared lists of user-created Internet bookmarks. Instead of keeping long lists of "favorites" in their own browsers, people use these Web sites to organise, rank, and display their resources for others to see and use. They classify the content using tags based on folksonomies of community-acceptable keyword classifications. Examples of social bookmarking include and Diigo. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • TES
    A UK social networking site that allows teachers to network and share teaching and lesson planning resources. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Software for collaborative writing - Google Docs (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)

Blogs, photos, wikis - publishing tools

  • Blogs - All the details on blogs including explanations, providers, examples and resources for education.
  • Wikis - All the details on blogs including explanations, providers, examples and resources for education.
  • Online Photo Sharing - Flickr is perhaps the best known of the free online photo management and sharing applications. Rather than sending photos from desktops and cell phones to friends and family using e-mail, people can post them at Flickr and invite people to view them in online albums or slideshows. They can add notes and tags to each photo, and their viewers can leave comments, notes, and tags as well. Tags are searchable so it's easier to find related photos later. Other examples of Online Photo Sharing sites include Webshots and Photobucket. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)

Online chat and conferencing

Online chatting and conferencing are approaches for synchronous communication amongst teachers and students. Some learning management systems have built-in text-based and/or video-based chatting and conferencing facilities. Instant messaging software also enable teachers to organise online chatting and conferencing sessions.

Go to the Online chatting and Conferencing page for details including tools and examples.

Online games

Email and mailing lists

  • In Web-based learning context, messages from teachers to students can be in one-to-one mode or in one-to-all mode. A typical example of one-to-one online communication is E-Mail. This kind of communication can also occur in course management systems where there is built-in private messaging facilities. One-to-all mode is mainly represented by the instructor who sends information to all participants of a course. This can be simply sending e-mail to a list of recipients or using a mailing list to send out news letters. Examples of mailing list systems include Sympa, Mailman, etc. In addition, you can also send emails to a list or free via Google Groups and Yahoo Groups.
  • Auburn Primary School publishes Oracle every week on Wednesday, which is their weekly newsletter. In addition to the What’s On, which keeps parents up to date with the busy school calendar, parents can also read student work, find out who are the Students of the Week and check out the class that will be presenting at the Friday assembly (3.00 pm in Term 1, 9.00 am for the remainder of the year). The school provides parents with a mailing list facility for them to easily receive and read the newsletter. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Kogarah High School also publishes newsletters keeping parents up-to-date and parents can subscribe to the mailing list to receive the messages. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)


  • Podcast is a way to distribute multimedia files such as music or speech over the Internet for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. The term podcast, a word created by combining Apple's iPod and broadcast, can mean both the content and the method of delivery. Podcasters' Web sites may offer direct download or streaming audio, and a podcast is distinguished by its ability to be downloaded automatically using software capable of reading RSS feeds.
    'Podcast' generally refers to audio. 'Video Podcast' (or 'Vodcast') refers to the distribution of video files in the same manner.
  • ABC Radio:
    Podcasting: Latest podcasts from ABC radio. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • iTunes directory:
    Want to listen to your favourite radio shows and audio programs anytime? Just subscribe to the podcasts you want and iTunes takes care of the rest. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Digital Podcast
    Children's Music: Music podcasts for kids. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Podcast Directory For Educators
    UK directory listing podcasts for educational use. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • The Kedou Kids Pod
    Hear my story, see as I grow and change, play with the magic stickers that I've created specially for you, and watch out for more of my adventures. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Podcasting
    Schools are increasingly using the internet to promote what they do, and to celebrate the achievements of their children, and podcasting is an excellent way of doing this. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)

E-learning Authoring Software

E-Learning content authoring software/tools help teachers and/or e-learning designers organise their instructional materials (e.g., text, pictures, voice, etc.) and create and deliver compelling interactive self-paced courses. The outcomes of using this kind of tools are usually flash files that can be published online. Students are usually asked to go to a web link and watch the presentation in which there are interactive simulations (e.g., small games, quizzes, etc.).

  • Articulate Presenter
    Makes it easy for anyone to add interactivity and narration to PowerPoint slides. Just click a button to turn your presentation into a compelling Flash course. Articulate Presenter enables you to quickly distribute highly interactive, persuasive materials, help subject-matter-experts share their expertise directly and spread your message everywhere in a format everyone can view. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)
  • Adobe eLearning Suite software
    Integrates best-of-breed tools for rapid eLearning, courseware authoring, simulations, and media editing. Create rich, interactive learning experiences that engage audiences with video, audio, and powerful visuals. Work productively with rapid authoring tools that deliver smart collaboration features as well as tight integration with asset-creation tools. And deliver content to the web, the desktop, mobile devices, and Learning Management Systems. (retrieved 25 Jan, 2011)