Learning sciences; psychology of education
Research in this area helps to explain how and why learning happens and how to provide better support for learning across the lifespan. It also addresses a range of other factors that have implications for education, including achievement, motivation and engagement - and seeks to understand these phenomena across a range of socio-cultural contexts and perspectives. The multi-disciplinary field of 'the learning sciences' has emerged over the last 20 years with the goal of advancing understanding of learning, broadly construed. The theories and methodologies of the learning sciences reflect the fact that the many influences on learning operate at different levels: from neurons to individuals to neighbourhoods to countries. Theoretically robust yet practically applicable accounts of learning need to integrate these levels, and explain the relations between implicit, informal, and formal learning processes, contexts, and systems. Work in this area also seeks to align lab-based research, field research, and the sustainable implementation of educational innovations.