International Ophthalmology

 

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Unit of study descriptions

OPSC5001 Ophthalmic Anatomy

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Yves Kerdraon and Dr Simon Taylor Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of basic human anatomy Assessment: Academic Honesty and Academic Writing Tasks (15%), 1 x 2500 word assignment (20%), online presentation (20%), online journal club (pass/fail) and 1 x 3 hour exam (45%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Successful candidates will demonstrate to the examiners that they have knowledge of anatomy relevant to the practise of ophthalmology. In particular, students must demonstrate detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the eye, the orbit & periorbital structures, and the visual pathways. In particular, students must demonstrate detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the eye, the orbit & periorbital structures, and the visual pathways. On completion of this unit of study the successful student will be able to (1) describe the normal anatomical organisation and development of the human eye, orbit and periorbital structures in terms of cells, tissues, organs and systems, (2) describe the principal components of the human visual system and their structure and function and (3) describe how diagnostic imaging may be used in ophthalmic practise.
Textbooks
Prescribed texts: Clinical Anatomy of the Eye Snell RS and Lemp MA; Wolff's Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit (8th ed). AJ Bron et al (eds) HK Lewis, London 1997. Additional texts: Histology of the Human Eye M Hogan J Alvarado, J Wedell WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971; Gray's Anatomy (38th Ed) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1989; The Eye Basic Sciences in Practice (Chapters 1 and 2) J Forrester et al Saunders Company Ltd London 1996; The Human Nervous System, An Anatomical Viewpoint (5th Ed) ML Barr and JA Kiernan Harper and Row, Philadelphia 1988; Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual System, 3rd Edition, By Lee Ann Remington; 2013-2014 Basic and Clinical Science Course; Section 2: Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology (2013; older editions also quite acceptable). Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
OPSC5003 Ophthalmic Optics

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Con Petsoglou and A/Prof Gordon Sanderson Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of physics relating to light and optics Assessment: 2 x 2500 word assignments (30%), online presentation (15%), wiki on an allocated topic (10%) and 1 x 3hr exam (45%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Successful candidates will demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of optics relevant to the practise of ophthalmology. Particular emphasis will be placed on the topics of physical, geometrical, physiological and instrument optics. On completion of this unit of study the successful student will be able to (1) describe the physical properties of light and lasers, (2) describe the geometrical principles of light and the laws governing lights interaction with materials and (3) describe the physiological optics of the human eye and how to test this.
Textbooks
Prescribed texts: Clinical Optics AR Elkington and HJ Frank, Blackwell Science, 3rd Ed, 2000; Optics, Refraction and Contact Lenses, Basic and Clinical Science Course, American Academy Ophthalmology, 2013. Additional texts: Optics MH Freeman, Butterworths-Heinemann Medical; 10th Ed, 1990; Optics for Clinicians M Rubin, Triad Publishing, 3rd Ed, 1993; Physics for Ophthalmologists DJ Coster 1st Ed 1994; The Fine Art of Prescribing Glasses Without Making a Spectacle of Yourself Hardcover - April 30, 2004, by Benjamin Milder (Author), Melvin L. Rubin (Author).
OPSC5013 Ophthalmology in Developing Countries 1

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Professor Geoffrey Painter and Dr Nitin Verma Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: 1x3hr online seminar/wk (13 weeks) Assessment: 7x PBL assignments (100%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners from countries without an established vocational ophthalmology training programs and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study and the subsequent associated UoS OPSC5014 Ophthalmology in Developing Countries 2 aim to provide candidates with the foundations of the practise of clinical ophthalmology with an emphasis on the specific diseases and pathology of their native country. On completion of this and the associated Unit of Study, the successful student will be able to understand the basis of the practise of clinical ophthalmology: basic pharmacology, public health measures, nutrition and its impact on ocular health, general microbiology, principles of genetics and medical statistics and epidemiology. They will also be expected to incorporate knowledge gained from the other online units of study into this unit of study and gain knowledge on the aetiology, pathology associated features, prognosis and management of diseases of the cornea and conjunctiv, eyelids and orbit, lacrimal system and iris and ciliary body. They will be required to identify differences in the presentation, aetiology, course, treatment and prognosis of ocular diseases in adults compared to children, to identify and study areas of ophthalmic significance in developing countries especially the candidates own and to utilise online ophthalmic and medical resources to gain knowledge and assist in the management of ocular and general medical disease.
Textbooks
Clinical Ophthalmology: a systematic approach (7th ed), Jack J. Kanski, Brad Bowling; Edinburgh; New York : Elsevier/Saunders, 2011
OPSC5014 Ophthalmology in Developing Countries 2

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Con Petsoglou and Dr Nitin Verma Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: 1x3hr online seminar/wk (13 weeks) Prerequisites: OPSC5013 Assessment: 7x PBL assignments (100%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners from countries without an established vocational ophthalmology training programs and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study and the previous associated UoS OPSC5013 Ophthalmology in Developing Countries 1 aim to provide candidates with the foundations of the practice of clinical ophthalmology with an emphasis on the specific diseases and pathology of their native country. On completion of this and the associated Unit of Study, the successful student will be able to apply the scientific basis of the practise of clinical ophthalmology to the following areas of specific ocular systems: basic pharmacology, public health measures, nutrition and its impact on ocular health, general microbiology, principles of genetics and medical statistics and epidemiology. They will also be required to incorporate knowledge gained from the other online units of study into this unit of study and gain knowledge on the aetiology, pathology associated features, prognosis and management of diseases of the lens and ciliary body, retina, optic and cranial nerves, the central nervous system. extraocular muscles and head and neck diseases. They will be required to identify differences in the presentation, aetiology, course, treatment and prognosis of ocular diseases in adults compared to children, identify and study areas of ophthalmic significance in developing countries especially the candidates own and utilise online ophthalmic and medical resources to gain knowledge and assist in the management of ocular and general medical disease.
Textbooks
Clinical Ophthalmology: a systematic approach (7th ed), Jack J. Kanski, Brad Bowling; Edinburgh; New York: Elsevier/Saunders, 2011
OPSC5015 Clinical Ophthalmology 1

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Professor Geoffrey Painter and Dr Nitin Verma Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online lectures, seminars and supervision Prerequisites: OPSC5013 and OPSC5014 Assessment: Online attendance, submitted fortnightly case histories (100%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners from countries without an established vocational ophthalmology training programs and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study and the subsequent associated UoS OPSC5016 Clinical Ophthalmology 2 aim to provide candidates with the practical experience and knowledge necessary to manage ophthalmic conditions. They are mentor based programmes with candidates applying knowledge to eye clinic patients. Candidates are required to attend ophthalmology clinics on a full time basis. These clinics are under the supervision of local or international ophthalmologists. The student will be continuously assessed as to their competence in their management of ophthalmic conditions in both adults and children. The clinical load will be reflected in the spectrum of submitted case histories by the candidate. Candidates will be required to show that they can competently manage ophthalmic conditions. By management, the candidate is required to undertake the following tasks: take an appropriate medical/ophthalmic history; perform an ophthalmic examination, an appropriate general medical examination and an appropriate preoperative assessment. They will also identify the most likely diagnosis, and list an appropriate differential diagnosis. They will be required to outline and/or perform appropriate ophthalmic and medical investigations, outline a management plan for the condition, including (where appropriate): preventative, public health and nutritional measures; genetic, disease education and counseling; general medical therapies; pharmacological, laser, surgical and optical treatments; consultation by other medical or health professionals; organisation of government andNGO assistance and arrange for appropriate ophthalmic and other medical/paramedical follow up. This is required for common eye conditions in the fields of cornea and external diseases, orbital disease, eyelids, lacrimal diseases, intraocular inflammation and uveitis, traumatic eye injuries, lens and cataract, glaucoma, retinal diseases and diabetic retinopathy, neuron-ophthalmology, paediatric diseases, strabismus and refractive errors. Mentor based teaching, fortnightly submitted case reports, Online attendance and completed case histories This UoS will be offered as a mentor based programme with the candidate, under the supervision of three layers of Mentors. Firstly, a local ophthalmologist in their country of practise. This ophthalmologist will be assessed and deemed appropriate by the course coordinators. Visiting ophthalmologists from Australia and New Zealand will also supervise their training and, finally, a representative from the Local Government health authorities who the candidate will be employed by will also serve as a Mentor to the candidate. Candidates will be required to practise ophthalmology in a variety of settings. These will include hospital based ophthalmology clinics, private based ophthalmology practices, ophthalmology clinics run by visiting Australian and New Zealand Ophthalmologists and outreach clinics to other smaller communities. Candidates will at all times be supervised by one of the Mentors as defined above.
Textbooks
Clinical Ophthalmology: a systematic approach (7th ed), Jack J. Kanski, Brad Bowling; Edinburgh ; New York : Elsevier/Saunders, 2011
OPSC5016 Clinical Ophthalmology 2

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Professor Geoffrey Painter and Dr Nitin Verma Sessions Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: 2hrs online per day x5 days (13 weeks). Study concurrent with full time work Prerequisites: OPSC5015 Assessment: Online attendance, submitted fortnightly case histories, OSCE exam, long case (100%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners from countries without an established vocational ophthalmology training programs and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study aims to provide candidates with the practical experience and knowledge necessary to manage ophthalmic conditions. This is a mentor based programme with candidates applying knowledge to eye clinic patients. Candidates are required to attend ophthalmology clinics on a full time basis. These clinics are under the supervision of local or international ophthalmologists. The student will be continuously assessed as to their competence in their management of ophthalmic conditions in both adults and children. The clinical load will be reflected in the spectrum of submitted case histories by the candidate. Candidates will be required to show that they can competently manage ophthalmic conditions. By management the candidate is required to take an appropriate medical / ophthalmic history, perform an ophthalmic examination, an appropriate general medical examination an appropriate preoperative assessment. They will also identify the most likely diagnosis and list an appropriate differential diagnosis. They will be required to outline and/or perform appropriate ophthalmic and medical investigations and outline a management plan for the condition including (where appropriate): preventative, public health and nutritional measures, genetic, disease education and counseling, general medical therapies, pharmacological, laser, surgical and optical treatments, consultation by other medical or health professionals, organization of government and NGO assistance and arrange for appropriate ophthalmic and other medical/paramedical follow up. This is required for common eye conditions in the fields of cornea and external diseases, orbital disease, eyelids, lacrimal disease, intraocular inflammation and uveitis, traumatic eye injuries, lens and cataract, glaucoma, retinal diseases and diabetic retinopathy, neuro-ophthalmology, paediatric diseases, strabismus and refractive errors. Mentor based teaching, fortnightly submitted case reports, Online attendance and completed case histories. This UoS will be offered as a mentor based programme with the candidate under the supervision of three layers of Mentors. Firstly, a local ophthalmologist in their country of practise. This ophthalmologist will be assessed and deemed appropriate by the course coordinators. Visiting ophthalmologists from Australia and New Zealand will also supervise their training and a Representative from the Local Government health authorities who the candidate will be employed by will also serve as a Mentor to the candidate. Candidates will be required to practise ophthalmology in a variety of settings. These will include hospital based ophthalmology clinics, private based ophthalmology practices, ophthalmology clinics run by visiting Australian and New Zealand ophthalmologists and outreach clinics to other smaller communities. At the end of the unit of study, a supervised clinical exam will be undertaken in Sydney or their country of practise. The exam will be a clinical exam assessing the candidate's competence in clinical ophthalmology. It will take the form of both a written and clinical exam. The clinical exam will include an observed clinical exam, utilizing patients with ophthalmic conditions and a long case exam involving detailed management of common eye conditions. Successful candidates will be able to demonstrate the ability to work independently as an ophthalmologist in their native country.
Textbooks
Clinical Ophthalmology: a systematic approach (7th ed), Jack J. Kanski, Brad Bowling; Edinburgh ; New York : Elsevier/Saunders, 2011
OPSC5017 Surgical Ophthalmology

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Professor Peter McCluskey Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: 2hrs online per day x5 days (13 weeks). Study concurrent with full time work Assessment: Online surgical logbook (40%), Observed cataract operation (60%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners from countries without an established vocational ophthalmology training programs and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study aims to provide candidates with the practical experience and knowledge necessary to manage surgical ophthalmic conditions. This is a mentor based programme with candidates operating in a number of different environments. Emphasis is on preoperative assessment, surgical competence and post operative management. Candidates will be required to operate in a variety of settings. These will include hospital based ophthalmology surgical lists, private based ophthalmology surgical lists, ophthalmology surgical clinic run by visiting Australian and New Zealand ophthalmologists and outreach clinics to other smaller communities. Surgical mentors will provide the appropriate training in specific ophthalmic operations. Candidates will be required to show that they can competently assess and perform ophthalmic surgery and manage post operative complications. By management the candidate is required to take an appropriate medical / ophthalmic history, perform an ophthalmic examination, an appropriate general medical examination and an appropriate preoperative assessment. They will be required to identify the most likely diagnosis and list an appropriate differential diagnosis of the aetiology of the surgical disease, andoutline and/or perform appropriate ophthalmic and medical investigations. They will be required to perform Surgery of the following Ophthalmic Conditions: extra capsular cataract surgery, repair of traumatic eye and eyelid injuries, infective eyelid and orbital lesions, benign and malignant lid procedures, pterygium surgery, acute glaucoma procedures, strabismus procedures and simple lacrimal duct procedures. Mentor based teaching, Online surgical logbook, online surgical case histories. This unit of study will be offered as a mentor based programme with the candidate under the supervision of three layers of Mentors. Firstly, a local ophthalmologist in their country of practise. This ophthalmologist will be assessed and deemed appropriate by the course coordinators. Visiting ophthalmologists from Australia and New Zealand will also supervise their training and a Representative of the Local Government health authorities who the candidate will be employed by will serve as a Mentor to the candidate. At the end of the year a supervised surgical exam will be undertaken in Sydney or their country of practise. The exam will be a supervised extracapsular cataract extraction that the candidate must perform competently to complete the unit of study.
Textbooks
Clinical Ophthalmology: a systematic approach (7th ed), Jack J. Kanski, Brad Bowling; Edinburgh ; New York : Elsevier/Saunders, 2011
OPSC5026 Cornea and Anterior Segment Surgery

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Con Petsoglou Session: Semester 1 Classes: Online Assessment: 3 x 2000 word written assignments (90%), online forum discussion (10%). Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
Successful candidates will demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of the theoretical and practical foundations of the practise of cornea and anterior segment surgery anatomy. On completion of this Unit of Study the successful student will be able to: (1) Describe the normal anatomical organisation of the anterior segment and adnexae of the human eye; (2) Describe the principal pathological conditions affecting these structures; (3) Describe appropriate diagnostic testing for corneal and eyelid diseases; (4) Describe appropriate medical and surgical management used in these conditions.
Textbooks
Coster, Douglas, Cornea: Fundamentals of Clinical Ophthalmology Series (Fundamentals of Clinical Ophthalmology), BMJ Books 2002, ISBN 0-7279-1557-6; Krachmer, J.H., Mannis, M.J., Holland, E.J., Cornea: Fundamentals, Diagnosis and Management, 3rd ed. (2 vols) Elsevier Mosby 2011.
OPSC5027 Glaucoma

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Prof John Grigg Session: Semester 2 Classes: Online Prerequisites: OPSC5026 Corequisites: OPSC5026 Assessment: 3 X 2000 word written assignments (90%), online forum discussion (10%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
This unit of study will provide candidates with the theoretical and practical knowledge of the treatment of glaucoma. The first part of the unit will cover classification and epidemiology, pathology and pathogens, clinical assessment, disease detection and monitoring progression. The second part of the course will include teaching on primary open angle glaucoma, primary and secondary angle closure glaucoma, secondary open angle glaucoma, neovascular glaucoma. paediatric glaucoma, congenital and developmental glaucoma. The final sections will look at medical therapy, laser therapy and surgical therapy.
Textbooks
Stamper, Robert L., Lieberman, Marc F., Drake, Michael V., Becker-Shaffer's Diagnosis and Therapy of the Glaucomas, 8th ed., Mosby; Shaarawy, Tarek M., Sherwood, Mark B., Hitchings, Roger A., Crowston, Jonathan G., Glaucoma, Medical Diagnosis & Therapy, 2009, Saunders Elsevier (2 Vols).
OPSC5028 Practical International Ophthalmology 1

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Professor Peter McCluskey Session: Intensive February,Intensive June Classes: Intensive on campus Prerequisites: OPSC5026 and OPSC5027 Corequisites: OPSC5029 and OPSC5030 Assessment: 1hr observed structured practical exam (100%) Mode of delivery: Block mode
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
This course covers interpretation and assessment of special investigation for glaucoma and anterior segment including microbiology, preparation of specimens, confocal imaging, corneal topography, ocular biometry, perimetry, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).
OPSC5029 Practical International Ophthalmology 2

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Professor Peter McCluskey Session: Intensive February,Intensive June Classes: Intensive on campus Prerequisites: OPSC5026 and OPSC5027 Corequisites: OPSC5028 and OPSC5030 Assessment: 1hr observed structured practical exam (100%) Mode of delivery: Block mode
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
This course covers interpretation and assessment of OCT, fluorescein angiography, including green angiography, autofluorescence, electrophysiology, ocular motility assessment and research methodology.
OPSC5030 Medical Retina

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Professor Peter McCluskey Session: Semester 1 Classes: Online Prerequisites: OPSC5026 and OPSC5027 Assessment: 3x 2000 word written assignments (90%), online forum discussion (10%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
This unit of study will provide candidates with the theoretical and practical foundations for the treatment of retinal disorders and diseases. The first part of the unit will cover clinical assessment and investigation, retinal arterial vascular disease, macroaneurysm, hypertension and diabetic retinopathy. We will then cover age-related macular degeneration, other causes of CNV and the surgical management of retinal and vitreous disorders. The final sections of the unit will look at macular and retinal dystrophies, posterior segment inflammatory and infective eye disease, the management of PEIs and globe trauma and retinal and choroidal tumours.
Textbooks
Ryan, Stephen J., et al, Retina Vols 1-3, 5th ed., 2012, Elsevier Mosby
OPSC5031 Paediatric Ophthalmology

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Prof John Grigg Session: Semester 2 Classes: Online Prerequisites: OPSC5030 Assessment: 3x 2000 word written assignments (90%), online forum discussion (10%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practise as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
This unit of study will provide candidates with the theoretical and practical foundations necessary to assess and perform paediatric ophthalmology. The first part of the unit will cover retinopathy of prematurity, refractive error and amblyopia, strabismus I comitant, strabismus II incomitant and vertical deviation. Following this, we will look at media opacities, congenital cataracts, congenital glaucoma and developmental glaucoma, an introduction to genetic eye disease and paediatric ophthalmic infectious diseases. In the final part of the unit we will cover paediatric ocular oncology, orbital and lacrimal disease, the child who can't see approach to and investigations, phakomatoses and nystagmus.
Textbooks
Taylor, David., Hoyt, Creig S., Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 4th ed., 2012
OPSC5032 Treatise

Credit points: 12 Teacher/Coordinator: Professor Peter McCluskey Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Supervision Prerequisites: (OPSC5013 and OPSC5014 and OPSC5017) or (OPSC5026 and OPSC5027 and OPSC5030) Assessment: Review by two independent assessors. The treatise may take one of two forms, either a written output on work performed during the candidature from a supervised student project that contains between 10,000-20,000 words or a scientific paper that arises from a supervised student's project and has been accepted by a peer review journal for publication. The scientific paper however still needs to be embedded in a treatise with an expanded introduction and literature review as well as an expanded conclusion/discussion section. Additional methods and results not presented in the scientific paper should also be included. Mode of delivery: Supervision
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained specialists from countries with established vocational ophthalmology training programs and have satisfactorily completed the requirements to practice as ophthalmologists in their countries of residency, or be eligible to undertake further fellowship training in their countries of residency.
OPSC5033 Acute and Emergency Eye Presentations

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: A/Prof John Grigg Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assessment: 3 x 2000 word written assignments (90%), online forum discussion (10%) Mode of delivery: Online
Note: Candidates must be overseas trained medical practitioners without an established vocational ophthalmology training program and be working in a clinical ophthalmology unit.
This unit of study will provide candidates with the theoretical and practical knowledge of acute and emergency presentations in ophthalmology. Wk1 will cover corneal ulcerations and their immediate management Wk 2 penetrating eye trauma and Wk3 orbital blow out fractures. Wk 4 will cover blunt ocular trauma and intraocular foreign bodies and Wk 5 cranial nerve palsies. Wk 6 giant cell arteritis and Wk 7 CRAO/CRVO - retinal vascular occlusions. Wk 8 will cover acute glaucoma and Wk 9 acute uveitis. Wk 10 will cover neonatal conjunctivitis and Wk 11 leukoria in the infant. Wk 12 will cover recent onset nystagmus and Wk 13 neuro ophthalmic emergencies.
Textbooks
Wills Eye Hospital, Kunimoto Derek Y., (ed) et al, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins: The Wills Eye Manual: Office and Emergency Room Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Disease 6th ed. 2012