Ophthalmic Science

 

Ophthalmic Science

Core units

Students eligible for admission to a stream must complete OPSC5001, OPSC5002 and the stream core units.
OPSC5001 Ophthalmic Anatomy

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Yves Kerdraon, Dr Simon Taylor and Dr Richard Parker Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of basic human anatomy Assessment: Academic Honesty and Academic Writing Tasks ( barrier task (Pass/Fail) 1 x 2500 word assignment (20%), online presentation (20%), online journal club (10%) and 1 x 3 hour exam (50%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have knowledge of anatomy relevant to the practise of ophthalmology. In particular, students must show detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the eye, the orbit and periorbital structures, and the visual pathways. The advanced material covered provides the students with an opportunity to explore the subject in greater depth fullfilling the requirements for a post-graduate level qualification. On completion of this unit of study the successful student will be able to (1) Describe the normal anatomical organisation of the human eye, orbit and its contents, and the head and neck, including the cells, organs and tissues, (2) describe the principle components of the human visual system and their function in detail and (3) describe how diagnostic imaging may be used in ophthalmic practise.
Textbooks
Prescribed texts: Clinical Anatomy of the Eye Snell RS and Lemp MA; Wolff's Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit (8th ed). AJ Bron et al (eds) HK Lewis, London 1997. Additional texts: Histology of the Human Eye M Hogan J Alvarado, J Wedell WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1971; Gray's Anatomy (38th Ed) Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1989; The Eye Basic Sciences in Practice (Chapters 1 and 2) J Forrester et al Saunders Company Ltd London 1996; The Human Nervous System, An Anatomical Viewpoint (5th Ed) ML Barr and JA Kiernan Harper and Row, Philadelphia 1988; Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual System, 3rd Edition, By Lee Ann Remington; 2016-2017 Basic and Clinical Science Course; Section 2: Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology (older editions also quite acceptable). Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
OPSC5002 Ophthalmic Physiology

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Prof John Grigg, A/Prof Clare Fraser, Dr Simon Skalicky, Dr Logan Mitchell and Dr Elisa Cornish Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of basic human cell and organ physiology Assessment: 2 x 2500 word assignments (30%), presentation (15%), online journal club (10%) and 1x3hr exam (45%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of physiology relevant to the practise of ophthalmology. Particular emphasis is placed on the organisation, function, mechanism of action, regulation and adaptation of relevant structures and their component parts. Students are also expected to have an understanding of the maturation and normal ageing changes of the human eye. They must have a thorough understanding of the methods used to measure the activity of relevant physiological processes such as intraocular pressure, retinal electrical activity and visual acuity, ect. The advanced material covered provides the students with an opportunity to explore the subject in greater depth fullfilling the requirements for a post-graduate level qualification. On completion of this unit of study students are able to (1) describe the normal physiological functioning of the human eye and nervous system, (2) describe the principal physiological laws and phenomena that apply to these systems and (3) describe how these physiological processes are measured and the limitations of such tests.
Textbooks
Prescribed texts: Adler's Physiology of the Eye (11th Ed) Kaufman ed, Saunders Elsevier 2011; Review of Medical Physiology (21st Ed) WF Ganong, McGraw Hill 2003, 24th Ed. Additional texts: Ocular and Visual Physiology: Clinical Application. S Skalicky, Springer-Verlag, Singapore 2016; Biochemistry of the Eye [electronic resource] /Whikehart. Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, c2003; Physics for Ophthalmologists DJ Coster (ed) Churchill Livingstone, Sydney 1997; The Eye: Basic Sciences and Practice. Forrester JV, Dick AD, McMenamin P, Lee WR. WB Saunders 2003; Duane's Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology. JB Lippincott Co, Philadelphia; The Neurology of Eye Movements (5th Edition). RJ Leigh and DS Zee, Oxford University Press, 2015.
OPSC5003 Ophthalmic Optics

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Con Petsoglou, Dr Chameen Samarawickrama, Dr Kelechi Obuehi Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Online Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of physics relating to light and optics Assessment: 2 x 2500 word assignments (30%), presentation (15%), wiki on an allocated topic (10%) and 1 x 3hr exam (45%) Mode of delivery: Distance education
Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of optics relevant to the practise of ophthalmology. Particular emphasis is placed on the topics of physical, geometrical, physiological and instrument optics. The advanced material covered provides the students with an opportunity to explore the subject in greater depth fullfilling the requirements for a post-graduate level qualification. On completion of this unit of study the sucessful students are able to (1) describe the physical properties of light and lasers especially with reference to their interaction with the eye and instruments, (2) describe the geometrical principles of light and the laws governing lights interaction with materials, (3) outline the optical properties, limitations and image formation of common ophthalmic instruments and the design aspects that improve image quality, (4) decribe the physiological optics of the human eye and how it is evaluated and the normal changes of accommodation with age. In particular the use of optical instruments for this purpose and (5) describe the process of objective and subjective refraction and how this impacts prescription of spectacles, contact lenses or surgical management of ametropia.
Textbooks
Prescribed texts: Clinical Optics AR Elkington and HJ Frank, Blackwell Science, 3rd Ed, 2000; Optics, Refraction and Contact Lenses, Basic and Clinical Science Course, American Academy Ophthalmology, 2013. Additional texts: Optics MH Freeman, Butterworths-Heinemann Medical; 10th Ed, 1990; Optics for Clinicians M Rubin, Triad Publishing, 3rd Ed, 1993; Physics for Ophthalmologists DJ Coster 1st Ed 1994; The Fine Art of Prescribing Glasses Without Making a Spectacle of Yourself Hardcover - April 30, 2004, by Benjamin Milder (Author), Melvin L. Rubin (Author).
OPSC5004 Practical Ophthalmic Science

Credit points: 9 Teacher/Coordinator: Dr Con Petsoglou, Prof Peter McCluskey and Prof John Grigg, A/Prof Clare Fraser and Dr Chameen Samarawickrama Session: Intensive December Classes: Intensive on campus Prerequisites: OPSC5001, OPSC5002, OPSC5003 Assumed knowledge: Undergraduate knowledge of physics relating to light and optics. Assessment: : 3 hours observed structured practical exams (90%) and a presentation on an allocated topic (10%) Mode of delivery: Block mode
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of the practical aspects of the basic ophthalmic sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the topics of Anatomy, Physiology and Optics. The advanced material covered provides the students with an opportunity to explore the subject in greater depth fullfilling the requirements for a post-graduate level qualification. On completion of this unit of study, students are expected to understand and perform the following objectives at a competent level relevant for the practice of clinical ophthalmology: (1) describe the anatomy, relations, vascular and nerve supply and functions of structures within the head and neck, orbit, eye and neuroanatomical structures, (2) correctly identify structures of the above on: a) anatomical dissections, bone specimens and neuroanatomical slices, b) anatomical diagrams / pictures / pots, c) radiographic images including ultrasound, Xray, CT and MRI /MRA scanning, Angiography, d) Ophthalmic investigations including anterior segment and fundus photography, OCT scanning, confocal imaging, fluorescein and ICG angiography, (3) describe and identify on histologic slides and images the features of normal anatomy of the eye, orbit, nervous system and head and neck structures, (4) describe and identify the features, timing of events and function of embryologic slides or images of the eye and developing embryo, (5) describe physiologic functioning of the human eye and nervous system. Specific objectives include: a) corneal cell physiology, corneal storage techniques and media types, b) lens physiology and recent advances in lens development and signaling pathways, c) intraocular pressure physiology with understanding of methods of taking IOP, limitations and benefits of each, d) physiology of the retina and optic nerve including phototransduction, cell communication pathways and electrophysiology, e) Physiology of pupil control and identification of conditions that cause pupil disorders and (6) correctly describe, conduct, outline indications, discuss the physiologic basis, interpret results, recognize limitations using the following modailities: a) confocal microscopy, b) OCT scanning of the anterior segment and retina, c) ultrasound testing including A-scan, B-scan and ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM), d) fundus photography including fluorescein and ICG angiography, wide field imaging and autofluorescence, e) electophysiologic testing including ERG, VEP, MF-ERG, MF-VEP, Dark adaptometry, EOG, f) colour vision testing including Ishihara charts, City University charts, FM100 and FM15 tests, occupational tests, g) visual field testing including Goldmann fields, confrontation testing, Humphrey field testing, other automated perimetry testing, MF-VEP testing, h) biometry including A-scan and IOL Master, i) Visual Acuity testing including Snellen chart, ETDRS chart, LogMAR charts, Near vision testing, children's acuity tests, j) contrast sensitivity testing including Pelli-Robson charts, k) IOP measurement using Glodmann tonometry, I-care, Tonopen, l) stereopsis testing including titmus fly, Langs 1 and 2 etc, m) Accommodation testing including RAF rule etc, (7) describe the physical, physiological and geometric optics of light and its application to the human eye, (8) perform, describe the optical principles, application and limitations of the following: a) prescribing of contact lenses, b) entopic phenomena and their basis, c) hand neutralization of lenses, d) telescopes - Galilean and Keplerian, e) Hess chart testing, f) orthoptic tests, g) Low vision aids, h) pin-holes, i) prisms, j) stenopaeic slit, (9) Correctly use ophthalmic instruments and describe their optical properties. These include: a) direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, b) keratometers including B and L, Javal-Schiotz, orbscan, pentacam, IOL Master, c) retinoscopy, d) subjective refraction including duochrome testing, e) Maddox wing and Maddox rod, f) slit lamp and all investigations which can be performed by this machine. Included is ability to identify all features precisely and be able to identify causes for why it is not operational, g) laser speckle optometer, h) lensmeter, (10) describe laboratory methods used in the investigation of normal eye and cellular physiology and the principles of scientific research and reasoning, (11) c onduct research into a specific allocated topic and present to the group your findings. The aim of this task is to: a) demonstrate ability to perform research and a literature review, b) ability to work within a group and allocate specific tasks to work efficiently, c) ability to communicate effectively and use scientific language correctly, d) utilize resources at the Save Sight Institute, Sydney Eye Hospital Library, University of Sydney online library and internet sites to conduct your research, e) summarize your findings and importance of the topic to ophthalmology.
Textbooks
The textbooks recommended for OPSC5001, OPSC5002 and OPSC5003 apply to this unit. An anatomical atlas is recommended for assistance with the head and neck and neuroanatomy. Recommended Texts: Colour Atlas of Anatomy, JW Rohen and C Yokochi, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers, 5th Ed, 2002, Neuroanatomy: An Atlas of Structures, Sections and Systems, DE Haines, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 4th Ed, 2000, Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinal Diseases, M Cozzi et al, 2016.

Stream core units

OPSC5036 Practical Oculoplastic Surgery

Credit points: 6 Teacher/Coordinator: Clinical Associate Professor Raf Ghabrial Session: Intensive November Classes: Intensive on campus Prerequisites: OPSC5001 and OPSC5002 and OPSC5034 Corequisites: OPSC5035 Assumed knowledge: Students undertaking this unit of study must have advanced specialty training with RANZCO qualifications or equivalent. Consideration will be give to RACS and dermatology advance trainees. Assessment: Online surgical logbook (40%) and observed structured clinical exam (60%) Mode of delivery: Block mode
Note: Department permission required for enrolment
Note: Students should contact the discipline directly for permission to enrol. The PG Coordinator will email Student Services to notify them of students who have permission.
This unit of study provides candidates with the practical experience and knowledge necessary to assess and perform oculoplastic surgery. This is a mentor-based programme with students supervised in a number of clinical and laboratory environments. Emphasis is on pre-operative investigation, surgical skill and post-operative management. Students are required to observe and perform and extra-ocular surgical techniques relevant to oculoplastic surgery. Students rotate through a number of oculoplastic surgical practices and observe oculoplastic surgery taking place using a number of different oculoplastic surgical systems. Further candidates will have to attend a number of wet lab sessions designed for practicing oculoplastic surgical techniques on artificial, animal or human eyes. A logbook of observed and performed surgeries will be kept and used for assessment. Surgical mentors will be allocated and provide the appropriate training in specific oculoplastic operations.
Textbooks
A Manual of Systematic Eyelid Surgery by J. R. O. Collin MA MB Bchir FRCS FRCOphth DO (3rd edition 2006); Colour Atlas of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery, by AG Tyers and JRO Collin (3rd edition 2007); Unfavourable Results in Eyelid and Lacrimal Surgery by Joseph A. Mauriello, Jr. (2000).

Additional core unit for master's degree students

Master degree students must enrol in OPSC5005. A student must be enrolled in order to submit the treatise. If a student is not able to submit his/her treatise after enrolling in OPSC5005 for one semester, he/she must enrol in OPSC5005, with the concomitant financial liability, every semester until he/she submits.
OPSC5005 Treatise

Credit points: 12 Teacher/Coordinator: Prof John Grigg, A/Prof Samantha Fraser-Bell, Dr Con Petsoglou and Prof Peter McCluskey Session: Semester 1,Semester 2 Classes: Supervision Prerequisites: OPSC5001 and OPSC5002 and OPSC5003 Assessment: 10,000 - 20,000 word treatise (100%) Mode of delivery: Supervision
Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of one area in the basic sciences or clinical ophthalmology. The treatise is a report or formal academic composition on work performed during the candidature from a supervised student project that contains between 10,000-20,000 words. The format of the project may be of a systematic review of the literature, a case series, short clinical trial, survey or other project acceptable to the unit of study coordinator. On completion of this unit of study the successful student will be able to (1) undertake a medical/scientific project and follow it to its completion, (2) work constructively under the supervision of a supervisor, (3) display scientific thinking and apply this to ophthalmology and (4) attempt to publish their treatise or learn how to publish their work.
Textbooks
Your Practical Guide to Writing a Thesis, Treatise or Dissertation at the University of Sydney, SUPRA Guide (http://supra.net.au/assets/file/Publications/SUPRAthesisguide.pdf)

Alternative core units

These units of study are only available to candidates with an exemption for a core unit of study.