Professor Stewart Einfeld

MD, GradCertMana CSU DCH (RCP&S) FRANZCP MRACMA
Chair of Mental Health, Disability and Community FRG
FHS Senior Scientist, The Brain and Mind Research Institute
Stream Co-leader, Mental Health, CDRP

C43J - J Block Cumberland Campus
The University of Sydney

Telephone 9351 9213
Fax 9351 9197

Website BMRI
CDRP
Mental Health

Biographical details

Professor Stewart Einfeld is the Chair of Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, and is a Senior Scientist at the Brain and Mind Research Institute. Professor Einfeld has research and teaching interests in the area of child and adolescent psychiatry, developmental disabilities, including intellectual disability and its genetic causes and autism. He is co-developer of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. This instrument is widely used in clinical and research settings both within Australia and internationally, and has been translated into 21 languages. Professor Einfeld is co-Chief Investigator of the Australian Child to Adult Development (ACAD) Study, now in its 20th year, funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and National Institutes of Health. This study examines a broad range of biological, psychological and social factors of potential protection and vulnerability in the development of behavioural and emotional problems in children and adolescents with intellectual handicap. These include genetic, family, educational, vocational and residential aspects. A major report on the project was published in JAMA. Through advocacy, presentations and writings, Professor Einfeld has played a major role in promoting a re-emergence of interest in intellectual disability in the psychiatric profession in NSW in particular. Professor Einfeld's awards include the World Health Organisation Travelling Fellow, Australian Society for Psychiatric Research Junior Travel Award, National Research Prize from the Australian Society for Study of Intellectual Deficiency. Professor Einfeld's competitive grants total AU$12,807,829.

Research interests

Professor Einfeld is a member of the following research teams:

BMRI
CDRP
Mental Health

Childhood developmental disorders research programs Childhood diseases of the brain affect over 3% of Australian children under 10 years of age. Without early intervention, these disorders can progress to more severely disabling conditions in adolescence and later life. Based on the latest discoveries and expertise of leading researchers at the BMRI, the Institute provides care to children suffering from Autism, Down Syndrome, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and other disorders of the brain and mind.

Developmental Psychiatry The ability to understand emotion in others is essential for the healthy development of all people. It guides response and decision making to social cues (e.g. aggression) and enhances capacity to develop social bonds and to nurture. Abnormalities of emotion perception may contribute to psychiatric disorders associated with social problems such as autism, schizophrenia, fragile x syndrome, and psychopathy. There has been an enormous increase in community awareness of autism, and Professor Einfeld has played a substantial role in supporting scientifically based understanding of autism and other developmental disorders in childhood. Autism is the prototype disorder of social dysfunction. One of the key impairments is an inability to respond appropriately to social cues, and advances in social neuroscience have identified the neuropeptide oxytocin as playing a key role in social behavior. This ancient mammalian peptide enhances peer recognition, social approach, and bonding behavior across numerous species. This has led some to speculate its use for the treatment of psychiatric disorders characterised by social deficit. Professor Einfeld’s team investigate the effect of oxytocin administration on emotion recognition for young people with autism spectrum disorders. Oxytocin nasal spray may lead to a brief, safe, and effective intervention to remedy emotion recognition deficits. Improvements in core symptoms, particularly if addressed early in life, may result in better outcomes for children with autism.

Teaching and supervision

Teaching

Professor Stewart Einfeld teaches in mental health related subjects in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Medicine and Pharmacy. Supervision Current higher degree supervision in the areas of:
  • Transcultural responses to autism
  • Disruptive behaviour, communication and autism
  • Temper outbursts in Prader Willi syndrome
  • Fish oil supplement in autism
  • Zinc supplementation as a treatment

Themes

Centre for Disability Research and Policy; Disability and Community

Selected grants

2014

  • Clinical observation and comprehensive psychophysiological recording and behavioural coding equipment; Hawes D, Hickie I, Lagapolos J, Glozier N, Menzies R, Naismith S, Matthews S, Einfeld S, Morley K, de Rosnay M, Guastella A; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Equipment Grants.

2013

  • Understanding the neurobiology of temper outburst behaviours in Prader- Willi syndrome (PWS PET study); Einfeld S; Foundation for Prader-Willi Research/Research Grant.
  • Sydney Neuroscience Network; Balleine B, Absalom N, Braddon-Mitchell D, Callaghan S, Chawla S, Christie M, Collins M, Einfeld S, Grieve S, Haber P, Hanrahan J, Harris A, Hickie I, Kassiou M, Kril J, Meikle S, Morris R, Ramos F, Rong Y, Sue C; DVC Research/Research Network Scheme (SyReNS).

2012

  • Mental Health of Young People with Developmental Disabilities; Einfeld S, Sanders M, Tonge B; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Program Grants.

2010

  • The effectiveness of Social Skills Training for Children With Autism; Einfeld S, Roberts J, Sofronoff K, Gray K, Beaumont R, Clark T, Sofronoff K, Gray K, Roberts J, Beaumont R; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Projects (LP).
  • Oxytocin treatment for Prader-Willi Syndrome; Einfeld S, Smith A, Guastella A, Smith A; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.
  • A course of oxytocin nasal spray to improve social-communication in young people with autism; Guastella A, Einfeld S, Gray K, Rinehart N; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2009

  • A Trial of Oxytocin To Improve Behaviour and Cognition in Prader-Willi Syndrome; Einfeld S, McGregor I, Guastella A, Smith A; Foundation for Prader-Willi Research/Research Grant.
  • A Trial of Oxytocin to Improve Behaviour and Cognition in Prader-Willi Syndrome; Einfeld S; St. George Foundation/Major Grants.
  • Motion Menura multimodal mouse testing apparatus (MMTA): (Turnkey system comprising 6 testing chambers with associated control and tracking software).; Kemp A, Hermens D, McGregor I, Einfeld S, Kassiou M, Arnold J, Hunt G; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Equipment Grants.
  • The effects of oxytocin nasal spray on mechanisms of social-communication in young people with autism; Guastella A, Einfeld S, Reinhart N, Gray K, Lambert T, Tonge B; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2007

  • The Economic Cost of Intellectual Disability in Australia; Einfeld S, Tonge B, Doran C; Apex Foundation for Research into Intellectual Disability/Research Support.
  • Consumers as collaborative researchers: A model training program; Einfeld S, Bundy A, Hancock N, Beltran R; Australian Rotary Health Research Fund/Research Grant.
  • The economic cost of intellectual disability in Australia; Einfeld S; Apex Foundation for Research into Intellectual Disability/Research Support.
  • Longitudinal Study of Psychopathology in People with Intellectual Disability.; Tonge B, Einfeld S; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.
  • Behaviour and emotional problems in young children with developmental delay; Tonge B, Einfeld S, Gray K; Financial Markets Foundation for Children/Grants for Child Welfare Projects.
  • The economic cost of intellectual disability in Australia; Einfeld S; Apex Foundation for Research into Intellectual Disability/Research into Intellectual Disability.

2006

  • A longitudinal study of psychopathology in people with intellectual disability; Einfeld S, Parmenter T, Tonge B; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.
  • Normative study of a checklist of emotional and behavioural disturbance in adults with intellectual disability; Tonge B, Einfeld S, Mohr C; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Projects (LP).
  • The role of ZFHX1b mutations in the cognitive and behavioural phenotype of Mowat-Wilson Syndrome; Einfeld S, Buckley M, Wilson M, Evans E, Mowat D; Sydney Children’s Hospital Foundation/Research Grant.

2005

  • Further evaluating the effectiveness of a parent-training program for children with developmental disabilities and severe behaviour problems; Einfeld S; Financial Markets Foundation for Children/Grants for Child Welfare Projects.
  • Behaviour Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability; Einfeld S, Tonge B, Mohr C; Apex Foundation for Research into Intellectual Disability/Research Support.
  • Continuity and Change in the development of young people with intellectual disability; Tonge B, Einfeld S, Gray K; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP).
  • An Investigation of the cognitive and behavioural phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome; Einfeld S, Mowat D; University of New South Wales/Faculty Research Grant.
  • Mowat-Wilson syndrome investigations; Mowat D, Einfeld S; Sydney Children’s Hospital Foundation/Research Grant.
  • Risk Factors for Psychopathology Using Existing Data Sets: Psychopathology in Young People with Mental Retardation; Tonge B, Einfeld S, Mackinnon A, Piccinin A, Bontempo D, Gray K, Hofer S, Lawrence F, Taffe J; National Institutes of Health (USA)/Research Grant.

2004

  • Microarray screening for DNA deletions causing intellectual disability; Mowat D, Einfeld S, Turner G; University of New South Wales/Faculty Research Grant.

2003

  • Genetic Causes of Intellectual Disability; Turner G, Mowat D, Einfeld S; University of New South Wales/Faculty Research Grant.
  • Early detection of infants and young children with autism; Tonge B, Gray K, Einfeld S; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of depression in adults with intellectual disability through general practitioner and psychiatric collaboration; Torr J, Burbidge M, Galea J, Tonge B, Einfeld S, Iacono T; Beyondblue/Research Grant.

2002

  • Data analysis of Longitudinal Study of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Handicap; Tonge B, Einfeld S, McKinnon A, Hofer S; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.
  • Parent education for the treatment of severe behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities; Parmenter T, Einfeld S, Sigafoos J; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2001

  • Evidenced Based Practice for Young People who Self Harm: Can it be Sustained and Does it Improve Outcomes - A Two-Year Follow-up; Tobin M, Einfeld S, Beard J, Dudley M; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2000

  • Chromosomal abnormalities in intellectual disability -investigating the role of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism microarrays using a population-based cohort; Einfeld S, Mowat D; Sydney Children’s Hospital Foundation/Research Grant.
  • Longitudinal Study of Behaviour and Emotional Problems in Young People with Intellectual Disabilities; Einfeld S, Tonge B, Parmenter T; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

Selected publications

  • Challenging Behaviour

    Challenging Behaviour (Cambridge University Press, 2011)

  • Manual for the Computerised Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist

    Manual for the Computerised Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (University of New South Wales and Monash University, 2003)

Download citations: PDF RTF Endnote

Books

  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S. (2011). Challenging Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edited Books

  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003). Manual for the Computerised Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Australia: University of New South Wales and Monash University.

Book Chapters

  • Ellis, L., Einfeld, S. (2011). Structured assessment of mental health problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. In D. Dossetor, D. White & L. Whatson (Eds.), Mental Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Framework for Professional Practice, (pp. 25-31). Melbourne: IP Communications.
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Tonge, B. (2010). Psychosis in Prader-Willi Syndrome. In Perminder S. Sachdev & Matcheri S. Keshavan (Eds.), Secondary Schizophrenia, (pp. 328-331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Einfeld, S., Emerson, E. (2008). Intellectual Disability. In M Rutter (Eds.), Rutter's Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (pp. 820, Chapter 49-840). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Bradley, E., Summers, J., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Havercamp, S., Holt, G., Levitas, A., Tonge, B. (2007). Intellectual Disabilities and Behavioral, Emotional, and Psychiatric Disturbances. In Ivan Brown and Marie Percy (Eds.), A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, (pp. 645-666). Baltimore, USA: Paul H Brooks.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2007). Intellectual Disability and Psychiatry. In Sidney Bloch; Bruce Singh (Eds.), Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry (3rd edition), (pp. 420-427). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Taffe, J. (2006). Evolution of Symptoms and Syndromes of Psychopathology in Young People with Mental Retardation. In R.M. Hodapp and R. Urbano (Eds) (Eds.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation (volume 33), (pp. 247-265). Academic Press Elsevier. [More Information]
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003). Psychopathology and Intellectual Disability. The Australian Child to Adult Longitudinal Study. In Masters Glidden (Eds.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, (pp. 61-91). California: California: Academic Press.

Journals

  • Einfeld, S., Smith, E., McGregor, I., Steinbeck, K., Taffe, J., Rice, L., Horstead, S., Rogers, N., Hodge, M., Guastella, A. (2014). A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Oxytocin Nasal Spray in Prader Willi Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 164(9), 2232-2239. [More Information]
  • Palmer, E., Spiers, H., Taylor, P., Mullan, G., Turner, G., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Mowat, D. (2014). Changing interpretation of chromosomal microarray over time in a community cohort with intellectual disability. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 164(2), 377-385. [More Information]
  • Chen, Y., Bundy, A., Cordier, R., Einfeld, S. (2014). Feasibility and usability of experience sampling methodology for capturing everyday experiences of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Disability and Health Journal, 7, 361-366.
  • Salvador-Carulla, L., Einfeld, S. (2014). Mental illness and the National Disability Insurance Scheme: Lessons from Europe. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48(5), 482-484. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Keating, C., Taffe, J., Parmenter, T., Hofer, S., Einfeld, S. (2014). Outcomes in young adulthood: are we achieving community participation and inclusion? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(8), 734-745. [More Information]
  • Doan, T., Ware, R., McPherson, L., van Dooren, K., Bain, C., Carrington, S., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Lennox, N. (2014). Psychotropic medication use in adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety, 23(1), 69-76. [More Information]
  • Foley, K., Girdler, S., Downs, J., Jacoby, P., Bourke, J., Lennox, N., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Parmenter, T., Leonard, H. (2014). Relationship between family quality of life and day occupations of young people with Down syndrome. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, in press. [More Information]
  • Makary, A., Testa, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Mohr, C., Gray, K. (2014). The association between behavioural and emotional problems and age in adults with Down syndrome without dementia: Examining a wide spectrum of behavioural and emotional problems. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1868-1877. [More Information]
  • Guastella, A., Gray, K., Rinehart, N., Alvarez, G., Tonge, B., Hickie, I., Keating, C., Cacciotti-Saija, C., Einfeld, S. (2014). The effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on social behaviors in youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Early online. [More Information]
  • Butterworth, T., Hodge, M., Sofronoff, K., Beaumont, R., Gray, K., Roberts, J., Horstead, S., Clarke, K., Howlin, P., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S. (2014). Validation of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, in press.
  • Bulkeley, K., Bundy, A., Roberts, J., Einfeld, S. (2013). ASD intervention research in real world contexts: Refining single case designs. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1257-1264. [More Information]
  • Foley, K., Jacoby, P., Girdler, S., Bourke, J., Pikora, T., Lennox, N., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Parmenter, T., Leonard, H. (2013). Functioning and post-school transition outcomes for young people with Down syndrome. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(6), 789-800. [More Information]
  • Arciuli, J., Villar, G., Colmar, S., Evans, D., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T. (2013). Home-based reading between mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorders. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 18(1), 17-33. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Clarke, K. (2013). Prevention and early intervention for behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 26(3), 263-269. [More Information]
  • Joosten, A., Bundy, A., Einfeld, S. (2012). Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(3), 262-270. [More Information]
  • Doran, C., Einfeld, S., Madden, R., Otim, M., Horstead, S., Ellis, L., Emerson, E. (2012). How much does intellectual disability really cost? First estimates for Australia. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(1), 42-49. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R., Gray, K., Sofronoff, K., Rice, L., Emerson, E., Yasamy, M. (2012). Interventions Provided by Parents for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25, 135-142. [More Information]
  • Madden, R., Ferreira, M., Einfeld, S., Emerson, E., Manga, R., Refshauge, K., Llewellyn, G. (2012). New directions in health care and disability: the need for a shared understanding of human functioning. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(5), 458-461. [More Information]
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S. (2012). The availability of normative data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for adults. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability (online), 37(1), 61-64. [More Information]
  • Evans, E., Einfeld, S., Mowat, D., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Wilson, M. (2012). The Behavioral Phenotype of Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 158a (2), 358-366. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Keating, C., Taffe, J., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2012). Trajectory of behavior and emotional problems in autism. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(2), 121-133. [More Information]
  • Sinnema, M., Einfeld, S., Schrander-Stumpel, C., Maaskant, M., Boer, H., Curfs, L. (2011). Behavioral phenotype in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 604-612. [More Information]
  • Forster, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2011). Behavioural and emotional problems in people with severe and profound intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(2), 190-198. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Ellis, L., Emerson, E. (2011). Comorbidity of intellectual disability and mental disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(2), 137-143. [More Information]
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Taffe, J., Rymill, A., Collins, D., Keating, C., Einfeld, S. (2011). Inter-rater reliability of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults in community accommodation settings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(7), 710-713. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R. (2011). Predictors of the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with cognitive delay. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1184-1194. [More Information]
  • Moseley, D., Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S. (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults with autism. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(4), 229-243. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Hofer, S., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2011). The longitudinal relationship between behavior and emotional disturbance in young people with intellectual disability and maternal mental health. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 32(3), 1194-1204. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Ellis, L., Doran, C., Emerson, E., Horstead, S., Madden, R., Tonge, B. (2010). Behavior Problems Increase Costs of Care of Children With Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(4), 202-209. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Comparison of the play of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by subtypes. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 57(2), 137-145. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Brown, R. (2010). Down Syndrome-New Prospects for an Ancient Disorder. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(24), 2525-2526. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S. (2010). Emotional and behavioural difficulties in young children with and without developmental delay: A bi-national perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 583-593. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Empathy in the Play of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 30(3), 122-132. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2010). Examining behaviour and emotional problems in preschool children with developmental delay. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(5), 432-432. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Ellis, L., Taffe, J., Emerson, E., Tonge, B., Horstead, S. (2010). Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(4), 177-189. [More Information]
  • Guastella, A., Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Rinehart, N., Tonge, B., Lambert, T., Hickie, I. (2010). Intranasal Oxytocin Improves Emotion Recognition in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 692-694. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Playing with a child with ADHD: a focus on the playmates. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 17(3), 191-199. [More Information]
  • Kightley, M., Einfeld, S., Hancock, N. (2010). Routine outcome measurement in mental health: feasibility for examining effectiveness of an NGO. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(2), 167-169. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J. (2010). Young people with ID and mental health needs: Longitudinal change in symptoms. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(5), 421-421. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2009). A Model for Play-based Intervention for Children with ADHD. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56(5), 332-340.
  • Hofer, S., Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D., Einfeld, S., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2009). Correlated and Coupled Within-Person Change in Emotional and Behavioral Disturbance in Individuals With Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 307-321.
  • Joosten, A., Bundy, A., Einfeld, S. (2009). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(3), 521-531. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R. (2009). The Mental Health of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities or Borderline Intellectual Functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(5), 579-587. [More Information]
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Parmenter, T. (2008). Children with ID and mental health needs:The Australian child to adult development (ACAD) study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(8-9), 725.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J. (2008). Down Syndrome – The Australian Child to Adult Development (ACAD) study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(8-9), 658.
  • Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Einfeld, S. (2008). Extracting more information from behaviour checklists by using components of mean based scores. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17(4), 232-240. [More Information]
  • Bontempo, D., Hofer, S., Mackinnon, A., Piccinin, A., Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2008). Factor structure of the Developmental Behavior Checklist using Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Polytomous items. Journal of Applied Measurement, 9(3), 265-280.
  • Einfeld, S., Goetz, J., Holsinger, D. (2008). Pathogenetic mechanisms in Down Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(10), 813-813. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2008). Screening for autism in young children with developmental delay: An evaluation of the developmental behavious checklist: Early screen. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1003-1010. [More Information]
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Parmenter, T. (2007). Change in psychopathology from childhood to adulthood: The Australian child to adult development (ACAD) study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(S2), A455.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Chapman, L., Mohr, C., Taffe, J., Horstead, S. (2007). Inter-rater reliability of the diagnoses of psychosis and depression in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(5), 384-390.
  • Einfeld, S., Evans, E., Mowat, D. (2007). Oral Presentation: The developmental profile and behavioural phenotype of Mowat Wilson syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(9), 657-657.
  • Taffe, J., Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Dekker, M., Koot, H., Emerson, E., Koskentausta, T., Tonge, B. (2007). Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. American Journal on Mental Retardation (Print), 112(1), 31-39. [More Information]
  • Herring, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2006). Behavioural and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(12), 874-882.
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Evans, E., Tonge, B., Taffe, J. (2006). Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 111(3), 193-198. [More Information]
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2006). Psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism compared to young people with intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 863-870. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(16), 1981-1989. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S. (2005). Behaviour Problems in Children with Genetic Disorders causing Intellectual Disability. Educational Psychology: an international journal of experimental educational psychology, 25(2-3), 341-346.
  • Berry, R., Leitner, R., Clarke, A., Einfeld, S. (2005). Behavioural Aspects of Angelman Syndrome: A Case Control Study. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 132A (1), 8-12. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Andrews, D., Selig, R., Williams, G., Smith, C. (2005). Schizophrenia in a 5-year-old. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(4), 312.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2005). The development of a new measure for the assessment of psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(7), 469-480.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Behaviour Phenotypes of Genetic Disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 17(5), 343-348.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Book review: Outcomes in Neurodevelopmental and Genetic Disorders, P. Howlin & O. Udwin. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1310-1311.
  • Clarke, A., Schnieden, V., Hamilton, B., Dudley, M., Beard, J., Einfeld, S., Buss, R., Tobin, M., Knowles, M., Stevens, G., et al (2004). Factors associated with treatment compliance in young people following an emergency department presentation for deliberate self-harm. Archives of Suicide Research, 8(2), 147-152.
  • Einfeld, S., Tobin, M., Beard, J., Evans, E., Buss, R., Dudley, M. (2004). Sustaining Evidence-Based Practice For Young People Who Self-Harm: A 4-Year Follow-Up. Australian Health Review, 27(2), 94-99.
  • Clarke, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Mackinnon, A. (2003). Assessment of Change with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(3), 210-212.
  • Dudley, M., Beard, J., Clarke, A., Knowles, M., Buss, R., Schnieden, V., Einfeld, S., Tobin, M., Dietrich, U. (2003). Effectiveness of a 'green card' intervention for patients engaging in deliberate self-harm. Archives of Suicide Research, 7(2), 175-181.
  • Cooper, S., Melville, C., Einfeld, S. (2003). Psychiatric Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities and Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation (DC-LD). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(1), 3-15.
  • Einfeld, S. (2003). Review of DC-LD (Diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 28(2), 214-215.
  • Dekker, M., Nunn, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Koot, H. (2002). Assessing emotional and behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability: Revisiting the factor structure of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(6), 601-610.
  • Einfeld, S., Beard, J., Tobin, M., Buss, R., Dudley, M., Clarke, A., Knowles, M., Hamilton, B. (2002). Evidence-based practice for young people who self-harm: can it be sustained and does in improve outcomes? Australian Health Review, 25(4), 178-188.
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Mackinnon, A., Einfeld, S. (2002). Screening young people for autism with the Developmental Behavior Checklist. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(11), 1369-1375.
  • Sigafoos, J., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T. (2001). An introduction to challenging behavior in children with intellectual disabilities. Special Education Perspectives, 10(2), 37-46.
  • Tobin, M., Clarke, A., Buss, R., Einfeld, S., Beard, J., Dudley, M., Knowles, M., Riches, J. (2001). From efficacy to effectiveness: managing organisational change to improve health services for young people with deliberate self harm behaviour. Australian Health Review, 24(2), 143-151.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2001). Longitudinal course of behavioural and emotional problems in Williams Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 106(1), 73-81.
  • Einfeld, S. (2001). Systematic management approach to pharmacotherapy for people with learning disabilities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 43-49.

Conferences

  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Mohr, C., Flint, P., Rymill, A. (2013). Mental health and intellectual disability: outcomes from the Australian Child to Adult Development study. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Congress, Sydney, Australia: Sage Publications.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2007). Developmental Outcomes in Young Children with Autism and Developmental Delay. 6th International Meeting of Autism research (IMFAR) Conference, Seattle: IMFAR.
  • Herring, S., Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D. (2006). Associations with parental mental health and family functioning. 5th International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR).
  • Mooney, E., Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2006). Early features of autism: Longitudinal study of repetitive behaviours in young children. 5th International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR).
  • Evans, E., Einfeld, S., Mowat, D., Wilson, M. (2005). An Investigation of the Behavioural Phenotype of Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS). 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Taffe, J., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2005). Developing measures for behavioural phenotypes in a longitudinal study – psychometric issues. 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Einfeld, S., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Wallander, J., Mohr, C. (2005). Measuring Psychopathology in People with Intellectual Disability: Recent Developments in the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC). Gatlinburg Conference on Research and Theory in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Lourey, E. (2005). Pharmacological treatments for pervasive developmental disorders. Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes 9th International Symposium.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2005). Screening for autism in young children with developmental delay. 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Gray, K. (2004). A 15-year Cohort Study of Psychopathology in Young People with Intellectual Disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Moseley, D. (2004). Autism: Change in Behavioural and Emotional Disturbance Over Time (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Davis, R., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Epidemiology and Determinants of Self-Injurious Behaviour (SIB). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Gene to behaviour pathways in Fragile X syndrome. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry International Congress of Biological Psychiatry, UK: Informa Healthcare.
  • Mowat, D., Field, M., Fleischer, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Turner, G. (2004). Genetic diagnosis revisited in an epidemiological cohort of young people with intellectual disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Turner, G., Smith, E. (2004). Longitudinal Course of Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Prader-Willi, Fragile X, Williams and Down Syndromes (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Tonge, B. (2004). Rates of Psychosis and Affective Disorders in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Evans, E., Brereton, A., Taffe, J., Gray, K. (2004). Recent Developments in Application of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Screening for Autism in Young Children with Developmental Delay. IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Gray, K. (2004). The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults: A New Contribution to the Assessment of Psychopathology in People with Intellectual Disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Brereton, A., Taffe, J. (2004). The family burden of emotional and behavioural problems in children with intellectual disability (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Gray, K. (2003). A Follow-up Study of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Young People with Intellectual Disability. International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 11th Scientific Meeting.
  • Kavanagh, S., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2003). Rates of Psychosis and Affective Disorders in a Cohort with Prader-Willi Syndrome. 4th Congress of the European Association for Mental Health in Mental Retardation.
  • Einfeld, S. (2002). Increased Mortality and Causes of Death in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Poster presented at Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes, 7th International Symposium: Re-thinking the Brain,.
  • Sigafoos, J., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Hartog, S. (2002). The APEX Project. 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Gray, K., Parmenter, T., Turner, G. (2001). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

Report

  • Madden, R., Gilroy, J., Madden, R., Bundy, A., Glozier, N., Manga, R., Clemson, L., Kayess, R., Mpofu, E., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Stancliffe, R. (2011). Submission to the Productivity Commission on Disability Care and Support - Submission DR942.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Steinhausen, H. (2007). Manual for the Deutsche Version of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (German).
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Manual for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist- Adult version.

Other

  • Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2006), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist - Short Form (DBC-P24).
  • Anderson, J., Einfeld, S., Fairley, M., Kavanagh, S., Torr, J. (2003), Psychiatric Aspects of Intellectual Disability.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist - Adult Version (DBC-A).
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2003), Software: DBC-Score, Version 2, Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist Sydney and Melbourne: University of New South Wales and Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology.
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2001), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA).

2014

  • Einfeld, S., Smith, E., McGregor, I., Steinbeck, K., Taffe, J., Rice, L., Horstead, S., Rogers, N., Hodge, M., Guastella, A. (2014). A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Oxytocin Nasal Spray in Prader Willi Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 164(9), 2232-2239. [More Information]
  • Palmer, E., Spiers, H., Taylor, P., Mullan, G., Turner, G., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Mowat, D. (2014). Changing interpretation of chromosomal microarray over time in a community cohort with intellectual disability. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 164(2), 377-385. [More Information]
  • Chen, Y., Bundy, A., Cordier, R., Einfeld, S. (2014). Feasibility and usability of experience sampling methodology for capturing everyday experiences of individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Disability and Health Journal, 7, 361-366.
  • Salvador-Carulla, L., Einfeld, S. (2014). Mental illness and the National Disability Insurance Scheme: Lessons from Europe. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48(5), 482-484. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Keating, C., Taffe, J., Parmenter, T., Hofer, S., Einfeld, S. (2014). Outcomes in young adulthood: are we achieving community participation and inclusion? Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(8), 734-745. [More Information]
  • Doan, T., Ware, R., McPherson, L., van Dooren, K., Bain, C., Carrington, S., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Lennox, N. (2014). Psychotropic medication use in adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety, 23(1), 69-76. [More Information]
  • Foley, K., Girdler, S., Downs, J., Jacoby, P., Bourke, J., Lennox, N., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Parmenter, T., Leonard, H. (2014). Relationship between family quality of life and day occupations of young people with Down syndrome. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, in press. [More Information]
  • Makary, A., Testa, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Mohr, C., Gray, K. (2014). The association between behavioural and emotional problems and age in adults with Down syndrome without dementia: Examining a wide spectrum of behavioural and emotional problems. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 1868-1877. [More Information]
  • Guastella, A., Gray, K., Rinehart, N., Alvarez, G., Tonge, B., Hickie, I., Keating, C., Cacciotti-Saija, C., Einfeld, S. (2014). The effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on social behaviors in youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Early online. [More Information]
  • Butterworth, T., Hodge, M., Sofronoff, K., Beaumont, R., Gray, K., Roberts, J., Horstead, S., Clarke, K., Howlin, P., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S. (2014). Validation of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, in press.

2013

  • Bulkeley, K., Bundy, A., Roberts, J., Einfeld, S. (2013). ASD intervention research in real world contexts: Refining single case designs. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7, 1257-1264. [More Information]
  • Foley, K., Jacoby, P., Girdler, S., Bourke, J., Pikora, T., Lennox, N., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Parmenter, T., Leonard, H. (2013). Functioning and post-school transition outcomes for young people with Down syndrome. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(6), 789-800. [More Information]
  • Arciuli, J., Villar, G., Colmar, S., Evans, D., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T. (2013). Home-based reading between mothers and their children with autism spectrum disorders. Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 18(1), 17-33. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Mohr, C., Flint, P., Rymill, A. (2013). Mental health and intellectual disability: outcomes from the Australian Child to Adult Development study. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Congress, Sydney, Australia: Sage Publications.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Clarke, K. (2013). Prevention and early intervention for behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 26(3), 263-269. [More Information]

2012

  • Joosten, A., Bundy, A., Einfeld, S. (2012). Context Influences the Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behaviour in Children Diagnosed with Intellectual Disability with and without Autism. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(3), 262-270. [More Information]
  • Doran, C., Einfeld, S., Madden, R., Otim, M., Horstead, S., Ellis, L., Emerson, E. (2012). How much does intellectual disability really cost? First estimates for Australia. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 37(1), 42-49. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R., Gray, K., Sofronoff, K., Rice, L., Emerson, E., Yasamy, M. (2012). Interventions Provided by Parents for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Low and Middle Income Countries. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25, 135-142. [More Information]
  • Madden, R., Ferreira, M., Einfeld, S., Emerson, E., Manga, R., Refshauge, K., Llewellyn, G. (2012). New directions in health care and disability: the need for a shared understanding of human functioning. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(5), 458-461. [More Information]
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S. (2012). The availability of normative data for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for adults. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability (online), 37(1), 61-64. [More Information]
  • Evans, E., Einfeld, S., Mowat, D., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Wilson, M. (2012). The Behavioral Phenotype of Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 158a (2), 358-366. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Keating, C., Taffe, J., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2012). Trajectory of behavior and emotional problems in autism. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(2), 121-133. [More Information]

2011

  • Sinnema, M., Einfeld, S., Schrander-Stumpel, C., Maaskant, M., Boer, H., Curfs, L. (2011). Behavioral phenotype in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 604-612. [More Information]
  • Forster, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2011). Behavioural and emotional problems in people with severe and profound intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(2), 190-198. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S. (2011). Challenging Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Einfeld, S., Ellis, L., Emerson, E. (2011). Comorbidity of intellectual disability and mental disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 36(2), 137-143. [More Information]
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Taffe, J., Rymill, A., Collins, D., Keating, C., Einfeld, S. (2011). Inter-rater reliability of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults in community accommodation settings. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 55(7), 710-713. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R. (2011). Predictors of the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with cognitive delay. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(11), 1184-1194. [More Information]
  • Moseley, D., Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S. (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults with autism. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 4(4), 229-243. [More Information]
  • Ellis, L., Einfeld, S. (2011). Structured assessment of mental health problems in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. In D. Dossetor, D. White & L. Whatson (Eds.), Mental Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Framework for Professional Practice, (pp. 25-31). Melbourne: IP Communications.
  • Madden, R., Gilroy, J., Madden, R., Bundy, A., Glozier, N., Manga, R., Clemson, L., Kayess, R., Mpofu, E., Einfeld, S., Llewellyn, G., Stancliffe, R. (2011). Submission to the Productivity Commission on Disability Care and Support - Submission DR942.
  • Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Hofer, S., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2011). The longitudinal relationship between behavior and emotional disturbance in young people with intellectual disability and maternal mental health. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 32(3), 1194-1204. [More Information]

2010

  • Einfeld, S., Ellis, L., Doran, C., Emerson, E., Horstead, S., Madden, R., Tonge, B. (2010). Behavior Problems Increase Costs of Care of Children With Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(4), 202-209. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Comparison of the play of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by subtypes. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 57(2), 137-145. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Brown, R. (2010). Down Syndrome-New Prospects for an Ancient Disorder. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(24), 2525-2526. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S. (2010). Emotional and behavioural difficulties in young children with and without developmental delay: A bi-national perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 583-593. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Empathy in the Play of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health, 30(3), 122-132. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2010). Examining behaviour and emotional problems in preschool children with developmental delay. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(5), 432-432. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Ellis, L., Taffe, J., Emerson, E., Tonge, B., Horstead, S. (2010). Intellectual Disability Modifies Gender Effects on Disruptive Behaviors. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(4), 177-189. [More Information]
  • Guastella, A., Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Rinehart, N., Tonge, B., Lambert, T., Hickie, I. (2010). Intranasal Oxytocin Improves Emotion Recognition in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 67, 692-694. [More Information]
  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2010). Playing with a child with ADHD: a focus on the playmates. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 17(3), 191-199. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Tonge, B. (2010). Psychosis in Prader-Willi Syndrome. In Perminder S. Sachdev & Matcheri S. Keshavan (Eds.), Secondary Schizophrenia, (pp. 328-331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kightley, M., Einfeld, S., Hancock, N. (2010). Routine outcome measurement in mental health: feasibility for examining effectiveness of an NGO. Australasian Psychiatry, 18(2), 167-169. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J. (2010). Young people with ID and mental health needs: Longitudinal change in symptoms. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(5), 421-421. [More Information]

2009

  • Cordier, J., Bundy, A., Hocking, C., Einfeld, S. (2009). A Model for Play-based Intervention for Children with ADHD. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56(5), 332-340.
  • Hofer, S., Gray, K., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Bontempo, D., Einfeld, S., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2009). Correlated and Coupled Within-Person Change in Emotional and Behavioral Disturbance in Individuals With Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 307-321.
  • Joosten, A., Bundy, A., Einfeld, S. (2009). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(3), 521-531. [More Information]
  • Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., Stancliffe, R. (2009). The Mental Health of Young Children with Intellectual Disabilities or Borderline Intellectual Functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(5), 579-587. [More Information]

2008

  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Parmenter, T. (2008). Children with ID and mental health needs:The Australian child to adult development (ACAD) study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(8-9), 725.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J. (2008). Down Syndrome – The Australian Child to Adult Development (ACAD) study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(8-9), 658.
  • Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Einfeld, S. (2008). Extracting more information from behaviour checklists by using components of mean based scores. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17(4), 232-240. [More Information]
  • Bontempo, D., Hofer, S., Mackinnon, A., Piccinin, A., Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2008). Factor structure of the Developmental Behavior Checklist using Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Polytomous items. Journal of Applied Measurement, 9(3), 265-280.
  • Einfeld, S., Emerson, E. (2008). Intellectual Disability. In M Rutter (Eds.), Rutter's Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (pp. 820, Chapter 49-840). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Goetz, J., Holsinger, D. (2008). Pathogenetic mechanisms in Down Syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52(10), 813-813. [More Information]
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2008). Screening for autism in young children with developmental delay: An evaluation of the developmental behavious checklist: Early screen. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38(6), 1003-1010. [More Information]

2007

  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Parmenter, T. (2007). Change in psychopathology from childhood to adulthood: The Australian child to adult development (ACAD) study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(S2), A455.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2007). Developmental Outcomes in Young Children with Autism and Developmental Delay. 6th International Meeting of Autism research (IMFAR) Conference, Seattle: IMFAR.
  • Bradley, E., Summers, J., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Havercamp, S., Holt, G., Levitas, A., Tonge, B. (2007). Intellectual Disabilities and Behavioral, Emotional, and Psychiatric Disturbances. In Ivan Brown and Marie Percy (Eds.), A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, (pp. 645-666). Baltimore, USA: Paul H Brooks.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2007). Intellectual Disability and Psychiatry. In Sidney Bloch; Bruce Singh (Eds.), Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry (3rd edition), (pp. 420-427). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne University Press.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Chapman, L., Mohr, C., Taffe, J., Horstead, S. (2007). Inter-rater reliability of the diagnoses of psychosis and depression in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20(5), 384-390.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Steinhausen, H. (2007). Manual for the Deutsche Version of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (German).
  • Einfeld, S., Evans, E., Mowat, D. (2007). Oral Presentation: The developmental profile and behavioural phenotype of Mowat Wilson syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(9), 657-657.
  • Taffe, J., Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Dekker, M., Koot, H., Emerson, E., Koskentausta, T., Tonge, B. (2007). Short Form of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. American Journal on Mental Retardation (Print), 112(1), 31-39. [More Information]

2006

  • Herring, S., Gray, K., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D. (2006). Associations with parental mental health and family functioning. 5th International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR).
  • Herring, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2006). Behavioural and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(12), 874-882.
  • Mooney, E., Gray, K., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., Einfeld, S. (2006). Early features of autism: Longitudinal study of repetitive behaviours in young children. 5th International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR).
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Gray, K., Taffe, J. (2006). Evolution of Symptoms and Syndromes of Psychopathology in Young People with Mental Retardation. In R.M. Hodapp and R. Urbano (Eds) (Eds.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation (volume 33), (pp. 247-265). Academic Press Elsevier. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Evans, E., Tonge, B., Taffe, J. (2006). Mortality in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 111(3), 193-198. [More Information]
  • Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2006), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist - Short Form (DBC-P24).
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2006). Psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism compared to young people with intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 863-870. [More Information]
  • Einfeld, S., Piccinin, A., Mackinnon, A., Hofer, S., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Bontempo, D., Hoffman, L., Parmenter, T., Tonge, B. (2006). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(16), 1981-1989. [More Information]

2005

  • Evans, E., Einfeld, S., Mowat, D., Wilson, M. (2005). An Investigation of the Behavioural Phenotype of Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS). 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Einfeld, S. (2005). Behaviour Problems in Children with Genetic Disorders causing Intellectual Disability. Educational Psychology: an international journal of experimental educational psychology, 25(2-3), 341-346.
  • Berry, R., Leitner, R., Clarke, A., Einfeld, S. (2005). Behavioural Aspects of Angelman Syndrome: A Case Control Study. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A, 132A (1), 8-12. [More Information]
  • Taffe, J., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2005). Developing measures for behavioural phenotypes in a longitudinal study – psychometric issues. 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Einfeld, S., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Wallander, J., Mohr, C. (2005). Measuring Psychopathology in People with Intellectual Disability: Recent Developments in the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC). Gatlinburg Conference on Research and Theory in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Taffe, J., Gray, K., Lourey, E. (2005). Pharmacological treatments for pervasive developmental disorders. Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes 9th International Symposium.
  • Einfeld, S., Andrews, D., Selig, R., Williams, G., Smith, C. (2005). Schizophrenia in a 5-year-old. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(4), 312.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2005). Screening for autism in young children with developmental delay. 9th International Symposium: Treatment of Behavioural Problems in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2005). The development of a new measure for the assessment of psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(7), 469-480.

2004

  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Parmenter, T., Gray, K. (2004). A 15-year Cohort Study of Psychopathology in Young People with Intellectual Disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Einfeld, S., Moseley, D. (2004). Autism: Change in Behavioural and Emotional Disturbance Over Time (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Behaviour Phenotypes of Genetic Disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 17(5), 343-348.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Book review: Outcomes in Neurodevelopmental and Genetic Disorders, P. Howlin & O. Udwin. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10), 1310-1311.
  • Davis, R., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Epidemiology and Determinants of Self-Injurious Behaviour (SIB). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Clarke, A., Schnieden, V., Hamilton, B., Dudley, M., Beard, J., Einfeld, S., Buss, R., Tobin, M., Knowles, M., Stevens, G., et al (2004). Factors associated with treatment compliance in young people following an emergency department presentation for deliberate self-harm. Archives of Suicide Research, 8(2), 147-152.
  • Einfeld, S. (2004). Gene to behaviour pathways in Fragile X syndrome. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry International Congress of Biological Psychiatry, UK: Informa Healthcare.
  • Mowat, D., Field, M., Fleischer, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Turner, G. (2004). Genetic diagnosis revisited in an epidemiological cohort of young people with intellectual disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Turner, G., Smith, E. (2004). Longitudinal Course of Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Prader-Willi, Fragile X, Williams and Down Syndromes (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Manual for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist- Adult version.
  • Einfeld, S., Kavanagh, S., Smith, A., Tonge, B. (2004). Rates of Psychosis and Affective Disorders in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Evans, E., Brereton, A., Taffe, J., Gray, K. (2004). Recent Developments in Application of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Gray, K., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2004). Screening for Autism in Young Children with Developmental Delay. IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Einfeld, S., Tobin, M., Beard, J., Evans, E., Buss, R., Dudley, M. (2004). Sustaining Evidence-Based Practice For Young People Who Self-Harm: A 4-Year Follow-Up. Australian Health Review, 27(2), 94-99.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Gray, K. (2004). The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults: A New Contribution to the Assessment of Psychopathology in People with Intellectual Disability (ID). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Gray, K., Brereton, A., Taffe, J. (2004). The family burden of emotional and behavioural problems in children with intellectual disability (abstract). IASSID World Congress, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

2003

  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Gray, K. (2003). A Follow-up Study of Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Young People with Intellectual Disability. International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 11th Scientific Meeting.
  • Clarke, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S., Mackinnon, A. (2003). Assessment of Change with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(3), 210-212.
  • Dudley, M., Beard, J., Clarke, A., Knowles, M., Buss, R., Schnieden, V., Einfeld, S., Tobin, M., Dietrich, U. (2003). Effectiveness of a 'green card' intervention for patients engaging in deliberate self-harm. Archives of Suicide Research, 7(2), 175-181.
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003). Manual for the Computerised Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Australia: University of New South Wales and Monash University.
  • Anderson, J., Einfeld, S., Fairley, M., Kavanagh, S., Torr, J. (2003), Psychiatric Aspects of Intellectual Disability.
  • Cooper, S., Melville, C., Einfeld, S. (2003). Psychiatric Diagnosis, Intellectual Disabilities and Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation (DC-LD). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(1), 3-15.
  • Mohr, C., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist - Adult Version (DBC-A).
  • Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2003). Psychopathology and Intellectual Disability. The Australian Child to Adult Longitudinal Study. In Masters Glidden (Eds.), International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, (pp. 61-91). California: California: Academic Press.
  • Kavanagh, S., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2003). Rates of Psychosis and Affective Disorders in a Cohort with Prader-Willi Syndrome. 4th Congress of the European Association for Mental Health in Mental Retardation.
  • Einfeld, S. (2003). Review of DC-LD (Diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders for use with adults with learning disabilities/mental retardation. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 28(2), 214-215.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2003), Software: DBC-Score, Version 2, Scoring Software for the Developmental Behaviour Checklist Sydney and Melbourne: University of New South Wales and Monash University Centre for Developmental Psychiatry and Psychology.

2002

  • Dekker, M., Nunn, R., Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Koot, H. (2002). Assessing emotional and behavioral problems in children with intellectual disability: Revisiting the factor structure of the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(6), 601-610.
  • Einfeld, S., Beard, J., Tobin, M., Buss, R., Dudley, M., Clarke, A., Knowles, M., Hamilton, B. (2002). Evidence-based practice for young people who self-harm: can it be sustained and does in improve outcomes? Australian Health Review, 25(4), 178-188.
  • Einfeld, S. (2002). Increased Mortality and Causes of Death in Prader-Willi Syndrome. Poster presented at Society for the Study of Behavioural Phenotypes, 7th International Symposium: Re-thinking the Brain,.
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Mackinnon, A., Einfeld, S. (2002). Screening young people for autism with the Developmental Behavior Checklist. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(11), 1369-1375.
  • Sigafoos, J., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T., Hartog, S. (2002). The APEX Project. 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Behavior Analysis.

2001

  • Sigafoos, J., Einfeld, S., Parmenter, T. (2001). An introduction to challenging behavior in children with intellectual disabilities. Special Education Perspectives, 10(2), 37-46.
  • Tobin, M., Clarke, A., Buss, R., Einfeld, S., Beard, J., Dudley, M., Knowles, M., Riches, J. (2001). From efficacy to effectiveness: managing organisational change to improve health services for young people with deliberate self harm behaviour. Australian Health Review, 24(2), 143-151.
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B. (2001). Longitudinal course of behavioural and emotional problems in Williams Syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 106(1), 73-81.
  • Brereton, A., Tonge, B., Einfeld, S. (2001), Psychometric Instruments: Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm (DBC-ASA).
  • Einfeld, S., Tonge, B., Brereton, A., Gray, K., Parmenter, T., Turner, G. (2001). Psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.
  • Einfeld, S. (2001). Systematic management approach to pharmacotherapy for people with learning disabilities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 43-49.

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