Emeritus Professor John Carter

BA LLB (Sydney) PhD (Camb)

F10 - Law School (Camperdown)
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9351 0401
Fax +61 2 9351 0200

Website Papers on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN)

Biographical details

John Carter was born in England in 1953. He settled in Australia in 1960. After completing Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws degrees at the University of Sydney in 1974 and 1976, he spent a year as Associate to the Hon Mr Justice Franki of the Federal Court of Australia. In 1978 he returned to England as a WÿM Tapp Research Student at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He graduated Doctor of Philosophy in 1981. In that year he took up a Lectureship in the Faculty of Law at the University of Sydney. Following promotions to senior lecturer and Associate Professor in 1986 and 1990 respectively, he was awarded a personal chair in the field of Commercial Law in 1995.

In 1988 Professor Carter established the Journal of Contract Law, of which he is the General Editor. He was also Executive Editor of the Sydney Law Review between 1990 and 1991. Between 1986 and 1989 Professor Carter served as consultant and part-time Commissioner to the Law Reform Commission of New South Wales.

Specialising in Contract, Commercial Law and Restitution Professor Carter has written extensively in all these areas. He has published three major works. First, Breach of Contract, based on his doctoral thesis and now in its 2nd ed, 1991, published jointly by Law Book Co Ltd, Sydney and Sweet & Maxwell, London. Second, Contract Law in Australia, with Professor DÿJ Harland of Sydney Law School, published by Butterworths, Sydney and now in its 3rd ed, 1996. Third, Restitution Law in Australia (the first Australian work analysing the subject restitution), with Justice Mason, President of the New South Wales Court of Appeal, published by Butterworths, Sydney in 1995. Professor Carter is the author of three titles in Halsbury's Laws of Australia: Contract, Restitution (with Keith Mason and Andrew Bulley) and Sale of Goods.

Professor Carter is a consultant to Freehill Hollingdale & Page, solicitors. He is also Chairman of the Education Committee of the Commercial Law Association of Australia and Director of Continuing Legal Education, in the Faculty of Law of the University of Sydney.

Research interests

  • Contracts
  • Commercial Law and Restitution

Teaching and supervision

  • Personal Property
  • Contracts
  • Restitution
  • Remedies
  • Advanced Contracts

Selected publications

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Books

  • Carter, J. (2013). Contract Law in Australia - 6th Edition. Australia: LexisNexis.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The Construction of Commercial Contracts. Oxford, United Kingdom: Hart Publishing.
  • Mason, K., Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2008). Mason & Carters Restitution Law in Australia. Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J., Peden, E. (2007). Cases and materials on contract law in Australia (5th Edition). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E., Tolhurst, G. (2007). Contract Law in Australia. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J. (2006). Carter's Guide to Australian Contract Law. Sydney: LexisNexis.
  • Carter, J., Harland, D. (2004). Cases and Materials on Contract Law in Australia (4th edition). Sydney: Butterworths.
  • Carter, J. (2002). Carter on Contract. Sydney, Australia: Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Harland, D. (2002). Contract Law in Australia (4th edition). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.

Book Chapters

  • Carter, J. (2008). Termination of Part of a Contract. In Greg Tolhurst, Elisabeth {eden (Eds.), Commercial Issues in Contract Law: Papers from the Commercial Law Quarterly 20th Anniversary Conference, (pp. 98-111). University of Sydney: Ross Parsons Centre of Commercial, Corporate and Taxation Law.
  • Carter, J. (2003). Termination. In M Furmston (Eds.), The Law of Contract, Butterworths Common Law Series (2nd ed), (pp. 1317-1400). London: Butterworths.

Journals

  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2014). Implied Terms: What Is the Role of Construction? Journal of Contract Law, 31(1), 151-167.
  • Carter, J., Courtney, W., Tolhurst, G. (2014). Issues of Principle in Assessing Contract Damages. Journal of Contract Law, 31(2), 171-205.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2014). Prohibitions On Assignment: A Choice To Be Made. Cambridge Law Journal, 73(2), 405-434. [More Information]
  • Carter, J., Courtney, W., Peden, E., Stewart, A., Tolhurst, G. (2013). Contractual Penalties: Resurrecting the Equitable Jurisdiction. Journal of Contract Law, 30(2), 99-132.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2013). Debts, Liquidated Sums and the Enforcement of Claims under Guarantees and Indemnities. Journal of Contract Law, 30(1), 70-91.
  • Carter, J. (2013). Deposits and "Time of the Essence". The Law Quarterly Review, 129(2), 149-152.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The implication of contractual terms: problems with Belize Telecom. Commercial Law Quarterly, 27(3), 3-7.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The remedy of rectification. Commercial Law Quarterly, 27(2), 10-16.
  • Carter, J., Courtney, W. (2012). Indemnities against breach of contract as agreed damages clauses. Journal of Business Law, 2012 (7), 555-578.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Indemnities Against Breach and Settlements of Third Party Claims. Journal of Contract Law, 27(3), 265-278.
  • Furmston, M., Carter, J. (2011). Indemnities for the Benefit of Others. Journal of Contract Law, 27(1), 82-90.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J., Peden, E. (2011). Masters v Cameron - Again!. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 42(1), 49-64.
  • Carter, J., Goh, Y. (2010). Concurrent and Independent Rights to Terminate for Breach of Contract. Journal of Contract Law, 26(2), 103-133.
  • Carter, J. (2010). The Commercial Side of Australian Consumer Protection Law. Journal of Contract Law, 26(3), 221-247.
  • Carter, J. (2009). Commercial Construction and Contract Doctrine. Journal of Contract Law, 25(1), 83-94.
  • Carter, J. (2009). Contractual Indemnities - Are They Worth Having? Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal, 28(2), 169-175.
  • Carter, J. (2009). Exclusion of Liability for Consequential Loss. Journal of Contract Law, 25(2), 118-134.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2009). Recovery of Contract Debts Following Termination for Breach. Journal of Contract Law, 25(3), 191-215.
  • McDonald, B., Carter, J. (2009). The Lottery of Contractual Risk Allocation and Proportionate Liability. Journal of Contract Law, 26(1), 1-24.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2008). Damages Following Termination for Repudiation: Taking Account of Later Events. Journal of Contract Law, 24(2), 145-175.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Intermediate Terms Arrive in Australia and Singapore. Journal of Contract Law, 24(3), 226-250.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Partial Termination of Contracts. Journal of Contract Law, 24(1), 1-27.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Termination of trustees' contracts. Commercial Law Quarterly, 22(1), 3-13.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2007). A Good Faith Perspective on Liquidated Damages. Journal of Contract Law, 23(3), 157-179.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E., Stammer, K. (2007). Contractual Restrictions and Rights under Copyright Legislation. Journal of Contract Law, 23(1-2), 32-54.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2006). Agreed Damages Clauses - Back to the Future? Journal of Contract Law, 22(2), 189-198.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G., Peden, E. (2006). Developing the Intermediate Term Concept. Journal of Contract Law, 22(3), 268-286.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2006). Entire Agreement - and Similar - Clauses. Journal of Contract Law, 22(1), 1-15.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2005). Incorporation of Terms by Signature: L'Estrange Rules!. Journal of Contract Law, 21(1), 96-106.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2005). Taking Stock: The High Court and Contract Construction. Journal of Contract Law, 21(2), 172-181.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2005). The 'Natural Meaning' of Contracts. Journal of Contract Law, 21(3), 277-285.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Consumers beware: the loss of contractual protection for recreational risks. Australian Civil Liability, 3(1), 33-35.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Australian Construction Law Newsletter, 94, 6-17.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Liability Provisions In Contract: Indemnities, Guarantees And Exclusions. Commercial Law Quarterly, 18(1), 12-18.
  • Carter, J., Yates, D. (2004). Perspectives On Commercial Construction And The Canada Ss Case. Journal of Contract Law, 20(3), 233-246.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2004). Relief against Forfeiture in the High Court of Australia. Journal of Contract Law, 20(1), 74-85.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2004). When Three Just Isn't Enough: The Fourth Category Of The 'Subject To Contract' Cases. Journal of Contract Law, 20, 156-166.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2003). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Journal of Contract Law, 19(2), 155-172.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2003). Good faith in Australian contract law. Commercial Law Quarterly, 17(1), 15-22.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2003). Roxborough v Rothmans of Pall Mall. Journal of Contract Law, 19, 287-299.
  • Stewart, A., Carter, J. (2003). The high court and contract law in the new millenium. Flinders Journal of Law Reform, 6(2), 185-215.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2002). A contract law perspective of the Civil Liability Amendment (Personal Responsibility) Bill 2002 (NSW). Plaintiff, 54, 19-21.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2002). Acceptance of Benefit as a Basis for Restitution. Journal of Contract Law, 18(52), 52-74.
  • Carter, J., Stewart, A. (2002). Interpretation, Good Faith and the 'True Meaning' of Contracts: The Royal Botanical Decision. Journal of Contract Law, 18(3), 182-195.
  • Carter, J. (2001). Auction "Without Reserve" - Barry v. Davies. Journal of Contract Law, 17, 69-75.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2001). Conditional Payments and Failure of Consideration: Contract or Restitution. Asia Pacific Law Review, 9, 1-22.
  • Carter, J. (2001). Contractual Issues for Trustees. Unknown.
  • Carter, J., Stewart, A. (2001). The Effect of Formalising an Employment Contract: the High Court misses an Opportunity. Journal of Contract Law, 17, 181-192.
  • Carter, J. (2000). Converging Liabilities and Security of Contract: Contributory negligence in Australian law. Journal of Contract Law, 16, 78-101.
  • Carter, J. (2000). Restitution of payments made under contracts prohibited by statute. Journal of Contract Law, 15, 228-241.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2000). The Bonds of Partnership. Journal of Contract Law, 16(2), 275-285.
  • Hill, J., Carter, J. (1986). Repudiation of Leases: Further Developments. The Conveyancer and Property Lawyer, 1986, 262-271.
  • Hill, J., Carter, J. (1986). Severance, Illegal Contracts and Company Law. Company and Securities Law Journal, 4(3), 183-188.

Conferences

  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Contractual indemnities in practice. Freehills - March 2011, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Drafting contractual indemnities. Freehills 2011, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J., Furmston, M., Peden, E. (2011). Issues in contract drafting. Journal of Contract Law Conference 2011, Sabah, Malaysia: Presentation.
  • Carter, J. (2003). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Contracts Conference (2003), Melbourne, Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.

2014

  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2014). Implied Terms: What Is the Role of Construction? Journal of Contract Law, 31(1), 151-167.
  • Carter, J., Courtney, W., Tolhurst, G. (2014). Issues of Principle in Assessing Contract Damages. Journal of Contract Law, 31(2), 171-205.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2014). Prohibitions On Assignment: A Choice To Be Made. Cambridge Law Journal, 73(2), 405-434. [More Information]

2013

  • Carter, J. (2013). Contract Law in Australia - 6th Edition. Australia: LexisNexis.
  • Carter, J., Courtney, W., Peden, E., Stewart, A., Tolhurst, G. (2013). Contractual Penalties: Resurrecting the Equitable Jurisdiction. Journal of Contract Law, 30(2), 99-132.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2013). Debts, Liquidated Sums and the Enforcement of Claims under Guarantees and Indemnities. Journal of Contract Law, 30(1), 70-91.
  • Carter, J. (2013). Deposits and "Time of the Essence". The Law Quarterly Review, 129(2), 149-152.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The Construction of Commercial Contracts. Oxford, United Kingdom: Hart Publishing.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The implication of contractual terms: problems with Belize Telecom. Commercial Law Quarterly, 27(3), 3-7.
  • Carter, J. (2013). The remedy of rectification. Commercial Law Quarterly, 27(2), 10-16.

2012

  • Carter, J., Courtney, W. (2012). Indemnities against breach of contract as agreed damages clauses. Journal of Business Law, 2012 (7), 555-578.

2011

  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Contractual indemnities in practice. Freehills - March 2011, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Drafting contractual indemnities. Freehills 2011, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J. (2011). Indemnities Against Breach and Settlements of Third Party Claims. Journal of Contract Law, 27(3), 265-278.
  • Furmston, M., Carter, J. (2011). Indemnities for the Benefit of Others. Journal of Contract Law, 27(1), 82-90.
  • Courtney, W., Carter, J., Furmston, M., Peden, E. (2011). Issues in contract drafting. Journal of Contract Law Conference 2011, Sabah, Malaysia: Presentation.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J., Peden, E. (2011). Masters v Cameron - Again!. Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, 42(1), 49-64.

2010

  • Carter, J., Goh, Y. (2010). Concurrent and Independent Rights to Terminate for Breach of Contract. Journal of Contract Law, 26(2), 103-133.
  • Carter, J. (2010). The Commercial Side of Australian Consumer Protection Law. Journal of Contract Law, 26(3), 221-247.

2009

  • Carter, J. (2009). Commercial Construction and Contract Doctrine. Journal of Contract Law, 25(1), 83-94.
  • Carter, J. (2009). Contractual Indemnities - Are They Worth Having? Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal, 28(2), 169-175.
  • Carter, J. (2009). Exclusion of Liability for Consequential Loss. Journal of Contract Law, 25(2), 118-134.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2009). Recovery of Contract Debts Following Termination for Breach. Journal of Contract Law, 25(3), 191-215.
  • McDonald, B., Carter, J. (2009). The Lottery of Contractual Risk Allocation and Proportionate Liability. Journal of Contract Law, 26(1), 1-24.

2008

  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2008). Damages Following Termination for Repudiation: Taking Account of Later Events. Journal of Contract Law, 24(2), 145-175.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Intermediate Terms Arrive in Australia and Singapore. Journal of Contract Law, 24(3), 226-250.
  • Mason, K., Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2008). Mason & Carters Restitution Law in Australia. Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Partial Termination of Contracts. Journal of Contract Law, 24(1), 1-27.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Termination of Part of a Contract. In Greg Tolhurst, Elisabeth {eden (Eds.), Commercial Issues in Contract Law: Papers from the Commercial Law Quarterly 20th Anniversary Conference, (pp. 98-111). University of Sydney: Ross Parsons Centre of Commercial, Corporate and Taxation Law.
  • Carter, J. (2008). Termination of trustees' contracts. Commercial Law Quarterly, 22(1), 3-13.

2007

  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2007). A Good Faith Perspective on Liquidated Damages. Journal of Contract Law, 23(3), 157-179.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J., Peden, E. (2007). Cases and materials on contract law in Australia (5th Edition). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E., Tolhurst, G. (2007). Contract Law in Australia. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E., Stammer, K. (2007). Contractual Restrictions and Rights under Copyright Legislation. Journal of Contract Law, 23(1-2), 32-54.

2006

  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2006). Agreed Damages Clauses - Back to the Future? Journal of Contract Law, 22(2), 189-198.
  • Carter, J. (2006). Carter's Guide to Australian Contract Law. Sydney: LexisNexis.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G., Peden, E. (2006). Developing the Intermediate Term Concept. Journal of Contract Law, 22(3), 268-286.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2006). Entire Agreement - and Similar - Clauses. Journal of Contract Law, 22(1), 1-15.

2005

  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2005). Incorporation of Terms by Signature: L'Estrange Rules!. Journal of Contract Law, 21(1), 96-106.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2005). Taking Stock: The High Court and Contract Construction. Journal of Contract Law, 21(2), 172-181.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2005). The 'Natural Meaning' of Contracts. Journal of Contract Law, 21(3), 277-285.

2004

  • Carter, J., Harland, D. (2004). Cases and Materials on Contract Law in Australia (4th edition). Sydney: Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Consumers beware: the loss of contractual protection for recreational risks. Australian Civil Liability, 3(1), 33-35.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Australian Construction Law Newsletter, 94, 6-17.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2004). Liability Provisions In Contract: Indemnities, Guarantees And Exclusions. Commercial Law Quarterly, 18(1), 12-18.
  • Carter, J., Yates, D. (2004). Perspectives On Commercial Construction And The Canada Ss Case. Journal of Contract Law, 20(3), 233-246.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2004). Relief against Forfeiture in the High Court of Australia. Journal of Contract Law, 20(1), 74-85.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2004). When Three Just Isn't Enough: The Fourth Category Of The 'Subject To Contract' Cases. Journal of Contract Law, 20, 156-166.

2003

  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2003). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Journal of Contract Law, 19(2), 155-172.
  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2003). Good faith in Australian contract law. Commercial Law Quarterly, 17(1), 15-22.
  • Carter, J. (2003). Good Faith in Australian Contract Law. Contracts Conference (2003), Melbourne, Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2003). Roxborough v Rothmans of Pall Mall. Journal of Contract Law, 19, 287-299.
  • Carter, J. (2003). Termination. In M Furmston (Eds.), The Law of Contract, Butterworths Common Law Series (2nd ed), (pp. 1317-1400). London: Butterworths.
  • Stewart, A., Carter, J. (2003). The high court and contract law in the new millenium. Flinders Journal of Law Reform, 6(2), 185-215.

2002

  • Carter, J., Peden, E. (2002). A contract law perspective of the Civil Liability Amendment (Personal Responsibility) Bill 2002 (NSW). Plaintiff, 54, 19-21.
  • Tolhurst, G., Carter, J. (2002). Acceptance of Benefit as a Basis for Restitution. Journal of Contract Law, 18(52), 52-74.
  • Carter, J. (2002). Carter on Contract. Sydney, Australia: Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Harland, D. (2002). Contract Law in Australia (4th edition). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Carter, J., Stewart, A. (2002). Interpretation, Good Faith and the 'True Meaning' of Contracts: The Royal Botanical Decision. Journal of Contract Law, 18(3), 182-195.

2001

  • Carter, J. (2001). Auction "Without Reserve" - Barry v. Davies. Journal of Contract Law, 17, 69-75.
  • Carter, J., Tolhurst, G. (2001). Conditional Payments and Failure of Consideration: Contract or Restitution. Asia Pacific Law Review, 9, 1-22.
  • Carter, J. (2001). Contractual Issues for Trustees. Unknown.
  • Carter, J., Stewart, A. (2001). The Effect of Formalising an Employment Contract: the High Court misses an Opportunity. Journal of Contract Law, 17, 181-192.

2000

  • Carter, J. (2000). Converging Liabilities and Security of Contract: Contributory negligence in Australian law. Journal of Contract Law, 16, 78-101.
  • Carter, J. (2000). Restitution of payments made under contracts prohibited by statute. Journal of Contract Law, 15, 228-241.
  • Peden, E., Carter, J. (2000). The Bonds of Partnership. Journal of Contract Law, 16(2), 275-285.

1986

  • Hill, J., Carter, J. (1986). Repudiation of Leases: Further Developments. The Conveyancer and Property Lawyer, 1986, 262-271.
  • Hill, J., Carter, J. (1986). Severance, Illegal Contracts and Company Law. Company and Securities Law Journal, 4(3), 183-188.

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