Associate Professor Thomas Crofts

LLB (Hons) (London) LLM (Würzburg) Dr.iur. (Frankfurt/O)
Associate Dean (Learning and Teaching)
Director, Sydney Institute of Criminology

F10 - Law School (Camperdown)
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9351 0474
Fax +61 2 9351 0200

Website Papers on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN)

Biographical details

Associate Professor Thomas Crofts is Director of the Sydney Institute of Criminology. He is a graduate of University College London (LL.B.), the Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Germany (LL.M.) and the European University Viadrina in Frankfurt/O., Germany (Dr. iur.). Prior to Sydney University Associate Professor Crofts taught Law at Murdoch University (2000–2010), the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) (1995–1999) and the Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg (1993–1995). He has held visiting appointments at the Universities of Sheffield, Nottingham, Birmingham and Western Australia.

His research in criminal law, criminology and criminal justice centres on criminalisation and criminal responsibility, exploring why and how behaviours are defined by, and governed through, criminal law. Within this broad field his interests are the criminal responsibility of, and for, children, comparative criminal law, criminal law reform (particularly relating to homicide and sex work)and the relevance and role of labelling. He has published in English and German in these fields in national and international journals. In 2011 he was awarded the Australia and New Zealand Society of Criminology‘s inaugural Adam Sutton Crime Prevention Award. Currently, he is conducting two research projects funded by the Australian Institute of Criminology into young people’s perceptions of ‘sexting’ and into the policing of the LGBTQI community.

Associate Professor Crofts’ teaching interests are criminal law, criminology and criminal justice. At Sydney he teaches Criminology and Criminal Law. He has taught ‘Homicide’ in the LLM programme in Criminal Law & Criminal Justice at the University of Birmingham and in the Master of Criminal Justice Programme at the Crime Research Centre of the University of Western Australia (Criminology, Criminal Law and Public Policy; Administration of Sentences; and Theories of Punishment and Principles of Sentencing). Associate Professor Crofts has been awarded Murdoch University Vice Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2002 and 2009.

Research interests

  • Criminalization
  • Criminal responsibility
  • Comparative criminal law
  • Criminal law reform
  • Children and criminal law

Teaching and supervision

  • Criminology
  • Foundations of Law
  • Criminal Law

Current projects

  • Sexting and Young People: Perceptions, Practices, Policy and Law
  • Reporting Victimisation to LGBTI (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex) Police Liaison Services
  • Homicide Law Reform (including defences)

Awards and honours

  • Inaugural Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Adam Sutton Crime Prevention Award 2011
  • Murdoch University Vice Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching 2009
  • Murdoch University Vice Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching 2002

Selected grants

2013

  • Reporting Victimisation to LGBTI (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex) Police Liaison Services; Dwyer A, Ball, M, Bond C, Lee M, Crofts T; Australian Institute of Criminology/Criminology Research Grant.

2012

  • Sexting and Young People: Perceptions, Practices, Policy and Law; Lee M, Crofts T, Salter M, Milivojevic S, McGovern A; Australian Institute of Criminology/Criminology Research Grant.
  • Law and Society; Beem B, Crofts T, Hendrischke H, Howard-Wagner D, Humphrey M, Lambourne W, Lee M, Macdonald G, Martin G, O'Brien K, O'Malley P, Park S, Piper N, Scott Bray R, Van Krieken R, Winter B; Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences/FASS Collaborative Research Scheme.

Selected publications

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Books

  • Crofts, T. (2014). Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia - Second Edition. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M., Salter, M., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting and Young People. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Anthony, T., Crofts, P., Crofts, T., Gray, S., Loughnan, A., Naylor, B. (2013). Waller & Williams Criminal Law Text and Cases - 12th Edition. Australia: LexisNexis.
  • Burton, K., Crofts, T., Tarrant, S. (2011). Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia. Sydney: Thomson Reuters.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Crofts, T., Burton, K. (2009). The Criminal Codes: Commentary and Materials. Pyrmont: Thomson Lawbook Co. (Thompson Reuters).
  • Kendall, C., Crofts, T., Jardine, A. (2004). Same Sex Relationships: A Legal Guide for Western Australians Post Law Reform. Australia: Murdoch Print.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The Criminal Responsibility of Children and Young Persons: A Comparison of English and German Law. United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing.

Edited Books

  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2015). Criminalisation and Criminal Responsibility in Australia (Forthcoming). Australia: Oxford University Press.

Book Chapters

  • Crofts, T. (2014). Privacy and young people: controlling anti-social behaviour through loss of anonymity. In Normann Witzleb, David Lindsay, Moira Paterson, Sharon Rodrick (Eds.), Emerging Challenges in Privacy Law: Comparative Perspectives, (pp. 229-255). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Regulation of the Male Sex Industry. In Victor Minichiello, John Scott (Eds.), Male Sex Work and Society, (pp. 178-197). New York: Harrington Park Press.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Labelling Homicides. In Sharon B. Byrd, Joachim Hruschka and Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fuer Recht und Ethik/Annual Review of Law and Ethics - Volume 17. Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot GmbH.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). The Criminal Responsibility of Children. In Geoff Monahan, Lisa Young (Eds.), Children and the Law in Australia, (pp. 167-186). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Do Parents Know Best? In Jan C. Joerden and Josef N. Neumann (Eds.), Medizinethik 5 Series: Studien zur Ethik in Ostmitteleuropa - Volume 8, (pp. 147-166). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). Separating Issues of Life and Death. In Sharon B. Byrd, Joachim Hruschka, Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics Volume 12. Germany: Duncker & Humblot.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). "The right of the Individual or the Common Good?": The Euthanasia Debate in Australia. In Jan C. Joerden, Josef N. Neumann (Eds.), Medizinethik 3 / Ethics and Scientific Theory of Medicine Volume 3. Germany: Peter Lang Verlag.
  • Crofts, T., Stanglow, P. (2001). Treatment of Disease or Genetic Enhancement? In Sharon B. Byrd. Joachim Hruschka, Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics Volume 9. Germany: Duncker & Humblot.

Journals

  • Shepherdson, P., Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Community Safety and Crime Prevention Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 3(1), 107-120. [More Information]
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Gender, Pressure, Coercion and Pleasure: Untangling Motivations For Sexting Between Young People (Forthcoming). The British Journal of Criminology.
  • Shepherdson, P., Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Partnerships and NSW local government Community Safety Officers. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 16(2), 71-86. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2014). Provocation, NSW Style: Reform of the Defence of Provocation in NSW. Criminal Law Review, 2014 (2), 109-125.
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., Salter, M., Milivojevic, S., McGovern, A. (2013). 'Let's Get Sexting': Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(1), 35-49. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2013). 'Sexting', Children and Child Pornography. Sydney Law Review, 35(1), 85-106. [More Information]
  • Salter, M., Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2013). Beyond Criminalisation and Responsibilisation: Sexting, Gender and Young People. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 24(3), 301-316.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Chalking up a Storm: Finding the rainbow connection. Alternative Law Journal, 38(3), 165-169.
  • Crofts, T., Tyson, D. (2013). Homicide Law Reform in Australia: Improving Access to Defences for Women Who Kill Their Abusers. Monash University Law Review, 39(3), 864-893. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2013). Provocation: The good, the bad and the ugly. Criminal Law Journal, 37(1), 23-37.
  • Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2012). 'We're not Batman' - Roles and expectations of local government community safety officers in New South Wales. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 14(4), 235-257. [More Information]
  • Tomsen, S., Crofts, T. (2012). Social and cultural meanings of legal responses to homicide among men: Masculine honour, sexual advances and accidents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 45(3), 423-437. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Witzleb, N. (2011). "Naming and shaming" in Western Australia: Prohibited behaviour orders, publicity and the decline of youth anonymity. Criminal Law Journal, 35(1), 34-45.
  • Crofts, T., Mitchell, T. (2011). Prohibited Behaviour Orders and Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 23(2), 277-285.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Law and (Anti-Social Behaviour) Order Campaign in Western Australia. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 22(3), 399-414.
  • Crofts, T., Panther, N. (2010). Changes to Police Stop and Search Laws in Western Australia: What Decent People Have to Fear. The Western Australian Jurist, 1, 57-67.
  • Swensen, G., Crofts, T. (2010). Recent Developments in Cannabis Law Reform: The Rise and Fall of the Cannabis Infringement Notice Scheme in Western Australia. Flinders Law Journal, 12(2), 79-104.
  • Crofts, T. (2010). Stop and Search Without Reasonable Suspicion: Is Western Australia Becoming a Police State? Alternative Law Journal, 35(4), 199-202.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Doli incapax: in defence of defence. Childright, 2008. no. 252, 19-21.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Taking the Age of Criminal Responsibility Seriously in England. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 17(4), 267-291. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Children: Doli Incapax. Journal of Criminal Law, 72(1), 8-10.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Lagging behind Europe: The criminalisation of children in England. Humanitas Journal of European Studies (HJES), 2, 1-17.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2008). Red Light on Sex Work in Western Australia. Alternative Law Journal, 33(4), 209-213.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Two Degrees of Murder: Homicide Law Reform in England and Western Australia. Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, 8(2), 187-210.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). A false alarm. New Law Journal, 157, 1226.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Die Altersgrenzen im australischen Strafrecht (The Age Levels in Australian Criminal Law). Zeitschrift fur Jugendkriminalrecht und Jugendhilfe, 4, 393-400.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2007). Licensing: Regulating Prostitution or Enforcing Morality. University of Western Australia Law Review, 33(2), 289-306.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Rape, the Mental Element and Consistency in the Codes. Queensland University of Technology Law and Justice Journal, 7(1), 1-15.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Wilful murder, murder - what's in a name? Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 19(1), 49-63.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2006). The Licensing of Sex Work in Australia and New Zealand. eLaw Journal, 13, 269-287.
  • Crofts, T. (2006). Wilful murderers in Western Australia soon to get away with murder? Alternative Law Journal, 31, 203-205.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Identifying the Criminal Act in Rape. Criminal Law Journal, 29(4), 1-9.
  • Swensen, G., Crofts, T. (2005). Reforms to Minor Cannabis Offences in the United Kingdom & Western Australia. Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, 2005 (1), 1-22.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). The rise of the principle of education in the German juvenile justice system. International Journal of Childrens Rights, 12(4), 401-417.
  • Crofts, T. (2003). Doli Incapax: Why Children Deserve its Protection. eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 10(3), 1-15.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Book Review: International Criminal Law, by Kriangsak Kittiasaree. Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 3, 124-129.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Prostitution Law Reform. Alternative Law Journal, 27(4), 184-187.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The Oldest Profession: At Last to be Treated as a Profession? Sister in Law, 6, 147-167.
  • Crofts, T. (1999). Mit zehn Jahren strafmündig. Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 111, 728-741.
  • Crofts, T. (1998). Rebutting the Presumption of Doli Incapax. Journal of Criminal Law, 62(2), 185-194.
  • Crofts, T. (1998). Review: Einfuhrung in die anglo-amerikanische Rechtssprache/ Introduction to Anglo-American Law & Language (by B. Sharon Byrd). Jura: Juristische Ausbildung, 20, 615-616.
  • Stanglow, P., Crofts, T. (1997). Kant's Metaphysik der Sitten: 200 Jahre Tradition in der Unterscheidung von Recht und Moral [Kant's Metaphysics of Morals : 200 years tradition in the distinction between law and morality]. Juristenzeitung (JZ), 52, 663-666.
  • Crofts, T. (1996). Die strafrechtliche Verantwortung von Kindern in England. Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 108, 214-228.

Conferences

  • Fitz-Gibbon, K., Crofts, T., Flynn, A., Halsey, M., Lee, M., Quilter, J., Tomsen, S. (2014). Responses to 'one-punch' homicide (Thematic Panel). Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC) 2014 - Testing the Edges: Challenging Criminology, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • McGovern, A., Lee, M., Crofts, T., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, policies, practices and the law (Thematic Panel). Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC) 2014 - Testing the Edges: Challenging Criminology, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Sexting, young people and criminalisation. British Society of Criminology (BSC) Conference 2014 - Crime, Justice, Welfare: Can the Metropole listen?, Liverpool, England: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). The case for an offence of unlawful assault causing death. British Society of Criminology (BSC) Conference 2014 - Crime, Justice, Welfare: Can the Metropole listen?, Liverpool, England: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting' and Criminal Responsibility: Inconsistency of ages: child pornography; consent; criminal responsibility. Fourth Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting', Young People and Child Pornography. Hedonism: Young People, Sex, Drugs & Alcohol - Centre for Youth Work Studies Seminar Series, London, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting', Young People and Child Pornography. Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Seminar Series, University of Hull 2013, Hull, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). DIY Rainbow Crossings: Finding the Rainbow Connection (Presentation). 13th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest: European Society of Criminology.
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting and young people: Intersections and experiences. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2013: Reflections, Intersections and Aspirations 50 years of Australian Sociology, Melbourne, Vic: The Australian Sociological Association (TASA).
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S., Salter, M. (2013). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, practices, policy and law. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2013: Reflections, Intersections and Aspirations 50 years of Australian Sociology, Melbourne, Vic: The Australian Sociological Association (TASA).
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S., Salter, M. (2013). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, practices, policy and law. Young People and Mediated Sexual Communication Symposium 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting: Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. 7th Annual Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference (CCC 2013), Adelaide SA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting: Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. Law on the Edge: Joint Conference of the Canadian Law and Society Association and the Law and Society Association of Australia and New Zealand 2013, Vancouver, BC, Canada: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). The legal regulation of male sex work. Australia's Homosexual Histories Conference 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2012). 'Sexting': Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. Criminology Seminar Series, Monash University 2012, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • McGovern, A., Crofts, T. (2012). 'Sexting': What’s the big deal? The Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference 2012 - Changing the Way We Think about Change: Shifting Boundaries, Changing Lives, Hobart, Tas: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2012). Innovation in Teaching Criminal Law. Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA) 2012: Legal Education for a Global Community, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Tomsen, S. (2012). Masculine violence and unfinished activism: the persistence of HSD in Australian defences to homicide. The Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference 2012 - Changing the Way We Think about Change: Shifting Boundaries, Changing Lives, Hobart, Tas: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2012). Sexting and Young People: Sexualisation, Anxiety, and Law. Joint Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association and the Research Committee on Sociology of Law (International Sociological Association) 2012: Sociolegal Conversations across a Sea of Islands, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., McGovern, A. (2012). Sexting, Children and Child Pornography. 12th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology 2012 - Criminology in the 21st Century: a Necessary Balance Between Freedom and Security, Bilbao, Spain: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2011). 'Sexting' and Young People: Sexualisation, Anxiety and Law. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2011: Local Lives/Global Network, Newcastle, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Mitchell, T. (2011). Policy Transfer and Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System (Presentation). Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: An International Conference, Brisbane: School of Justice, Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). Prohibited Behaviour Orders and Anti-social Behaviour Orders: Lessons Not Learned. 24th Annual Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference (ANZSOC) 2011: Crime and the regions: from the local to regional, national and international, Geelong, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Licensing of Sex Work: Regulating an Industry or Enforcing Public Morality? Law and Society Association Annual Meeting (LSA 2011), San Francisco, CA, USA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Reception of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders in Western Australia. British Society of Criminology Conference 2011: Economies and Insecurities of Crime and Justice, Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Witzleb, N. (2009). Anti-Social Behaviour Orders: The WA(y) to go? 22nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC 2009) - Crime and Justice Challenges in the 21st Century: Victims, Offenders and Communities, Perth WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Developments in Youth Justice. Yorkshire Association of Youth Justice 2008, Wakefield, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Homicide Categorisation. International Conference on Homicide: Domestic Related Homicide 2008, Surfers Paradise, Qld: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Homicide Law Reform in Western Australia. University of Birmingham Staff Seminar 2008, Birmingham, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2007). Licensing Prostitution. 62nd Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2007) - Law and Public Policy: Taming the Unruly Horse?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Three Degrees of Homicide. 62nd Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2007) - Law and Public Policy: Taming the Unruly Horse?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2006). Common Law, Common Roots: The Development of Australian Law. Europawoche 2006, Wolfenbuettel, Germany: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Delmege, S. (2004). Politics, Public Policy and Media. Cultural Studies Association of Australasia Conference (CSAA 2004): Everyday Transformations, Fremantle, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2003). Medical Procedures and Criminal Defences. Ethik der Medizin, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2003). The Presumption of Criminal Incapacity of Children -Do We Still Need It? Lawasia Conference 2003 - Children and the Law: Issues in the Asia Pacific Region, Brisbane, Qld: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Assessing the Criminal Liability of Children. Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2002) - Law: What is it good for?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Prostitution Law Reform. Murdoch University Staff Seminar 2002, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The History of the Criminal Liability of Children in Germany. Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference 2002: Law's Enterprise, Katoomba, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2000). The Current Euthanasia Debate in Australia. Wissenschaftstheorie und Ethik der Medizin in Ostmitteleuropa 2002, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (1999). Treatment of Disease or Genetic Enhancement? Follow Up Session to the Human Analysed 1999, Memphis, TN, USA: Presentation.

Magazine / Newspaper Articles

  • Crofts, T., Lee, M., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting And Young People. Legaldate, 26(4).
  • Crofts, T. (2012). Age-old question: when should children be responsible for their crimes? The Conversation.
  • Crofts, T., Tomsen, S. (2012). Homicides, homosexual advances and male honour: will NSW act on provocation law? The Conversation.
  • Crofts, T. (2012). The Age of Innocence: Raising the Age of Criminal Responsibility. Right Now: Human Rights in Australia.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). Punishing Children in Western Australia. Carpe Diem, Volume 2, pages 8-10.

Reference Works

  • Crofts, T. (2005). Australien [Australia]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Großbritannien und Nordirland [Great Britain and Northern Ireland]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Hongkong [Hong Kong]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Irland [Ireland]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Neuseeland [New Zealand]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Singapur [Singapore]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.

2015

  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2015). Criminalisation and Criminal Responsibility in Australia (Forthcoming). Australia: Oxford University Press.

2014

  • Shepherdson, P., Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Community Safety and Crime Prevention Partnerships: Challenges and Opportunities. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 3(1), 107-120. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia - Second Edition. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Gender, Pressure, Coercion and Pleasure: Untangling Motivations For Sexting Between Young People (Forthcoming). The British Journal of Criminology.
  • Shepherdson, P., Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2014). Partnerships and NSW local government Community Safety Officers. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 16(2), 71-86. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Privacy and young people: controlling anti-social behaviour through loss of anonymity. In Normann Witzleb, David Lindsay, Moira Paterson, Sharon Rodrick (Eds.), Emerging Challenges in Privacy Law: Comparative Perspectives, (pp. 229-255). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2014). Provocation, NSW Style: Reform of the Defence of Provocation in NSW. Criminal Law Review, 2014 (2), 109-125.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Regulation of the Male Sex Industry. In Victor Minichiello, John Scott (Eds.), Male Sex Work and Society, (pp. 178-197). New York: Harrington Park Press.
  • Fitz-Gibbon, K., Crofts, T., Flynn, A., Halsey, M., Lee, M., Quilter, J., Tomsen, S. (2014). Responses to 'one-punch' homicide (Thematic Panel). Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC) 2014 - Testing the Edges: Challenging Criminology, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting And Young People. Legaldate, 26(4).
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M., Salter, M., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting and Young People. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • McGovern, A., Lee, M., Crofts, T., Milivojevic, S. (2014). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, policies, practices and the law (Thematic Panel). Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC) 2014 - Testing the Edges: Challenging Criminology, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). Sexting, young people and criminalisation. British Society of Criminology (BSC) Conference 2014 - Crime, Justice, Welfare: Can the Metropole listen?, Liverpool, England: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2014). The case for an offence of unlawful assault causing death. British Society of Criminology (BSC) Conference 2014 - Crime, Justice, Welfare: Can the Metropole listen?, Liverpool, England: Presentation.

2013

  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., Salter, M., Milivojevic, S., McGovern, A. (2013). 'Let's Get Sexting': Risk, Power, Sex and Criminalisation in the Moral Domain. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 2(1), 35-49. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting' and Criminal Responsibility: Inconsistency of ages: child pornography; consent; criminal responsibility. Fourth Annual National Juvenile Justice Summit 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2013). 'Sexting', Children and Child Pornography. Sydney Law Review, 35(1), 85-106. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting', Young People and Child Pornography. Hedonism: Young People, Sex, Drugs & Alcohol - Centre for Youth Work Studies Seminar Series, London, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). 'Sexting', Young People and Child Pornography. Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice Seminar Series, University of Hull 2013, Hull, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Salter, M., Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2013). Beyond Criminalisation and Responsibilisation: Sexting, Gender and Young People. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 24(3), 301-316.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Chalking up a Storm: Finding the rainbow connection. Alternative Law Journal, 38(3), 165-169.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). DIY Rainbow Crossings: Finding the Rainbow Connection (Presentation). 13th Annual Conference of European Society of Criminology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest: European Society of Criminology.
  • Crofts, T., Tyson, D. (2013). Homicide Law Reform in Australia: Improving Access to Defences for Women Who Kill Their Abusers. Monash University Law Review, 39(3), 864-893. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Loughnan, A. (2013). Provocation: The good, the bad and the ugly. Criminal Law Journal, 37(1), 23-37.
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting and young people: Intersections and experiences. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2013: Reflections, Intersections and Aspirations 50 years of Australian Sociology, Melbourne, Vic: The Australian Sociological Association (TASA).
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S., Salter, M. (2013). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, practices, policy and law. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2013: Reflections, Intersections and Aspirations 50 years of Australian Sociology, Melbourne, Vic: The Australian Sociological Association (TASA).
  • Lee, M., Crofts, T., McGovern, A., Milivojevic, S., Salter, M. (2013). Sexting and young people: Perceptions, practices, policy and law. Young People and Mediated Sexual Communication Symposium 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting: Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. 7th Annual Australian & New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference (CCC 2013), Adelaide SA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). Sexting: Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. Law on the Edge: Joint Conference of the Canadian Law and Society Association and the Law and Society Association of Australia and New Zealand 2013, Vancouver, BC, Canada: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2013). The legal regulation of male sex work. Australia's Homosexual Histories Conference 2013, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • Anthony, T., Crofts, P., Crofts, T., Gray, S., Loughnan, A., Naylor, B. (2013). Waller & Williams Criminal Law Text and Cases - 12th Edition. Australia: LexisNexis.

2012

  • Crofts, T. (2012). 'Sexting': Criminalisation of Childhood Sexuality. Criminology Seminar Series, Monash University 2012, Melbourne, Vic: Presentation.
  • McGovern, A., Crofts, T. (2012). 'Sexting': What’s the big deal? The Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference 2012 - Changing the Way We Think about Change: Shifting Boundaries, Changing Lives, Hobart, Tas: Presentation.
  • Clancey, G., Lee, M., Crofts, T. (2012). 'We're not Batman' - Roles and expectations of local government community safety officers in New South Wales. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 14(4), 235-257. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2012). Age-old question: when should children be responsible for their crimes? The Conversation.
  • Crofts, T., Tomsen, S. (2012). Homicides, homosexual advances and male honour: will NSW act on provocation law? The Conversation.
  • Crofts, T. (2012). Innovation in Teaching Criminal Law. Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA) 2012: Legal Education for a Global Community, Sydney, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Tomsen, S. (2012). Masculine violence and unfinished activism: the persistence of HSD in Australian defences to homicide. The Australian and New Zealand Critical Criminology Conference 2012 - Changing the Way We Think about Change: Shifting Boundaries, Changing Lives, Hobart, Tas: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2012). Sexting and Young People: Sexualisation, Anxiety, and Law. Joint Annual Meeting of the Law and Society Association and the Research Committee on Sociology of Law (International Sociological Association) 2012: Sociolegal Conversations across a Sea of Islands, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., McGovern, A. (2012). Sexting, Children and Child Pornography. 12th Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology 2012 - Criminology in the 21st Century: a Necessary Balance Between Freedom and Security, Bilbao, Spain: Presentation.
  • Tomsen, S., Crofts, T. (2012). Social and cultural meanings of legal responses to homicide among men: Masculine honour, sexual advances and accidents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 45(3), 423-437. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T. (2012). The Age of Innocence: Raising the Age of Criminal Responsibility. Right Now: Human Rights in Australia.

2011

  • Crofts, T., Witzleb, N. (2011). "Naming and shaming" in Western Australia: Prohibited behaviour orders, publicity and the decline of youth anonymity. Criminal Law Journal, 35(1), 34-45.
  • Crofts, T., Lee, M. (2011). 'Sexting' and Young People: Sexualisation, Anxiety and Law. The Australian Sociological Association Conference (TASA) 2011: Local Lives/Global Network, Newcastle, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Mitchell, T. (2011). Policy Transfer and Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System (Presentation). Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: An International Conference, Brisbane: School of Justice, Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology.
  • Burton, K., Crofts, T., Tarrant, S. (2011). Principles of Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia. Sydney: Thomson Reuters.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). Prohibited Behaviour Orders and Anti-social Behaviour Orders: Lessons Not Learned. 24th Annual Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference (ANZSOC) 2011: Crime and the regions: from the local to regional, national and international, Geelong, Vic: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Mitchell, T. (2011). Prohibited Behaviour Orders and Indigenous Overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 23(2), 277-285.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Law and (Anti-Social Behaviour) Order Campaign in Western Australia. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 22(3), 399-414.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Licensing of Sex Work: Regulating an Industry or Enforcing Public Morality? Law and Society Association Annual Meeting (LSA 2011), San Francisco, CA, USA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2011). The Reception of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders in Western Australia. British Society of Criminology Conference 2011: Economies and Insecurities of Crime and Justice, Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Presentation.

2010

  • Crofts, T., Panther, N. (2010). Changes to Police Stop and Search Laws in Western Australia: What Decent People Have to Fear. The Western Australian Jurist, 1, 57-67.
  • Swensen, G., Crofts, T. (2010). Recent Developments in Cannabis Law Reform: The Rise and Fall of the Cannabis Infringement Notice Scheme in Western Australia. Flinders Law Journal, 12(2), 79-104.
  • Crofts, T. (2010). Stop and Search Without Reasonable Suspicion: Is Western Australia Becoming a Police State? Alternative Law Journal, 35(4), 199-202.

2009

  • Crofts, T., Witzleb, N. (2009). Anti-Social Behaviour Orders: The WA(y) to go? 22nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology (ANZSOC 2009) - Crime and Justice Challenges in the 21st Century: Victims, Offenders and Communities, Perth WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Criminal Law in Queensland and Western Australia. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Doli incapax: in defence of defence. Childright, 2008. no. 252, 19-21.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Labelling Homicides. In Sharon B. Byrd, Joachim Hruschka and Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fuer Recht und Ethik/Annual Review of Law and Ethics - Volume 17. Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot GmbH.
  • Crofts, T. (2009). Taking the Age of Criminal Responsibility Seriously in England. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 17(4), 267-291. [More Information]
  • Crofts, T., Burton, K. (2009). The Criminal Codes: Commentary and Materials. Pyrmont: Thomson Lawbook Co. (Thompson Reuters).

2008

  • Crofts, T. (2008). Children: Doli Incapax. Journal of Criminal Law, 72(1), 8-10.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Developments in Youth Justice. Yorkshire Association of Youth Justice 2008, Wakefield, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Homicide Categorisation. International Conference on Homicide: Domestic Related Homicide 2008, Surfers Paradise, Qld: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Homicide Law Reform in Western Australia. University of Birmingham Staff Seminar 2008, Birmingham, England, UK: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Lagging behind Europe: The criminalisation of children in England. Humanitas Journal of European Studies (HJES), 2, 1-17.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2008). Red Light on Sex Work in Western Australia. Alternative Law Journal, 33(4), 209-213.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). The Criminal Responsibility of Children. In Geoff Monahan, Lisa Young (Eds.), Children and the Law in Australia, (pp. 167-186). Sydney: LexisNexis Butterworths.
  • Crofts, T. (2008). Two Degrees of Murder: Homicide Law Reform in England and Western Australia. Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal, 8(2), 187-210.

2007

  • Crofts, T. (2007). A false alarm. New Law Journal, 157, 1226.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Die Altersgrenzen im australischen Strafrecht (The Age Levels in Australian Criminal Law). Zeitschrift fur Jugendkriminalrecht und Jugendhilfe, 4, 393-400.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2007). Licensing Prostitution. 62nd Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2007) - Law and Public Policy: Taming the Unruly Horse?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2007). Licensing: Regulating Prostitution or Enforcing Morality. University of Western Australia Law Review, 33(2), 289-306.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Rape, the Mental Element and Consistency in the Codes. Queensland University of Technology Law and Justice Journal, 7(1), 1-15.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Three Degrees of Homicide. 62nd Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2007) - Law and Public Policy: Taming the Unruly Horse?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2007). Wilful murder, murder - what's in a name? Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 19(1), 49-63.

2006

  • Crofts, T. (2006). Common Law, Common Roots: The Development of Australian Law. Europawoche 2006, Wolfenbuettel, Germany: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T., Summerfield, T. (2006). The Licensing of Sex Work in Australia and New Zealand. eLaw Journal, 13, 269-287.
  • Crofts, T. (2006). Wilful murderers in Western Australia soon to get away with murder? Alternative Law Journal, 31, 203-205.

2005

  • Crofts, T. (2005). Australien [Australia]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Do Parents Know Best? In Jan C. Joerden and Josef N. Neumann (Eds.), Medizinethik 5 Series: Studien zur Ethik in Ostmitteleuropa - Volume 8, (pp. 147-166). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Großbritannien und Nordirland [Great Britain and Northern Ireland]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Hongkong [Hong Kong]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Identifying the Criminal Act in Rape. Criminal Law Journal, 29(4), 1-9.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Irland [Ireland]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Neuseeland [New Zealand]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.
  • Swensen, G., Crofts, T. (2005). Reforms to Minor Cannabis Offences in the United Kingdom & Western Australia. Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, 2005 (1), 1-22.
  • Crofts, T. (2005). Singapur [Singapore]. Die Brockhaus Enzyklopaedie [The Brockhaus Encyclopedia] 21st Edition. Germany: Brockhaus.

2004

  • Crofts, T., Delmege, S. (2004). Politics, Public Policy and Media. Cultural Studies Association of Australasia Conference (CSAA 2004): Everyday Transformations, Fremantle, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). Punishing Children in Western Australia. Carpe Diem, Volume 2, pages 8-10.
  • Kendall, C., Crofts, T., Jardine, A. (2004). Same Sex Relationships: A Legal Guide for Western Australians Post Law Reform. Australia: Murdoch Print.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). Separating Issues of Life and Death. In Sharon B. Byrd, Joachim Hruschka, Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics Volume 12. Germany: Duncker & Humblot.
  • Crofts, T. (2004). The rise of the principle of education in the German juvenile justice system. International Journal of Childrens Rights, 12(4), 401-417.

2003

  • Crofts, T. (2003). Doli Incapax: Why Children Deserve its Protection. eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 10(3), 1-15.
  • Crofts, T. (2003). Medical Procedures and Criminal Defences. Ethik der Medizin, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2003). The Presumption of Criminal Incapacity of Children -Do We Still Need It? Lawasia Conference 2003 - Children and the Law: Issues in the Asia Pacific Region, Brisbane, Qld: Presentation.

2002

  • Crofts, T. (2002). "The right of the Individual or the Common Good?": The Euthanasia Debate in Australia. In Jan C. Joerden, Josef N. Neumann (Eds.), Medizinethik 3 / Ethics and Scientific Theory of Medicine Volume 3. Germany: Peter Lang Verlag.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Assessing the Criminal Liability of Children. Australasian Law Teachers Association Conference (ALTA 2002) - Law: What is it good for?, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Book Review: International Criminal Law, by Kriangsak Kittiasaree. Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 3, 124-129.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Prostitution Law Reform. Alternative Law Journal, 27(4), 184-187.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). Prostitution Law Reform. Murdoch University Staff Seminar 2002, Perth, WA: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The Criminal Responsibility of Children and Young Persons: A Comparison of English and German Law. United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The History of the Criminal Liability of Children in Germany. Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference 2002: Law's Enterprise, Katoomba, NSW: Presentation.
  • Crofts, T. (2002). The Oldest Profession: At Last to be Treated as a Profession? Sister in Law, 6, 147-167.

2001

  • Crofts, T., Stanglow, P. (2001). Treatment of Disease or Genetic Enhancement? In Sharon B. Byrd. Joachim Hruschka, Jan C. Joerden (Eds.), Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik / Annual Review of Law and Ethics Volume 9. Germany: Duncker & Humblot.

2000

  • Crofts, T. (2000). The Current Euthanasia Debate in Australia. Wissenschaftstheorie und Ethik der Medizin in Ostmitteleuropa 2002, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany: Presentation.

1999

  • Crofts, T. (1999). Mit zehn Jahren strafmündig. Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 111, 728-741.
  • Crofts, T. (1999). Treatment of Disease or Genetic Enhancement? Follow Up Session to the Human Analysed 1999, Memphis, TN, USA: Presentation.

1998

  • Crofts, T. (1998). Rebutting the Presumption of Doli Incapax. Journal of Criminal Law, 62(2), 185-194.
  • Crofts, T. (1998). Review: Einfuhrung in die anglo-amerikanische Rechtssprache/ Introduction to Anglo-American Law & Language (by B. Sharon Byrd). Jura: Juristische Ausbildung, 20, 615-616.

1997

  • Stanglow, P., Crofts, T. (1997). Kant's Metaphysik der Sitten: 200 Jahre Tradition in der Unterscheidung von Recht und Moral [Kant's Metaphysics of Morals : 200 years tradition in the distinction between law and morality]. Juristenzeitung (JZ), 52, 663-666.

1996

  • Crofts, T. (1996). Die strafrechtliche Verantwortung von Kindern in England. Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Strafrechtswissenschaft, 108, 214-228.

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