ONLINE LIBRARY

International Materials

Canada France Germany India Ireland New Zealand Russia South Africa Sweden United Kingdom United States

Canada

  • Faulkner, M, ‘Empowering Victim Advocates: Organizing Against Anti-gay/lesbian Violence in Canada’ (2001) 10(2) Critical Criminology 123.
  • Haggerty, Bernard P., Hate Crime Law & Social Contention: A Comparison of Non-governmental Knowledge Practices in Canada and the United States (D Phil Thesis, University of British Columbia, 2008)
  • Harrison, Joel, ‘Truth, Civility and Religious Battlegrounds: The Contest between Religious Vilification Laws and Freedom of Expression’ (2006) 12 Auckland University Law Review 71.
  • Moore, D. and Rennie, A, ‘Hated Identities: Queers and Canadian Anti-Hate Legislation’ (September 2006) 48(5) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 823.
  • Poynting, Scott and Perry, Barbara, ‘Climates of Hate: Media and State Inspired Victimisation of Muslims in Canada and Australia Since 9/11’ (2007) 19(2) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 151.
  • Robertson, S, ‘Spaces of Exception in Canadian Hate Crimes Legislation: Accounting for the effects of Sexuality-Based Aggravation in R v Cran’ (2005) 50 Criminal Law Quarterly 482.
  • Yeager, Matthew G, ‘Immigrants and Criminality: A Cross-National Review’ (1997) 29(1) Criminal Justice Abstracts 143.

France

  • Bleich, D, ‘Hate Crime Policy in Western Europe: Responding to Racist Violence in Britain, Germany, and France’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 149.

Germany

India

  • Chakrapani, V. et al, ‘Structural Violence against Kothi-Identified Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai, India: A Qualitative Investigation’ 19(4) Aids Education and Prevention 346.

Ireland

  • Monaghan, Rachel, ‘Community-Based Justice in Northern Ireland and South Africa’ (2008) 18(1) International Criminal Justice Review 83.
  • Lentin, Ronit, ‘Ireland: Racial State and Crisis Racism’ (2007) 30(4) Ethnic and Racial Studies 610.

New Zealand

  • Brown, C, ‘Legislating Against Hate Crime in New Zealand: The Need to Recognise Gender-Based Violence’ (2004) 35(3) Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 591.
  • Harrison, Joel, ‘Truth, Civility and Religious Battlegrounds: The Contest between Religious Vilification Laws and Freedom of Expression’ (2006) 12 Auckland University Law Review 71.
  • Ip, John, ‘Debating New Zealand's Hate Crime Legislation: Theory and Practice’ (2005) 21(4) New Zealand Universities Law Review 575.
  • McNamara, Luke, ‘Does a Bill of Rights Matter?: Comparing Australia and New Zealand’ in Katharine Gelber and Adrienne Stone (eds), Hate Speech and Freedom of Speech in Australia (2007) 194.

Russia

  • Loza, Tihomir, Krauthamer, Ky and Gardner, Andrew, ‘From Knives to Bombs’ (28 August 2006) Transitions Online.
  • Shmygol, Tatyana, Exploring the Relationship between Immigration, Unemployment, and Crime in Russian Federation (Senior Thesis, University of California – Berkeley, 2006).

South Africa

  • Holland, Heidi, ‘Race Against Crime’ (2006) 157 Foreign Policy 95.
  • Monaghan, Rachel, ‘Community-Based Justice in Northern Ireland and South Africa’ (2008) 18(1) International Criminal Justice Review 83.
  • Rimmer, Matthew, ‘The Black Label: Trade Mark Dilution, Culture Jamming and the No Logo Movement’ (2008) 5(1) SCRIPT-ed 70.

Sweden

  • Bunar, Nihad, ‘Hate Crimes against Immigrants in Sweden and Community Responses’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 166.

United Kingdom

  • Abrams, Dominic and Houston, Diane M, Equality, Diversity and Prejudice in Britain: Results from the 2005 National Survey (October 2006).
  • Addison, Neil, Religious Discrimination and Hatred Law (2007).
  • Ahmed, Sara, Strange Encounters: Embodied Others in Post-Coloniality (2000).
  • American Behavioral Scientist (2007) 51(2).
  • Asquith, Nicole ‘Chanpter 5: Textual and Verbal Hostility in Context’ in Chakraborti, N. (ed) Hate Crime (2009).
  • Association of Chief Police Officers (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) (ACPO) and Home Office (UK) Hate Crime: Delivering a Quality Service (2005).
  • Ardley, Jenny, ‘Hate Crimes: A Brief Review’ (2005) 25(12) The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 54.
  • Arendt, H. (1963) Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (1963).
  • Biber, Katherine, Captive Images : Race, Crime, Photography (2007).
  • Bleich, D, ‘Hate Crime Policy in Western Europe: Responding to Racist Violence in Britain, Germany, and France’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 149.
  • Bowley, M, ‘A Cancer in the Heart of Society’ (2000) 150(6947) New Law Journal 1203.
  • Bowling, B, ‘Racial Harassment and the Process of Victimisation: Conceptual and Methodological Implications for the Local Crime Survey’ (1993) 33(2) British Journal of Criminology 231.
  • Bowling, B, Violent Racism: Victimization, Policing and Social Context (Revised ed, 1998).
  • Bowling, B and Phillips, C, Racism, Crime and Justice (2002).
  • Brennan, F, ‘Punishing Islamophobic Hostility: Are Any Lessons to be Learned from Racially Hostile Crimes?’ (2003) 8(1) Journal of Civil Liberties 28.
  • Burney, E, 'Magistrates Courts; Racially Aggravated Offences; Sentencing. Using the Law on Racially Aggravated Offences'. [2003] Criminal Law Review 28-36.
  • Burney, E. and Rose, G, Racist Offences: How is the Law Working?: The Implementation of the Legislation on Racially Aggravated Offences in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (2002).
  • Crown Prosecution Service, Hate Crime Report 2008-2009, (2010).
  • Dixon, B. & Gadd, D, ‘Getting the Message? “New” Labour and the Criminalization of “hate”’ (2006) 6(3) Criminology and Criminal Justice 309.
  • Dixon, L, and Ray, L, ‘Current Issues and Developments in Race Hate Crime’ (2007) 54(2) Probation Journal 109.
  • Donnelly, E, ‘Hate Crimes against Travellers’ (2002) 48 Criminal Justice Matters 24.
  • Duffin, Christian, ‘Policing Hate Crime’ (2007) 21(22) Nursing Standard 18.
  • Ellis, Frank, ‘From Communism’s “Enemy of the People” to PC’s “Hate Criminal”’ (2005) 30(1) The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies 99.
  • Foster, J., Newburn, T. & Souhami, A. (2005) Assessing the Impact of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry, Home Office Research Study Series No 294.
  • Fowles, Tony and Wilson, David, ‘Penal Policy File No.108’ (2007) 46(1) The Howard Journal 76.
  • Frost, D, ‘The “Enemy Within”? Asylum, Racial Violence and “Race Hate” in Britain Today’ (2007) 2(3) 21st Century Society 227.
  • Gadd, D, ‘The Role of Recognition in the Desistance Process: A Case of a Former Far-Right Activist’ (2006) 10(2) Theoretical Criminology 179.
  • Goodall, K, ‘Incitement to Religious Hatred: All Talk and No Substance?’ (2007) 70 Modern Law Review 89.
  • Goodey, Jo, ‘Racist Violence in Europe: Challenges for Official Data Collection’ (2007) 30(4) Ethnic and Racial Studies 570.
    Hall, N, Hate Crime (2005).
  • Idriss, M.M, ‘Religion and the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001’ (2002) Criminal Law Review 890.
  • Iganski, P, ‘Legislating Against Hate: Outlawing Racism and Antisemitism in Britain’ (1999) 58 Critical Social Policy 129.
  • Iganski, P, (ed) The Hate Debate: Should Hate Be Punished as a Crime? (2002).
  • Iganski, P, ‘Too Few Jews to Count? Police Monitoring of Hate Crime against Jews in the United Kingdom’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 232.
  • Iganski, P, ‘Hate Crime’ and the City (2008).
  • Iganski, P, Kielinger, V. and Paterson, S, Hate Crimes against London’s Jews: An Analysis of Incidents Recorded by the Metropolitan Police Service 2001-2004 (2005).
  • Iganski, Paul et al for The Equality and Human Rights Commission Scotland, The Rehabilitation of Hate Crime Offenders – An International Study (Spring 2011).
  • Jeremy, A, ‘Religious Offences’ (2003) 7 Ecclesiastical Law Journal 127.
  • Jeremy, A, ‘Practical Implications for the Enactment of the Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006’ (2007) 9 Ecclesiastical Law Journal 187.
  • Keith, M, ‘Criminalization and Racialization’ (1996) in J. Muncie, E. McLaughlin and M. Langan (eds) Criminological Perspectives: A Reader (1996).
  • Kielinger, V. and Paterson, S, ‘Policing Hate Crime in London’ (2007) 51 American Behavioral Scientist 196.
  • Lewis, S et al (eds), Race and Probation (2006).
  • Macpherson, W, The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (1999).
  • Malik, M, ‘“Racist Crime”: Racially Aggravated Offences in the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 Part II’ (1999) 63(2) Modern Law Review 409.
  • Mason, Gail, An Exploratory Study of Allegations of Racial and Homophobic Harassment Recorded by the Metropolitan Police Service, January-June 2001, Report to the Commander, Diversity Directorate, Metropolitan Police Service, New Scotland Yard, London, United Kingdom (2003).
  • Mason, Gail, ‘Who is a Stranger? Victim-Suspect Relationships in Racist and Homophobic Harassment in the United Kingdom’ in M Prumm and B Deschamps (eds), Killing the Other (2005).
  • Mason, Gail, ‘Can You Know a Stranger? Racist and Homophobic Harassment in the United Kingdom’ (2005) 17(1) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 185.
  • McFarlane, L. & Bocij, P, ‘Cyberstalking: The Technology of Hate’, (2003) 76 The Police Journal 204.
  • McGhee, Derek, ‘The Challenge of Working with Racially Motivated Offenders: An Exercise in Ambivalence’ (2007) 54 Probation Journal 213.
  • Minkkinen, P, ‘Otherness and Difference: On the Cultural Logic of Racial Tolerance’ (1992) 3(2) Law and Critique 147.
  • Moran, L, ‘Special Issue: Hate Crime Critical Reflections’ (2001) 12(3) Law and Critique.
  • Moran, L, ‘Affairs of the Heart: Hate Crime and the Politics of Crime Control’ (2001) 12 Law and Critique 331.
  • Moran, L, ‘Invisible Minorities: Challenging Community and Neighbourhood Models of Policing’ (2007) 7(4) Criminology and Criminal Justice 417.
  • Moran, L. and Sharpe, A, ‘Policing the Transgender/Violence Relation’ (2002) 13(3) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 269.
  • Moran, L. and Skeggs, B, Sexuality and the Politics of Violence and Safety (2004).
  • Ormerod, D.C, ‘Racially Aggravated Behaviour’ (April 2006) Criminal Law Review 351.
  • Ormerod, D.C, ‘Public Order’ (July 2007) Criminal Law Review 579.
  • Police Review, ‘Critical Friend the London Bombings Have Heightened Tension and Suspicion of Muslims in the UK’ (19 August 2005) 113 (5839) Police Review 14.
  • Pollock, Ed, ‘Researching White Supremacists Online: Methodological Concerns of Researching Hate Speech’ (2009) Internet Journal of Criminology.
  • Pollock, Edward Thomas, ‘Understanding and Contextualising Racial Hatred on the Internet: A Study of Newsgroups and Websites’ (2010) Internet Journal of Criminology.
  • Poynting, S and Mason, Victoria, ‘“Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace?” Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001’ (2006) 27(4) Journal of Intercultural Studies 365.
  • Poynting, Scott and Mason, Victoria, ‘The Resistable rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim Racism in the UK and Australia before 11 September 2001’ (2007) Journal of Sociology 43(1), 61.
  • Quraishi, Muzammil, Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study (2005).
  • Ray, L. and Smith, D, ‘Hate Crime, Violence and Cultures of Racism’ in P. Iganski (ed) The Hate Debate: Should Hate be Punished as a Crime? (2002).
  • Spalek, Basia, ‘British Muslims and Community Safety Post-September 11th’ (2005) 4(2) Community Safety Journal 12.
  • Spalek, Basia, Communities, Identities and Crime (2007).
  • Stanko, E. and Curry, P, ‘Homophobic Violence and the Self “At Risk”: Interrogating the Boundaries’ (1997) 6(4) Social and Legal Studies 513.
  • Stanko, E.A, ‘Re-conceptualising the Policing of Hatred: Confessions and Worrying Dilemmas of a Consultant’ (2001) 12 Law and Critique 309.
  • Sutton, Mike et al, ‘Black and Asian Police Officers and Support Staff: Prejudice, Identity, Agency and Social Cohesion’ (2006) Internet Journal of Criminology.
  • Sutton, Mike and Wright, Cecile, ‘Finding the Far Right Online: An Exploratory Study of White Supremacist Websites’ (2009) Internet Journal of Criminology.
  • Tausz Dilys and D.C. Ormerod D. C, ‘Racially Aggravated Offence’ (May 2005) Criminal Law Review 392.
  • Tausz Dilys and D.C. Ormerod D. C, ‘Racially Aggravated Assault: Whether use of Word "Immigrant" Denoted Membership of a Racial Group within Meaning of s.28(4) of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998’ (October 2005) Criminal Law Review 799.
  • Thomas, D. A, ‘Sentencing: Racially Aggravated Offence - Racial Aggravation Not in Issue During Trial’ (June 2005) Criminal Law Review 486.
  • Thomas, D.A, ‘Sentencing: Assault Occasioning Actual Bodily Harm’ (June 2005) Criminal Law Review 484.
  • Turns, D, ‘Racism and Xenophobia in English Law’ (2000) 22 Liverpool Law Review 47.
  • Twomey, Anne, ‘Laws against Incitement to Racial Hatred in the United Kingdom’ (1994) 1(1) Australian Journal of Human Rights 235.
  • Yeager, Matthew G, ‘Immigrants and Criminality: A Cross-National Review’ (1997) 29(1) Criminal Justice Abstracts 143.

United States

  • Adams, David M, ‘Punishing Hate and Achieving Equality’ (2005) 24(1) Criminal Justice Ethics 19.
  • Adams, M and Toth, R, ‘The Unanticipated Consequences of Hate Crime Legislation’ (2006) 90(3) Judicature 129.
  • Alden, H L and Parker, K F, ‘Gender Role Ideology, Homophobia and Hate Crime: Linking Attitudes to Macro-Level Anti-Gay and Lesbian Hate Crimes’ (2005) 26(4) Deviant Behavior 321.
  • Allport, Gordon, The Nature of Prejudice (1954).
  • Alsultany, Evelyn, ‘Selling American Diversity and Muslim American Identity through Non-profit Advertising Post-9/11’ (2007) 59(3) American Quarterly 593.
  • American Behavioral Scientist (2007) 51(2).
  • Anonymous, ‘Black Student Accused of Threatening Other Minorities at Illinois University’ (2005) 22(7) Black Issues in Higher Education 20.
  • Anonymous, ‘Hate Groups Turn Focus on Hispanic Immigrants’ (2005) 22(14) Diverse Issues in Higher Education 24.
  • Anonymous, ‘NAACP Plans Bourbon Street March Against Alleged French Quarter Racism’ (2005) 22(9) Black Issues in Higher Education 10.
  • Anti-Defamation League, Anti-Defamation League State Hate Crime Statutory Provisions (2008).
  • Aoude`, Ibrahim, ‘Arab Americans and Ethnic Studies’ (2006) 9(2) Journal of Asian American Studies 141.
  • Aronson, E, ‘Causes of Prejudice’ in R.M. Baird & S.E. Rosenbaum (eds) Hatred, Bigotry, and Prejudice: Definitions, Causes and Solutions (1999) 127.
  • Baehr, A.R, (2003) ‘A Feminist Liberal Approach to Hate Crime Legislation’ (2003) 34(1) Journal of Social Philosophy 134.
  • Baird, R.M. & Rosenbaum, S.E. (eds) (1999) Hatred, Bigotry, and Prejudice: Definitions, Causes and Solutions, (1999).
  • Bamforth, Nicholas (ed.), Sex Rights : The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002 (2005).
  • Barnett-Ryan, C and Nolan, J, ‘Impact of State UCR Policy and Procedures on Bias Crime Reporting’ (2005) 18(4) Criminal Justice Studies 305.
  • Bettcher, Talia Mae, ‘Evil Deceivers and Make-Believers: On Transphobic Violence and the Politics of Illusion’ (2007) 22(3) Hypatia 43.
  • Blee, K, ‘Positioning Hate’, (2005) 3 Journal of Hate Studies 95.
  • Blee, K, ‘Racial Violence in the United States’ (2005) 28(4) Ethnic and Racial Studies 599.
  • Blee, K, ‘The Microdynamics of Hate Violence: Interpretive Analysis and Implications for Responses’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 258.
  • Boeckmann R.J., and Turpin-Petrosino, C, ‘Understanding the Harm of Hate Crime’ (2002) 58 Journal of Social Issues 207.
  • Borgeson, Kevin and Valeri, Robin, ‘The Enemy of My Enemy is My Friend’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 182.
  • Brammer, J Brady, ‘Religious Groups and the Gay Rights Movement: Recognizing Common Ground’ (2006) 2006(4) Brigham Young University Law Review 995.
  • Brouwer, Daniel C and Hess, Aaron, ‘Making Sense of “God Hates Fags” and “Thank God for 9/11”: A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers’ Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church’ (2007) 71(1) Western Journal of Communication 69.
  • Bufkin, J.L, ‘Bias Crime as Gendered Behavior’ (1999) 26 Social Justice 155.
  • Butler, Judith, Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative (1997).
  • Cannon, K and Dirks-Linhorst, A, ‘How Will They Understand if We Don’t Teach them? The Status of Criminal Justice Education on Gay and Lesbian Issues’ (2006) 17(2) Journal of Criminal Justice Education 262.
  • Card, C, ‘Is Penalty Enhancement a Sound Idea?’ (2000) 20 Law and Philosophy 195.
  • Carmody, Moira, ‘Women and Hate Crime: A Useful Political Strategy?’ (2001) 10 Women Against Violence 4.
  • Chakrapani, V., Newman, P., Shunmugam, M., McLuckie, A. and Melwin, F., ‘Structural Violence against Kothi-Identified Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai, India: A Qualitative
    Investigation’ 19(4) Aids Education and Prevention 346.
  • Ciria-Cruz, Rene P, ‘To Live and Let Live in South Los Angeles’ (May/Jun 2007) 40(3) NACLA Report on the Americas 37.
  • Comstock, G.D, Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men (1991).
  • Cowan, G et al, ‘Heterosexuals’ Attitudes toward Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Against Gays and Lesbians: Old-Fashioned and Modern Heterosexism’ (2005) 49(2) Journal of Homosexuality 67.
  • Craig, K.M, ‘Retaliation, Fear, or Rage: An Investigation of African American and White Reactions to Racist Hate Crimes’ (1999) 14(2) Journal of Interpersonal Violence 138.
  • Cronin, S., McDevitt, J. and Nolan, J, ‘Bias-Crime Reporting: Organizational Responses to Ambiguity, Uncertainty and Infrequency in Eight Police Departments’ (2007) 51(3) American Behavioral Scientist 213.
  • Dervarics, Charles, ‘Crime Creeping Higher on Campuses’ (2006) 23(20) Diverse Issues in Higher Education 12.
  • Dharmapala, D. and McAdams, R, ‘Words that Kill? An Economic Model of the Influence of Speech on Behavior (with Particular Reference to Hate Speech)’ (2005) 34 Journal of Legal Studies 93.
  • Dunbar, Edward, ‘Race, Gender and Sexual Orientation in Hate Crime Victimization: Identity Politics or Identity Risk? (2006) 21(3) Violence and Victims 323.
  • Dyer, Richard, White (1997).
  • Eisenstein, Z, ‘Writing Hatred on the Body’ (1994) 30-31 New Political Science 5.
  • Englander, Elizabeth, ‘Is Bullying a Junior Hate Crime?: Implications for Interventions’(2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 205.
  • Fairyington, Stephanie, ‘Equality Riders Challenge Campus Homophobia’ (2006) 13(4) The Gay and Lesbian Review Worldwide 5.
  • Fanon, F, The Wretched of the Earth (English Edition) (1968).
  • Fiske, Susan T, ‘On Prejudice and the Brain’ (2007) 136(1) Daedlus 156.
  • Foreman, Matt, ‘Big Gains in GLBT Rights from Coast to Coast’ (2007) 14(4) The Gay and Lesbian Review Worldwide 5.
  • Gee, Gilbert C. et al, ‘A Nationwide Study of Discrimination and Chronic Health Conditions Among Asian Americans’ (2007) 97(7) American Journal of Public Health 1275.
  • Geller, Joshua, ‘A Dangerous Mix: Mandatory Sentence Enhancement and the use of Motive’ (2005) 32 Fordham Urban Law Journal 623.
  • Gellman, S. B., and Lawrence, F, ‘Symposium Essay: Agreeing to Agree: A Proponent and Opponent of Hate Crime Laws Reach for Common Ground’ (2004) 41 Harvard Journal on Legislation 421.
  • Gerstenfeld, Phyllis, Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls and Controversies (2003).
  • Glaser, Jack, ‘Intergroup Bias and Inequity: Legitimizing Beliefs and Policy Attitudes’(2005) 18(3) Social Justice Research 257.
  • Goldberg, D.T, ‘Afterword: Hate, or Power’ in R.K. Whillock & D. Slayden (eds) Hate Speech (1995).
  • Goldstein, R, ‘The Hate that makes Men Straight: Psychoanalysts Probe the Roots of Homophobia’ (1999) in R.M. Baird & S.E. Rosenbaum (eds) (1999) Hatred, Bigotry, and Prejudice: Definitions, Causes and Solutions (1999).
  • Gould, Jon B, Speak No Evil: The Triumph of Hate Speech Regulation (2005).
  • Grattet, R. and Jenness, V, ‘The Reconstitution of Law in Local Settings: Agency Discretion, Ambiguity and a Surplus of Law in the Policing of Hate Crime’ (2005) 39(4) Law & Society Review 893.
  • Grattet, R. and Jenness, V, ‘Transforming Symbolic Law into Organizational Action: Hate Crime Policy and Law Enforcement Practice’ (2008) 87 Social Forces 1.
  • Green, D.P., Galsser, J. and Rich, A. (1998) ‘From Lynching to Gay Bashing: The Elusive Connection between Economic Conditions and Hate Crimes’ 75(1) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82.
  • Green, Eva G.T, Staerkle` Christian, Sears, David O, ‘Symbolic Racism and Whites’ Attitudes Towards Punitive and Preventive Crime Policies’ (2006) 30(4) Law and Human Behavior 435.
  • Haggerty, Bernard P., Hate Crime Law & Social Contention: A Comparison of Non-governmental Knowledge Practices in Canada and the United States (D Phil Thesis, University of British Columbia, 2008).
  • Haider-Markel, Donald P, ‘Acting as Fire Alarms with Law Enforcement: Interest Groups and Bureaucratic Activity on Hate Crime’ (2006) 34(1) American Politics Research 95.
  • Hanser, R, ‘Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes under American Law’ (Book Review) (2000) 90(3) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 1047.
  • Hawthorne, Susan, 2006 ‘Ancient Hatred and Its Contemporary Manifestations: The Torture of Lesbians’ (2006) 4 The Journal of Hate Studies 33.
  • Heitmeyer W. and Hagan, J, International Handbook of Violence Research (2003).
  • Hessick, Carissa Byrne, ‘Motive’s Role in Criminal Punishment’ (2006) 80 Southern California Law Review 89.
  • Herek, G.M. and Berrill, K.T (eds), ‘Special Issue: Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men: Issues for Research, Practice and Policy’ (1990) 5(3) Journal of Interpersonal Violence 267.
  • Herek, G, ‘The Psychology of Sexual Prejudice’ (2000) 9(1) Current Directions in Psychological Science 19.
  • Herek, G.M., Cogan, J.C. and Gillis, J.R, ‘Victim Experiences in Hate Crimes Based on Sexual Orientation’ (2002) 58(2) Journal of Social Issues 319.
  • Herek, G.M., ‘Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample’ (2009) 24(1) Journal of Interpersonal Violence 54.
  • Huff, Rodney M, Selective Hate Crime Law Enforcement: Race’s Influence on the Police Decision to Arrest in Violent Hate Crime Incidents (M Arts in Sociology Thesis, Eberly College of Arts and Sciences, 2006).
  • Hurd, H. (2001) ‘Why Liberals Should Hate “Hate Crime Legislation”’ (2001) 20 Law and Philosophy 215.
  • Hutton, Erica, ‘Bias Motivation in Crime: A Theoretical Examination’ (2009) Internet Journal Of Criminology.
  • Jacobs, J and Potter, K, Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics (1998).
  • Jenness, V, ‘The Emergence, Content and Institutionalization of Hate Crime Law: How a Diverse Policy Community Produced a Modern Legal Fact’ (2007) 3 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 141.
  • Jenness, V and Broad, K, Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (1997).
  • Jenness, V and Broad, K, ‘Chapter 3: Discovering and Expanding the Domain’ in V. Jenness and K. Broad (eds) Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (1997).
  • Jenness, V and Broad, K, ‘Chapter 4: Framing the Problem’ in V. Jenness and K. Broad (eds) Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (1997).
  • Jenness, V and Broad, K, ‘Chapter 5: Contemporary Antiviolence against Women Campaigns’ in V. Jenness and K. Broad (eds), Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (1997).
  • Jenness, V and Broad, K, ‘Chapter 6: Innovation and Diffusion of the Violence against Women Act’ in V. Jenness and K. Broad (eds) [[i||Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence] (1997).
  • Jenness, V and Grattet, R, Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement (2001).
  • Jenness, V and Grattet, R, ‘The Law-In-Between: The Effects of Organizational Perviousness on the Policing of Hate Crime’ (2005) 52(3) Social Problems 337.
  • Kahan, D, ‘Two Liberal Fallacies in the Hate Crimes Debate’ (2001) 20 Law and Philosophy 175.
  • Kaplan, J, ‘Islamophobia in America? September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime’ (2006) 18(1) Terrorism and Political Violence 1.
  • Kellett, P.M, ‘Acts of Power, Control and Resistance: Narrative Accounts of Convicted Rapists’ in R.K. Whillock and D Slayden (eds) Hate Speech (1995).
  • Kidd, Jeremy D and Witten, Tarynn, ‘Transgender and Transsexual Identities: The Next Strange Fruit-Hate Crimes, Violence and Genocide Against the Global Trans-Communities’ (2008) 6(31) Journal of Hate Studies 31.
  • King, Desmond S. and Smith, Rogers M, ‘Racial Orders in American Political Development’ (2005) 99(1) The American Political Science Review 75.
  • King, Ryan David, When Law and Society Disagree: Group Threat, Legacies of the Past, and the Organizational Context of Hate Crime Law Enforcement (D Phil Thesis, University of Minnesota, 2005).
  • King, Ryan David, ‘The Context of Minority Group Threat: Race, Institutions, and Complying with Hate Crime Law’ (2007) 41(1) Law and Society Review 189.
  • Koenig, Thomas, and Rustad, Michael, ‘“Hate Torts” to Fight Hate Crimes: Punishing the Organizational Roots of Evil’ (2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 302.
  • Langman, L, ‘I Hate, Therefore I Am’ (1998) 21 Social Thought & Research 85.
  • Lawrence III, C.R, (1993) ‘If He Hollers Let Him Go: Regulating Racist Speech on Campus’ in M.J Matsuda, C.R. Lawrence III, R. Delgado and K.W. Crenshaw (eds), Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment (1993).
  • Lawrence, F.M, (1999) Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes under American Law (1999).
  • Lawrence, F.M, ‘Chapter 3: Why Are Bias Crimes Worse?’ in Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes Under American Law (1999).
  • Lawrence, F.M, ‘Chapter 7: Why Punish Hate?’ in Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes Under American Law (1999).
  • Lawrence, F, ‘Enforcing Bias-Crime Laws Without Bias: Evaluating the Disproportionate Enforcement Critique’ (2003) 66 Law and Contemporary Problems 49.
  • Lee, Jenifer Ann, Judging the Hate Crime Victim: Law School Student Perceptions and the Effects of Individual and Law School Factors (D Phil Thesis, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2005).
  • Lee, Yueh-Ting et al, ‘How did Asian-Americans Respond to Negative Stereotypes and Hate Crimes?’(2007) 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 271.
  • Levin, B, ‘From Slavery to Hate Crime Laws: The Emergence of Race and Status-Based Protection in American Criminal Law’ (2002) 58(2) Journal of Social Issues 227.
  • Levin, B. and Amster, Sara-Ellen, ‘Making Hate History: Hate Crime and Policing in America’s Most Diverse City’ (2007) 51 American Behavioral Scientist 319.
  • Levin, J, The Violence of Hate: Confronting Racism, Anti-Semitism and Other Forms of Bigotry (2002).
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