2) Comparison & Contrast

Click the highlighted words to see how they make logical connections between ideas.

In this type of relation, two ideas may be considered to be similar (comparison):

It is hard to see why a code in which GGC means glycerine and AAG means lysine is either better or worse than one in which the meanings are reversed. Similarly a language in which “horse” mean a quadruped with cloven hoofs and horns, and “cow” one with a single toe and a mane, would be neither better nor worse than English.


Two ideas may be considered to be different (contrast):

Whereas pain and discomfort usually lead to avoidance behaviour, hunger and thirst usually lead a person to seek food and drink. Anorexic patients, however, do not respond to hunger in the normal way.


We can also add relationships of concession to this group. While the two ideas in a concessive relation are in contrast with each other, one tends to be surprising or unexpected in view of the other:

Even though the government introduced policies to stimulate the economy, the recession worsened.

Continue on to Example 3