Image of the Month 2012
Neural stem/precursor cells stained for Nestin (Green), an intermediate filament protein expressed in stem cells; GFAP (red), an intermediate filament protein expressed in astrocytes; EdU-Click (orange) (Invitrogen), a thymidine analog for detecting newly synthesised DNA; and DAPI (blue) for nuclei localisation.
Detection of EdU in Nestin+/GFAP+ cells is indicative of neural cell proliferation, which is an essential step in neurogenesis.
In this study, we cultured primary human fetal neural cells in mitogens EGF and FGF in order to generate predominantly neural stem/precursor cells. We can then utilise these cells in downstream differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis assays which would enable us to better understand these processes in disease models such as stroke and multiple sclerosis.
The prominent feature of plaques (green) in human Alzheimer cortices forming around microvessels, has only been documented in the last decade. Amyloid (green) is also deposited in the vascular walls. The vessel is clearly marked by astroglia (red). Nuclear staining is in blue. Picture taken with the deconvolution microscope at 20x.
Rat oesophagus stained for Caveolin 1 (green) and ICAM-1 (red). Caveolin 1 and ICAM-1 colocalised to venules but not arteries (only caveolin 1 present). ICAM-1 is also present in squamous stratified epithelium of oesophagus, and Caveolin 1 in underlying muscularis mucosa, and cells of the submucosa.
3-D projected image of a blastocyst escaping from its protective outer coating, known as the zona pellucida. This hatching process is crucial for implantation and reveals to us the localization of the IGF-1R (green) in the cell-cell junctions, apical membrane and nucleus (also stained with DAPI, blue).
Comet assay for quantifying UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. Nuclei isolated from keratinocytes were subjected to single cell gel electrophoresis and stained with Sybr Green. DNA strand breaks that migrate in the electrophoretic field are seen as comet tails.
Comets in irradiated cells (right) have longer and higher intensities in comet tails than in non-irradiated cells (left). Images were captured with the Nikon E800 epifluorecent microscope and Leica software.
DNA damage (measured by comet tail length and the proportion of fluorescent intensity in the tail) is quantified with Cometscore software in the full spectrum mode.
Pedicellaria are small claw-shaped structures commonly found on sea urchins. This structure looks like a dangerous set of teeth and jaws, but is only 40 µm of brittle calcium carbonate.
This image shows a human sensory neuron (large cell, center) with a granzyme B positive (red) lymphocyte in close proximity. A section of a ganglia sample from a patient suffering from herpes zoster at the time of death was immunostained for the cytolytic granule granzyme B (red) and S100B (green), and counterstained with the nuclear stain DAPI (blue).
S100B is present on satellite cells, which surround and protect sensory neurons. In cases of herpes zoster we see frequently see cytolytic T cells penetrating this protective S100B+ satellite cell barrier and potentially interacting with neurons. In spite of this MHC-I and –II molecules are not detected on neurons, and neurons do not appear to be undergoing apoptosis. Neuronal autofluorescence (orange) is also visible.
Taken with the Zeiss deconvolution microscope.
A diolistically stained neuron from the mouse cortex visualised using a confocal microscope. This staining method involves propelling tungsten labelled with carbocyanine dye into brain tissue. This fluorescent dye is lipophilic and diffuses throughout the lipid membrane of the neuron.
Cultured neuron stem cell in day 7.
Mild activated microglia: Iba-1+ (red) microglia with GS lectin (green) expression, and DAPI (blue). Cultured neuron stem cell in day 7: Cultured NeuN+ (blue) and B III Tubulin+ (green) cells express IGFBP-3 (red).
Colocalisation of Acetylcholine Receptors with Presynaptic Nerve Terminals in 2 month Mouse.
This scanning electron micrograph taken with the Zeiss Ultra FESEM at 130 000 X magnification, captures the moment when a developing membrane microparticle is released from the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell.
Increased levels of circulating endothelial microparticles are associated with various diseases including cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, sepsis, etc. They are increasingly seen as valuable markers of both endothelial and vascular dysfunction.