Associate Professor Russell Dale

Petre Associate Professor Paediatric Neurology Research
Paediatrics & Child Health, Children's Hospital, Westmead

C29 - Children's Hospital Westmead
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia

T: +61 2 9845 2006
F: +61 2 9845 3389

Research interests

Dr Dale is a paediatric neurologist. His clinical interests are brain inflammation syndromes including such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis; post-infectious movement disorders such as Sydenham's chorea, PANDAS and encephalitis lethargica; and childhood movement disorders including Tourette syndrome.

His laboratory interests are acute onset brain inflammation and brain autoimmunity, including: the role of novel autoantibodies in post-infectious movement disorders and behavioural syndromes; the immunological differences between monophasic brain demyelination syndromes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM;) and chronic relapsing demyelination such as multiple sclerosis.


2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008


  • Ramanathan, S., Bleasel, A., Parratt, J., Orr, C., Dale, R., Vincent, A., Fung, V. (2014), Characterisation of a syndrome of autoimmune adult onset focal epilepsy and encephalitis. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Australasia. 21(7), 1169-1175. [Abstract]
  • Mohammad, S., Sinclair, K., Pillai, S., Merheb, V., Aumann, T., Gill, D., Dale, R., Brilot, F. (2014), Herpes simplex encephalitis relapse with chorea is associated with autoantibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor or dopamine-2 receptor. Movement Disorders. 29(1), 117-122. [Abstract]
  • Ramanathan, S., Mohammad, S., Brilot, F., Dale, R. (2014), Autoimmune encephalitis: Recent updates and emerging challenges. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 21(5), 722-730. [Abstract]
  • Méneret, A., Depienne, C., Riant, F., Trouillard, O., Bouteiller, D., Cincotta, M., Bitoun, P., Wickert, J., Lagroua, I., Westenberger, A., Borgheresi, A., Doummar, D., Romano, M., Rossi, S., Defebvre, L., De Meirleir, L., Espay, A., Fiori, S., Klebe, S., Quélin, C., Rudnik- Schöneborn, S., Plessis, G., Dale, R., Sklower Brooks, S., Dziezyc, K., Pollak, P., Golmard, J., Vidailhet, M., Brice, A., Roze, E. (2014), Congenital mirror movements: Mutational analysis of RAD51 and DCC in 26 cases. Neurology. 82(22), 1999-2002. [Abstract]
  • Rice, G., Del Toro Duany, Y., Jenkinson, E., Forte, G., Anderson, B., Ariaudo, G., Bader-Meunier, B., Baildam, E., Battini, R., Beresford, M., Casarano, M., Chouchane, M., Cimaz, R., Collins, A., Cordeiro, N., Dale, R., Davidson, J., De Waele, L., Desguerre, I., Faivre, L., Fazzi, E., Isidor, B., Lagae, L., Latchman, A., Lebon, P., Li, C., Livingston, J., Lourenco, C., Mancardi, M., Masurel-Paulet, A., McInnes, I., Menezes, M., Mignot, C., O'Sullivan, J., Orcesi, S., Picco, P., Riva, E., Robinson, R., Rodriguez, D., Salvatici, E., Scott, C., Szybowska, M., Tolmie, J., Vanderver, A., Vanhulle, C., Vieira, J., Webb, K., Whitney, R., Williams, S., Wolfe, L., Zuberi, S., Hur, S., Crow, Y. (2014), Gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 cause a spectrum of human disease phenotypes associated with upregulated type I interferon signaling. Nature Genetics. 46(5), 503-509. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R. (2014), Immune-mediated extrapyramidal movement disorders, including Sydenham chorea. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Vol 112, Pediatric Neurology. (pp.1235-1241).Netherlands: Elsevier BV.


  • Rice, G., Forte, G., Szynkiewicz, M., Chase, D., Aeby, A., Abdel-Hamid, M., Ackroyd, S., Allcock, R., Bailey, K., Balottin, U., Barnerias, C., Bernard, G., Bodemer, C., Botella, M., Cereda, C., Chandler, K., Dabydeen, L., Dale, R., De Laet, C., De Goede, C., Del Toro, M., Effat, L., Enamorado, N., Fazzi, E., Gener, B., Haldre, M., Lin, J., Livingston, J., Lourenco, C., Marques, W., Oades, P., Peterson, P., Rasmussen, M., Roubertie, A., Schmidt, J., Shalev, S., Simon, R., Spiegel, R., Swoboda, K., Temtamy, S., Vassallo, G., Vilain, C., Vogt, J., Wermenbol, V., Whitehouse, W., Soler, D., Olivieri, I., Orcesi, S., Aglan, M., Zaki, M., Abdel-Salam, G., Vanderver, A., Kisand, K., Rozenberg, F., Lebon, P., Crow, Y. (2013), Assessment of interferon-related biomarkers in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR: a case-control study. Lancet Neurology. 12(12), 1159-1169. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Pillai, S., Brilot, F. (2013), Cerebrospinal fluid CD19(+) B-cell expansion in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 55(2), 191-193. [Abstract]
  • Mohammad, S., Ramanathan, S., Brilot, F., Dale, R. (2013), Autoantibody-Associated Movement Disorders. Neuropediatrics. 44(6), 336-345. [Abstract]
  • Van Haren, K., Tomooka, B., Kidd, B., Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., Chitnis, T., Tenembaum, S., Pohl, D., Rostasy, K., Dale, R., O'Connor, K., Hafler, D., Steinman, L., Robinson, W. (2013), Serum autoantibodies to myelin peptides distinguish acute disseminated encephalomyelitis from relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis. 19(13), 1726-1733. [Abstract]
  • Sinclair, A., Wienholt, L., Tantsis, E., Brilot, F., Dale, R. (2013), Clinical association of intrathecal and mirrored oligoclonal bands in paediatric neurology. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 55(1), 71-75. [Abstract]
  • Suleiman, J., Wright, S., Gill, D., Brilot, F., Waters, P., Peacock, K., Procopis, P., Nibber, A., Vincent, A., Dale, R., Lang, B. (2013), Autoantibodies to neuronal antigens in children with new-onset seizures classified according to the revised ILAE organization of seizures and epilepsies. Epilepsia. 54(12), 2091-2100. [Abstract]
  • Mayer, M., Breithaupt, C., Reindl, M., Schanda, K., Rostasy, K., Berger, T., Dale, R., Brilot, F., Olsson, T., Jenne, D., Probstel, A., Dornmair, K., Wekerle, H., Hohlfeld, R., Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., Meinl, E. (2013), Distinction and temporal stability of conformational epitopes on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein recognized by patients with different inflammatory central nervous system diseases. Journal of Immunology. 191(7), 3594-3604. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R. (2013), Paediatric MS is the same disease as adult MS: Commentary. Multiple Sclerosis. 19(10), 1259-1260. [Abstract]
  • McMichael, G., Haan, E., Gardner, A., Yap, T., Thompson, S., Ouvrier, R., Dale, R., Gecz, J., Maclennan, A. (2013), NKX2-1 mutation in a family diagnosed with ataxic dyskinetic cerebral palsy. European Journal of Medical Genetics. 56(9), 506-509. [Abstract]
  • Krupp, L., Tardieu, M., Amato, M., Banwell, B., Chitnis, T., Dale, R., Ghezzi, A., Hintzen, R., Kornberg, A., Pohl, D., Rostasy, K., Tenembaum, S., Wassmer, E. (2013), International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis and immune-mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders: revisions to the 2007 definitions. Multiple Sclerosis. 19(10), 1261-1267. [Abstract]
  • Johnson, A., Dale, R., Wienholt, L., Hadjivassiliou, M., Aeschlimann, D., Lawson, J. (2013), Coeliac disease, epilepsy, and cerebral calcifications: association with TG6 autoantibodies. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 55(1), 90-93. [Abstract]
  • Troedson, C., Wong, M., Dalby-Payne, J., Wilson, M., Dexter, M., Rice, G., Crow, Y., Dale, R. (2013), Systemic lupus erythematosus due to C1q deficiency with progressive encephalopathy, intracranial calcification and acquired moyamoya cerebral vasculopathy. Lupus. 22(6), 639-643. [Abstract]
  • Tantsis, E., Prelog, K., Brilot, F., Dale, R. (2013), Risk of multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating syndrome in an australian paediatric cohort: clinical, radiological features and application of the mcdonald 2010 mri criteria. Multiple Sclerosis. 19(13), 1749-1759. [Abstract]
  • Suleiman, J., Brilot, F., Lang, B., Vincent, A., Dale, R. (2013), Autoimmune epilepsy in children: case series and proposed guidelines for identification. Epilepsia. 54(6), 1036-1045. [Abstract]
  • Amatoury, M., Merheb, V., Langer, J., Wang, X., Dale, R., Brilot, F. (2013), High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2013(81), 1-7. [Abstract]
  • Pathmanandavel, K., Starling, J., Dale, R., Brilot, F. (2013), Autoantibodies and the immune hypothesis in psychotic brain diseases: challenges and perspectives. Clinical & Developmental Immunology. 2013, 257184. [Abstract]


  • Dale, R., Brilot, F. (2012), Autoimmune Basal Ganglia disorders. Journal of Child Neurology. 27(11), 1470-1481. [Abstract]
  • Gardiner, A., Bhatia, K., Stamelou, M., Dale, R., Kurian, M., Schneider, S., Wali, G., Counihan, T., Schapira, A., Spacey, S., Valente, E., Silveira-Moriyama, L., Teive, H., Raskin, S., Sander, J., Lees, A., Warner, T., Kullmann, D., Wood, N., Hanna, M., Houlden, H. (2012), PRRT2 gene mutations: From paroxysmal dyskinesia to episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine. Neurology. 79(21), 2115-2121. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Merheb, V., Pillai, S., Wang, D., Cantrill, L., Murphy, T., Ben-Pazi, H., Varadkar, S., Aumann, T., Horne, M., Church, A., Fath, T., Brilot, F. (2012), Antibodies to surface dopamine-2 receptor in autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders. Brain. 135(Pt 11), 3453-3468. [Abstract]
  • Khandaker, G., Zurynski, Y., Buttery, J., Marshall, H., Richmond, P., Dale, R., Royle, J., Gold, M., Snelling, T., Whitehead, B., Jones, C., Heron, L., McCaskill, M., Macartney, K., Elliott, E., Booy, R. (2012), Neurologic complications of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Surveillance in 6 pediatric hospitals. Neurology. 79(14), 1474-1481. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Gardiner, A., Antony, J., Houlden, H. (2012), Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54(10), 958-960. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Lang, B., Brilot, F., Polfrit, Y., Smith, G., Wong, M. (2012), Treatment-responsive pandysautonomia in an adolescent with ganglionic α3-AChR antibodies. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 16(4), 396-398. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Grattan-Smith, P., Nicholson, M., Peters, G. (2012), Microdeletions detected using chromosome microarray in children with suspected genetic movement disorders: a single-centre study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54(7), 618-623. [Abstract]
  • Banwell, B., Dale, R. (2012), Lymphohistiocytosis in the brain: recognition of a potentially reversible aspect of primary HLH. Neurology. 78(15), 1114-1115. [Abstract]
  • Seshia, S., Dale, R., Kirkham, F. (2012), Autoantibody associated disorders of the CNS in children: the list keeps growing. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 39(2), 129-131. [Abstract]
  • Fung, E., Tsung, L., Dale, R. (2012), Aquaporin-4 autoantibody: a neurogenic cause of anorexia and weight loss. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 54(1), 45-47. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., Brilot-Turville, F. (2012), Autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in paediatric CNS demyelination: Recent developments and future directions. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 1(3), 116–122.


  • Suleiman, J., Brenner, T., Gill, D., Troedson, C., Sinclair, A., Brilot, F., Vincent, A., Lang, B., Dale, R. (2011), Immune-mediated steroid-responsive epileptic spasms and epileptic encephalopathy associated with VGKC-complex antibodies. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 53(11), 1058-60. [Abstract]
  • Illingworth, M., Hanrahan, D., Anderson, C., O'Kane, K., Anderson, J., Casey, M., de Sousa, C., Cross, J., Wright, S., Dale, R., Vincent, A., Kurian, M. (2011), Elevated VGKC-complex antibodies in a boy with fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES). Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 53(11), 1053-1057. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Grattan-Smith, P., Fung, V., Peters, G. (2011), Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with 16p11.2 microdeletion. Neurology. 77(14), 1401-2. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Tantsis, E., Merheb, V., Brilot, F. (2011), Cerebrospinal fluid B-cell expansion in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis associated with neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 53(9), 856-60. [Abstract]
  • Pröbstel, A., Dornmair, K., Bittner, R., Sperl, P., Jenne, D., Magalhaes, S., Villalobos, A., Breithaupt, C., Weissert, R., Jacob, U., Krumbholz, M., Kuempfel, T., Blaschek, A., Stark, W., Gärtner, J., Pohl, D., Rostasy, K., Weber, F., Forne, I., Khademi, M., Olsson, T., Brilot, F., Tantsis, E., Dale, R., Wekerle, H., Hohlfeld, R., Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., Meinl, E., Derfuss, T. (2011), Antibodies to MOG are transient in childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. 77(6), 580-8. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Nasti, J., Peters, G. (2011), Familial 7q21.3 microdeletion involving epsilon-sarcoglycan causing myoclonus dystonia, cognitive impairment, and psychosis. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. , 1774-5. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Yin, K., Ding, A., Merheb, V., Varadkhar, S., McKay, D., Singh-Grewal, D., Brilot, F. (2011), Antibody binding to neuronal surface in movement disorders associated with lupus and antiphospholipid antibodies. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 53(6), 522-528. [Abstract]
  • Brilot, F., Merheb, V., Ding, A., Murphy, T., Dale, R. (2011), Antibody binding to neuronal surface in Sydenham chorea, but not in PANDAS or Tourette syndrome. Neurology. 76(17), 1508-13. [Abstract]
  • Suleiman, J., Brenner, T., Gill, D., Brilot, F., Antony, J., Vincent, A., Lang, B., Dale, R. (2011), VGKC antibodies in pediatric encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus. Neurology. 76(14), 1252-1255. [Abstract]
  • Lo, H., Bertini, E., Mirabella, M., Domazetovska, A., Dale, R., Petrini, S., D'Amico, A., Valente, E., Barresi, R., Roberts, M., Tozzi, G., Tasca, G., Cooper, S., Straub, V., North, K. (2011), Mosaic caveolin-3 expression in acquired rippling muscle disease without evidence of myasthenia gravis or acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. Neuromuscular disorders : NMD. 21(3), 194-203. [Abstract]
  • Banwell, B., Bar-Or, A., Giovannoni, G., Dale, R., Tardieu, M. (2011), Therapies for multiple sclerosis: considerations in the pediatric patient. Nature Reviews. Neurology. 7(2), 109-122. [Abstract]


  • Dale, R., Brilot, F. (2010), Biomarkers of inflammatory and auto-immune central nervous system disorders. Current opinion in pediatrics. 22(6), 718-25. [Abstract]
  • Chan, S., Wong, V., Fung, C., Dale, R., Vincent, A. (2010), Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with atypical brain changes on MRI. Pediatric Neurology. 43(4), 274-278. [Abstract]
  • Evesson, F., Peat, R., Lek, A., Brilot, F., Lo, H., Dale, R., Parton, R., North, K., Cooper, S. (2010), Reduced plasma membrane expression of dysferlin mutants is due to accelerated endocytosis via a syntaxin-4 associated pathway. The Journal of biological chemistry. 285(37), 28529-39. [Abstract]
  • Pillai, S., Gill, D., Webster, R., Howman-Giles, R., Dale, R. (2010), Cortical Hypometabolism Demonstrated by PET in Relapsing NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. Pediatric Neurology. 43(3), 217-220. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Singh, H., Troedson, C., Pillai, S., Gaikiwari, S., Kozlowska, K. (2010), A prospective study of acute movement disorders in children. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 52(8), 739-48. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Melchers, A., Fung, V., Grattan-Smith, P., Houlden, H., Earl, J. (2010), Familial paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia: atypical presentation of autosomal dominant GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 deficiency. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 52(6), 583-6. [Abstract]
  • Selter, R., Brilot, F., Grummel, V., Kraus, V., Cepok, S., Dale, R., Hemmer, B. (2010), Antibody responses to EBV and native MOG in pediatric inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases. Neurology. 74(21), 1711-5. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Gornall, H., Singh-Grewal, D., Alcausin, M., Rice, G., Crow, Y. (2010), Familial Aicardi-Gouti??res syndrome due to SAMHD1 mutations is associated with chronic arthropathy and contractures. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 152A(4), 938-942. [Abstract]
  • Webster, R., Hazelton, B., Suleiman, J., Macartney, K., Kesson, A., Dale, R. (2010), Severe encephalopathy with Swine origin influenza a h1n1 infection in childhood: case reports. Neurology. 74(13), 1077-1078. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Tenembaum, S. (2010), New International Definitions for Central Nervous System Demyelination Syndromes in Children. In: Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children. (pp.14-19).London, UK: MacKeith Press.
  • Dale, R. (2010), Other Immune-Mediated Extrapyramidal Movement Disorders. In: Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children. (pp.174-189).London, UK: MacKeith Press.
  • Vincent, A., Dale, R. (2010), Autoimmune Channelopathies and Other Antibody-Associated Neurological Disorders. In: Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children. (pp.365-387).London, UK: MacKeith Press.
  • Mikaeloff, Y., Dale, R., Tardieu, M. (2010), Childhood Multiple Sclerosis. In: Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children. (pp.48-64).London, UK: MacKeith Press.


  • Brilot, F., Dale, R., Selter, R., Grummel, V., Reddy Kalluri, S., Aslam, M., Busch, V., Zhou, D., Cepok, S., Hemmer, B. (2009), Antibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in children with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease. Annals of neurology. 66(6), 833-42. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Irani, S., Brilot, F., Pillai, S., Webster, R., Gill, D., Lang, B., Vincent, A. (2009), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in pediatric dyskinetic encephalitis lethargica. Annals of neurology. 66(5), 704-9. [Abstract]
  • Forrest, K., Young, H., Dale, R., Gill, D. (2009), Benefit of corticosteroid therapy in Angelman syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology. 24(8), 952-958. [Abstract]
  • Martino, D., Dale, R., Gilbert, D., Giovannoni, G., Leckman, J. (2009), Immunopathogenic mechanisms in tourette syndrome: A critical review. Movement Disorders. 24(9), 1267-1279. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Brilot, F., Banwell, B. (2009), Pediatric central nervous system inflammatory demyelination: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinically isolated syndromes, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. Current Opinion in Neurology. 22(3), 233-240. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R., Brilot, F., Fagan, E., Earl, J. (2009), Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin in paediatric neurology: a marker of active central nervous system inflammation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 51(4), 317-323. [Abstract]


  • Troedson, C., Gill, D., Dale, R. (2008), Emergence of acute necrotising encephalopathy in Australia. Journal of paediatrics and child health. , 599-601. [Abstract]
  • Branson, J., Dale, R. (2008), Transient bilateral blindness and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a rare complication of enuresis treatment. Journal of paediatrics and child health. , 380-382. [Abstract]
  • Dale, R. (2008), Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: where does it start and where does it stop?. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 50(5), 326-327. [Abstract]