What's news 2014
Hospitals becoming safer, report finds
Going to hospital has become safer over the past few years, thanks to a declining rate of dangerous bacterial infections. The latest National Health Reporting Authority (NHPA) report shows the vast majority of hospitals are beating the government target for deadly Staphylococcus aureus infections commonly known as golden staph.
- Nine News Read more
Visiting A/Professor Yoav Golan
Spoke at Westmead on Friday 28th regarding the current issues in treating the growing number of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections.
He discussed the current treatment protocols, including the rates of recurrence with these treatments, and introduced a new, highly efficacious antibiotic with significantly reduced recurrence rates.
Dr Badrul Hasan
is a visiting researcher from the University of Uppsala, is investigating antibiotic resistance reservoirs in animals and birds with significant human contact.
Doctoral students Kaitlin Tagg and Alex Agyekum help him collect samples at Bondi Beach.
- Antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli in wild birds and free-range poultry, Bangladesh. Hasan, B Read article
World Encephalitis Day - 22nd February 2014
Encephalitis, inflammation of the brain, is caused by several different infectious and noninfectious entities. Encephalitis can be an uncommon complication of a common infection, such as infection with a herpes virus or with any of several vaccine-preventable disease viruses, or a predictable presentation of a rare pathogen, such as the ameba, Naegleria fowleri - CDC.gov Read more
The international encephalitis consortium launched its
Also, check out some great work by Tom Solomon and colleagues from the
University of Liverpool
1,500-year-old plague victims shed light on disease origins
Scientists have sequenced the genome of the pathogen that caused one of the most devastating plagues in human history, shedding light on where the disease came from and how it spread.
Professor Edward Holmes, who is from the University of Sydney and one of the authors of the study, said it was the oldest pathogen ever sequenced.
"This is the first complete genome from one of the most significant disease events in human history," he said.
The results showed the strains from the plague victims were distinct from those involved in the Black Death, the later pandemic which killed an estimated 60% of the European population.
- Nick Evershed, Theguardian.com Read more
Nightlife - Wednesday 11th Dec
Listen to Prof. Jon Iredell and Prof. Liz Harry discuss antibiotic resistance on ABC radio program Nightlife with Tony Delroy.
Antibiotics have saved millions of lives since they became widely available in the 1940s, but their use-by date may be fast approaching. Antibiotic resistance is growing around the world as we prescribe them for ailments ranging from tuberculosis to an infected thumb.
Opportunity for PhD Candidate
GENOMICS OF GOLDEN STAPH: DISCOVERING GENOMIC MARKERS OF TRANSMISSION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS
An opportunity exists for a PhD candidate to undertake work on the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hospitals. Elements of the PhD project may include:
- Development of a rapid genotyping system, which will be used to rapidly detect transmission of S. aureus in the hospital setting.
- Performance of whole genome sequencing on selected isolates
- Analysis of results of whole genome sequencing to confirm chains of transmission
Experience and skills will be gained in molecular diagnostics of highly significant nosocomial pathogens, including next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of whole genome sequencing data.
Professor Lyn Gilbert, Dr Matthew O’Sullivan
Westmead - Sydney Emerging Infections and Biosecurity Institute
For more details and how to apply
CDC Threat Report: ‘We Will Soon Be in a Post-Antibiotic Era'
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has just published a first-of-its-kind assessment of the threat the country faces from antibiotic-resistant organisms, ranking them by the number of illnesses and deaths they cause each year and outlining urgent steps that need to be taken to roll back the trend
- Maryn McKenna, Weird.com Read more
University of Sydney researchers to study evolution of the ancient plague
Eddie Holmes leads a team including Jon Iredell and Muhammad Kamruzzaman from the (CRE Critical Infection), and Hendrik Poinar, McMaster University to continue work on the evolutionary history of the ancient black death pathogen.
It has long been thought that the great plagues of mankind have modified human evolution but there is evidence that pathogens themselves adapt to optimally spread within a host population. The ancient Justinian plague and the Black Death of medieval times may be genetically different from modern Yersinia pestsis and the team’s overall objective is to understand the nature of virulence evolution through in-depth study of one of the most destructive pathogens in human history.
Analysis of ancient Y. pestis genomes will provide an unprecedented insight into pathogen evolution and a general perspective on the evolutionary pressures acting on emerging pathogens. Their study represents a powerful combination of expertise in comparative genomic analysis and virulence evolution (CIA-Holmes), aDNA (CIB-Poinar), and molecular genetic analyses of bacterial populations (CIC-Iredell).
21st Century Medicine
Preventing the superbug apocalypse Listen to the talk
A/Prof. Tom Gottlieb and Prof. Jon Iredell were invited by the Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity to give lectures concerning the ever growing threat of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Antibiotics were introduced into society during the '40s and '50s and were believed to be, at the time, the end of bacterial infections forever. However, antibiotic resistant bacteria were identified as early as the 1960s. Despite this concern, antibiotic usage soared exponentially, and globally, revolutionising modern medicine.
Now, after a twenty year gap in the development of new antibiotics, coupled with some of the highest rates of antibiotic usage the world has seen, there is now resistance to every class of antibiotic in use, and a variety of antibiotic resistant organisms are responsible. These organisms are rapidly becoming a major health concern, both within hospitals and throughout the community. A/Prof. Gottlieb and Prof. Iredell have summarised for us in their lectures, the background, the current situation, and the future of antibiotic resistance as a global health concern.
- Jack Taylor
Preventing the superbug apocalypse
Antibiotic control and antibiotic resistance needs to be as high a priority as regulating tobacco and managing global warming, according to an infectious disease expert. With the rise of antibiotic resistance comes a reminder to all doctors to be extra vigilant around patients in nursing homes or return travellers who have been hospitalised overseas and showing symptoms of urinary tract or bloodstream infection.
Professor Jon Iredell, director of infectious diseases at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, said these patients were likely to be harbouring gram-negative bacteria that are not only easily spread but also particularly antibiotic resistant.
"I think travel history is something that is commonly neglected," he said. "Travel history is not just about malaria, it's about antibiotic resistance as well."
- Amanda Davey, 6minutes Read more
Bacterial sex, antibiotics & superbugs
Antibiotic control and antibiotic resistance needs to be up there with tobacco control and smoking according to Professor Jon Iredell, director of infectious diseases and microbiology at Westmead.
It's not that Iredell doesn't appreciate the life-saving drugs that revolutionised the medicine in the 20th century. it's just that he knows the dark side: the proliferation of 'superugs', a convenient catch-all term for those bacteria which are most dangerous (most 'virulent') and are most able to defeat antibiotics (most 'resistant').
- Radius Magazine, cover story, October 2013
"Who’s Afraid of Peer Review?"
A spoof paper concocted by Science reveals little or no scrutiny at many open-access journals.
This paper looks at the problems of online publication. Free access doesn't equate to free publication and a lack of proper peer review prior to publication could make or break an author's scientific career.
While the ideals behind open-access are not at fault, the basic question still comes down to how to achieve this. Many of the journals were found to not be subject to peer review and to be purely a money gathering enterprise - driven by publication fees paid by the authors - and not the quality of the papers accepted for publication.
- John Clancy, Dept Medical Entomology; CIDMLS
Surgery could soon become deadly
Superbugs could soon make routine surgical procedures deadly for healthy people if authorities do not start introducing measures to tackle them, doctors say.
The warning comes as England's chief medical officer, Dame Sally Davies, called for worldwide action to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria that she said posed a ''catastrophic threat'' to human health that should be likened to terrorism.
In submissions to a current Australian Senate inquiry into the problem, microbiologists and infectious disease experts called for better cleaning of hospitals and more testing of animals and food.
- Julia Medew, Health Editor, The Age Read more
Dengue researchers take top Australian Eureka science prize
Australia's national science awards, the Eureka Prizes are presented annually by the Australian Museum, and this year, scientists who've developed a way to prevent the spread of the deadly dengue fever have taken out one of the top prizes.
It's hoped the breakthrough will help the two and a half billion people around the world who are vulnerable to dengue fever.
- ABC Radio, Presenter: Campbell Cooney, Speaker: Science and technology correspondent Jake Sturmer Listen
21st Century Medicine Program
October 16, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, Sydney Room
Level 10, 201 Sussex Street, Sydney
The 21st Century Medicine Program has invited Professor Jon Iredell to give a lecture concerning the emerging issue of anti-bacterial resistant, Gram-negative bacteria. This group of less well-known bacterial menaces is the focus of a great deal of research. Jon Iredell, director of Infectious Diseases at Westmead Hospital and Professor at Sydney Medical School, is currently leading a team of researchers to answer pressing questions, such as how to quickly and correctly identify anti-bacterial resistant infections, how to treat such infections, and where the infections are coming from. Join us at the posted date and address to gain insight into these growing concerns of the medical system, and the incredible research that is currently underway.
- Jack Taylor More information