Professor Nicholas King

Professor of Viral Immunopathology
Pathology, School of Medical Sciences
Bosch Institute

D06 - Blackburn Building
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006 Australia

T: +61 2 9351 4553
F: +61 2 9351 3429

Research interests

We are interested in the neurotropic flavivirus, West Nile virus, and how our immune response, in trying to get rid of virus infection, lethally damages the host nervous system in this response.

We are studying the pathogenesis of West Nile virus encephalitis to understand which components cause lethal damage in the brain and which are crucial for virus clearance.

We are also investigating early immune responses to infection in specialised organs and sites, including the brain, the skin, the genitourinary tract, the embryo and the eye, as being the key to modulating this process before damage occurs.

Current national competitive grants*


Role of Inflammation in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Twigg S, King N, McLennan S
NHMRC Project Grants ($476,325 over 3 years)

Immune modifying particles - a novel therapeutic strategy to treat West Nile Virus encephalitis
King N, Getts D
NHMRC Project Grants ($532,260 over 3 years)

* Grants administered through the University of Sydney

International links

Germany. (University of Muenster) Collaborative Research into diagnostic imaging approaches to viral encephalitis.


2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008


  • Getts, D., Terry, R., Getts, M., Deffrasnes, C., Müller, M., van Vreden, C., Ashhurst, T., Chami, B., McCarthy, D., Wu, H., Ma, J., Martin, A., Shae, L., Witting, P., Kansas, G., Kühn, J., Hafezi, W., Campbell, I., Reilly, D., Say, J., Brown, L., White, M., Cordwell, S., Chadban, S., Thorp, E., Bao, S., Miller, S., King, N. (2014), Therapeutic inflammatory monocyte modulation using immune-modifying microparticles. Science Translational Medicine. 6(219), 219ra7. [Abstract]
  • Noçon, A., Ip, J., Terry, R., Lim, S., Getts, D., Mülller, M., Hofer, M., King, N., Campbell, I. (2014), The bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 is induced in the central nervous system of mice with west Nile virus encephalitis. Journal of Virology. 88(1), 679-689. [Abstract]
  • Getts, D., Teague Getts, M., King, N., Miller, S. (2014), Infectious Triggers of T Cell Autoimmunity. In: The Autoimmune Diseases. (pp.263-274).United States: Elsevier Inc..


  • Ashhurst, T., Vreden, C., Munoz-Erazo, L., Niewold, P., Watabe, K., Terry, R., Deffrasnes, C., Getts, D., Cole King, N. (2013), Antiviral macrophage responses in flavivirus encephalitis. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 138(5), 632-647. [Abstract]


  • Getts, D., Martin, A., McCarthy, D., Terry, R., Hunter, Z., Yap, W., Getts, M., Pleiss, M., Luo, X., King, N., Shea, L., Miller, S. (2012), Microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides induce T-cell tolerance and ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nature Biotechnology. 30, 1217-1224. [Abstract]
  • Getts, D., Terry, R., Getts, M., Müller, M., Rana, S., Deffrasnes, C., Ashhurst, T., Radford, J., Hofer, M., Thomas, S., Campbell, I., King, N. (2012), Targeted blockade in lethal West Nile virus encephalitis indicates a crucial role for very late antigen (VLA)-4-dependent recruitment of nitric oxide-producing macrophages. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 9(1), 246. [Abstract]
  • Xiang, X., Gui, H., King, N., Cole, L., Wang, H., Xie, Q., Bao, S. (2012), IL-22 and non-ELR-CXC chemokine expression in chronic hepatitis B virus-infected liver. Immunology and Cell Biology. 90(6), 611-619. [Abstract]
  • Hofer, M., Li, W., Manders, P., Terry, R., Lim, S., King, N., Campbell, I. (2012), Mice deficient in STAT1 but not STAT2 or IRF9 develop a lethal CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Journal of Virology. 86(12), 6932-6946. [Abstract]
  • Yeung, A., Wu, W., Freewan, M., Stocker, R., King, N., Thomas, S. (2012), Flavivirus infection induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human monocyte-derived macrophages via tumor necrosis factor and NF-κB. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 91(4), 657-666. [Abstract]
  • Minten, C., Terry, R., Deffrasnes, C., King, N., Campbell, I. (2012), IFN regulatory factor 8 is a key constitutive determinant of the morphological and molecular properties of microglia in the CNS. PloS One. 7(11), e49851. [Abstract]
  • Hafezi, W., Lorentzen, E., Eing, B., Müller, M., King, N., Klupp, B., Mettenleiter, T., Kühn, J. (2012), Entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) into the distal axons of trigeminal neurons favors the onset of nonproductive, silent infection. PLoS Pathogens. 8(5), e1002679. [Abstract]
  • Munoz-Erazo, L., Natoli, R., Provis, J., Madigan, M., King, N. (2012), Microarray analysis of gene expression in West Nile virus-infected human retinal pigment epithelium. Molecular Vision. 18, 730-743. [Abstract]
  • Terry, R., Getts, D., Deffrasnes, C., van Vreden, C., Campbell, I., King, N. (2012), Inflammatory monocytes and the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 9, 270. [Abstract]


  • Getts, D., Turley, D., Smith, C., Harp, C., McCarthy, D., Feeney, E., Getts, M., Martin, A., Luo, X., Terry, R., King, N., Miller, S. (2011), Tolerance Induced by Apoptotic Antigen-Coupled Leukocytes Is Induced by PD-L1+ and IL-10-Producing Splenic Macrophages and Maintained by T Regulatory Cells. Journal of Immunology. 187(5), 2405-2417. [Abstract]
  • Kuo, C., Lim, S., King, N., Johnston, S., Burgess, J., Black, J., Oliver, B. (2011), Rhinovirus infection induces extracellular matrix protein deposition in asthmatic and non-asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 300(6), L951-L957. [Abstract]
  • Davison, A., King, N. (2011), Accelerated dendritic cell differentiation from migrating Ly6C(lo) bone marrow monocytes in early dermal West Nile virus infection. Journal of Immunology. 186(4), 2382-2396. [Abstract]
  • Kuo, C., Lim, S., King, N., Bartlett, N., Walton, R., Zhu, J., Glanville, N., Aniscenko, J., Johnston, S., Burgess, J., Black, J., Oliver, B. (2011), Rhinovirus infection induces expression of airway remodelling factors in vitro and in vivo. Respirology. 16(2), 367-377. [Abstract]
  • Ling, Z., Combes, V., Grau, G., King, N. (2011), Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease - an opinion. Frontiers in Immunology. 2, 67. [Abstract]
  • Van Ly, D., King, N., Moir, L., Burgess, J., Black, J., Oliver, B. (2011), Effects of β(2) Agonists, Corticosteroids, and Novel Therapies on Rhinovirus-Induced Cytokine Release and Rhinovirus Replication in Primary Airway Fibroblasts. Journal of Allergy. 2011, 457169. [Abstract]
  • Say, J., van Vreden, C., Reilly, D., Brown, L., Rabeau, J., King, N. (2011), Luminescent nanodiamonds for biomedical applications. Biophysical Reviews. 3(4), 171-184.
  • King, N., Van Vreden, C., Terry, R., Getts, D., Yeung, A., M, T., Ariane M, D., Deffrasnes, C., Luis, M. (2011), The Immunopathogenesis of Neurotropic Flavivirus Infection. In: Flavivirus Encephalitis. (pp.25-52).Croatia: InTech.


  • Trian, T., Ge, Q., Moir, L., Burgess, J., Kuo, C., King, N., Reddel, H., Black, J., Oliver, B., McParland, B. (2010), Rhinovirus-induced Exacerbations of Asthma - How is the {beta}2-adrenoceptor Implicated?. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 43(2), 227-33. [Abstract]


  • Kashem, M., Sarker, R., Des Etages, H., Machaalani, R., King, N., McGregor, I., Matsumoto, I. (2009), Comparative proteomics in the corpus callosal sub-regions of postmortem human brain. Neurochemistry international. 55(7), 483-90. [Abstract]
  • Quintana, A., Müller, M., Frausto, R., Ramos, R., Getts, D., Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Krauthausen, M., King, N., Hidalgo, J., Campbell, I. (2009), Site-specific production of IL-6 in the central nervous system retargets and enhances the inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Journal of Immunology. 183(3), 2079-2088. [Abstract]
  • King, N., Davison, A., Getts, D., Lu, D., Getts, M., Yeung, A., Peterson, J., Kesson, A. (2009), Enhanced Antigen Processing or Immune Evasion? West Nile Virus and the Induction of Immune Recognition Molecules. In: West Nile Encephalitis Virus Infection. (pp.309-339).United States: Springer.


  • Patel, M., Singh, J., Niknami, M., Kurek, C., Yao, M., Lu, S., Maclean, F., King, N., Gelb, M., Scott, K., Russell, P., Boulas, J., Dong, Q. (2008), Cytosolic Phospholipase A2-{alpha}: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Prostate Cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 14(24), 8070-8079. [Abstract]
  • Getts, D., Terry, R., Getts, M., Müller, M., Rana, S., Shrestha, B., Radford, J., Van Rooijen, N., Campbell, I., King, N. (2008), Ly6c+ "inflammatory monocytes" are microglial precursors recruited in a pathogenic manner in West Nile virus encephalitis. The Journal of experimental medicine. 205(0), 2319-37. [Abstract]
  • Oliver, B., Lim, S., Wark, P., Laza-Stanca, V., King, N., Black, J., Burgess, J., Roth, M., Johnston, S. (2008), Rhinovirus exposure impairs immune responses to bacterial products in human alveolar macrophages. Thorax. 63(6), 519-25. [Abstract]
  • Getts, D., Balcar, V., Matsumoto, I., Müller, M., King, N. (2008), Viruses and the immune system: their roles in seizure cascade development. Journal of neurochemistry. 104(5), 1167-1176. [Abstract]