Associate Professor Ben Marais

BMedSc, MBChB, MMed (Paed), MRCP(UK), FRACP, PhD
Associate Professor, The Children's Hospital at Westmead Clinical School
Deputy Director, Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity
Senior Clinical Academic, The Children's Hospital at Westmead

Telephone +61 2 9845 3433

Website NHMRC TB CRE
Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Disease and Biosecurity
Curriculum vitae Curriculum vitae

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Biographical details

Associate Professor Ben Marais is a paediatrician and paediatric infectious diseases specialist with an interest in global health. He is internationally renowned for his work on childhood and multi drug-resistant (MDR)-tuberculosis (TB). He serves on the executive committee of the NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Tuberculosis Control (http://tbcre.org.au/) and is a founding member of the Australasian Tuberculosis Forum. He is a strong advocate for Australia to take a leadership role in coordinating enhanced TB and MDR-TB control efforts in the Asia-Pacific region. More broadly, as deputy-Director of the Marie Bashir Institute (www.sydney.edu.au/mbi) he works toward creating a dynamic multi-disciplinary research community in infection, immunity and biosecurity. Associate Professor Marais trained as a paediatrician in South Africa and worked in the UK, the Netherlands, Canada and USA. He described the natural history of childhood TB from the pre-chemotherapy literature and conducted a large, prospective cohort study to document TB incidence and disease diversity among children in Cape Town. As Acting Director of the Ukwanda centre for Rural Health at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, his interest in the health of underserved populations inspired a comprehensive review of health care delivery in rural and remote areas. Associate Professor Marais was one of three lead authors of the Lancet TB series (2010), which assessed key challenges in global TB control, highlighted the neglected burden of childhood TB and emphasised the need for more holistic and integrated approaches. The final ‘Call to Action’ manuscript that he led, informed the WHO post 2015 global TB control targets and action plan.

Research interests

Associate Professor Marais’ research interests include tuberculosis (epidemiology, service delivery, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, drug resistance, strain diversity, evolution, transmission), paediatric infectious diseases in general, and a developing interest in cross-disciplinary research that involves an ecological understanding of resilience, health and disease.

He led the South African contribution to the international ‘TB in the 21st century’ collaboration, which documented genotype emergence and genotype-related differences in disease phenotype and drug resistance. He collaborated with social scientists and geographic information system (GIS) experts to map TB transmission ‘hotspots’ within high-burden communities and explored the transmission elasticity concept with mathematical modellers. He is renowned for his work describing the natural history of childhood TB and prospective disease descriptions from a cohort study of child TB in Cape Town.

Currently, Associate Professor Marais is involved in a major NHMRC-funded project in Vietnam, led by Dr Greg Fox (Centenary Institute) and Professor Guy Marks (Woolcock Institute) evaluating the prevention of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB through the provision of preventive therapy to household contacts of infectious MDR-TB patients. Additionally, with Associate Professor Vitali Sintchenko (Sydney Medical School) he is exploring the use of cutting-edge pathogen genomics to identify TB transmission within NSW to assist targeted public health responses. He actively collaborates on numerous other projects in Mongolia, Peru, India, Indonesia, Uganda, South Africa, and Papua New Guinea.

Teaching and supervision

Paediatric Infectious Diseases

General paediatrics

Global health

Infection and Immunity

International links

India

(TB Research Institue Chennai CMC Vellore) Joint research protocols on childhood tuberculosis and drug resistant infections

Indonesia

(Eijkman Institute, Jakarta Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Hasanuddin University, Makassar) Tuberculosis and other infectious diseases research projects

Mongolia

(National TB control Programme) TB service delivery and MDR-TB (PhD student Ulzii Gurjav; Dr Claudia Dobler)

Papua New Guinea

(Burnet Institute; MSF; WHO; National TB Control Programme) WHO TB programme review (2014); Advisor TB Emergency response, Western Province

Peru

(Socios de Salut, Lima; Harvard University) Impact of TB on lung health (PhD student Anthony Byrne)

South Africa

(Stellenbosch University (my alma mater); University of Cape Town; WITS) Many existing links, especially related to childhood TB, MDR-TB and M. tuberculosis strain evolution

Switzerland

(Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel) Professor Sebastain Gagneux, Dr. Klaus Reither

Uganda

(MSF research unit at Mbarara) MSF (France) Epicentre scientific advisory committee

United Kingdom

(University College London (UCL); Imperial College) Professor Ali Zumla (UCL) Professor Beatte Kampmann (Imperial College)

Vietnam

(Woolcock TB research office; National TB control programme; Oxford group; NIHE) WHO MDR-TB programme review (2012), projects led by dr. Greg Fox and Prof. Guy Marks (PhD student Quynh Mai Trinh)

Selected grants

2015

  • Prevention of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in a high prevalence setting: ‘Connecting the DOTS’ in Vietnam; Fox G, Marks G, Menzies R, Viet Nhung N, Marais B, Graham S, Behr M, Dowdy D, Benedetti A; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2013

  • Tuberculosis - transmission, drug resistance and strain emergence; Marais B; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Career Development Fellowships.
  • MECHANISMS AND MARKERS OF TUBERCULOSIS TRANSMISSION WITHIN AUSTRALIA; Sintchenko V, Marais B, Gilbert G; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2012

  • Tuberculosis control: from discovery to public health practice and policy; Britton W, Marais B, Marks G, Sintchenko V, Graham S, Triccas J, Saunders B, Kerridge I, Bennett B, Gilbert G; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Centres of Research Excellence.
  • Developing functional research partnerships and student exchange, focused on relevant infectious diseases with the Eijkman Institute and Hasanuddin University, Indonesia; Yusuf I, Muljono D, Sorrell T, George J, Marais B, Douglas M; DVC International/IPDF Grant.
  • Sydney Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity Network (SIBRN); Dhand N, Sorrell T, Bennett B, Booy R, Crawford J, Dwyer D, Gilbert G, Giles F, Holmes A, Hossain L, Iredell J, Jones C, Kesson A, Kerridge I, Marais B, Simpson S, Sintchenko V, Ward M, Werder O, Britton W, Hunter C, Kamradt-Scott A, Mor S, Salkeld G, Shaw T, Smith F, Wood N; DVC Research/Research Network Scheme (SyReNS).

2011

  • Causes of fever in children hospitalized within 3 weeks after returning from international travel; Marais B, Jones C, Marais B; DVC Research/Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Scheme.

Selected publications

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Edited Books

  • Zumla, A., Raviglione, M., Marais, B. (2010). The Lancet Series: Tuberculosis. United Kingdom: The Lancet Publishing Group.
  • Spector, J., Gibson, T., Chakraborty, R., Mandalakas, A., Marais, B. (2009). Atlas of Pediatrics in the Tropics and Resource-limited Settings. United States: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Book Chapters

  • Marais, B., Ling, D., Pai, M. (2011). New Approaches to TB Diagnosis in Children. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 380-394). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2011). TB in HIV Infected Children. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 218-221). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • McNeeley, D., Raoof, A., Lin, J., Marais, B. (2011). The Evaluation of New Antituberculosis Drugs in Children. In Peter R. Donald, Paul D. van Helden (Eds.), Antituberculosis Chemotherapy, (pp. 235-242). Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger AG.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2011). Tuberculous Lymphadenitis. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 122-127). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Marais, B. (2011). What do we know about how to treat tuberculosis? In Nigel Curtis, Adam Finn, Andrew J. Pollard (Eds.), Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VIII: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 179, (pp. 171-184). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
  • Marais, B. (2009). Childhood Intra-thoracic Tuberculosis. In Adam Finn, Nigel Curtis, Andrew J. Pollard (Eds.), Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 634, (pp. 129-146). United States: Springer.
  • Marais, B. (2009). Childhood Tuberculosis. In Samir S. Shah (Eds.), Pediatric Practice: Infectious Diseases, (pp. 332-347). United States: McGraw Hill.
  • Graham, S., Marais, B., Gie, R. (2009). Clinical Features and Index of Suspicion of Turberculosis in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 154-163). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2009). Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis: Recent Advances and Applicability of New Tools. In Surendra K. Sharma, Alladi Mohan (Eds.), Tuberculosis: 2nd Edition, (pp. 602-614). India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Marais, B., Wright, C. (2009). Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 823-825). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P., Schaaf, H. (2009). Management Algorithms for Paediatric Tuberculosis. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 323-331). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2009). Natural History of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 133-145). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Jeena, P., Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2009). Paediatric Tuberculosis. In D. Wilson, M. Cotton, L.-G. Bekker, T. Meyers, F. Venter, G. Maartens (Eds.), Handbook of HIV Medicine: 2nd Edition, (pp. 162-172). South Africa: Oxford University Press.
  • Cotton, M., Schaaf, H., Rabie, H., Marais, B. (2009). Tuberculosis. In D.F. Wittenberg (Eds.), Coovadias Paediatrics & Child Health: 6th Edition, (pp. 362-386). South Africa: Oxford University Press.
  • Marais, B., Graham, S. (2009). Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis and Involvement of the Reticuloendothelial System in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 391-396). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2006). Tuberculous Peripheral Lymphadenitis. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children: 3rd Edition, (pp. 134-142). India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Journals

  • Outhred, A., Jelfs, P., Suliman, B., Hill-Cawthorne, G., Crawford, A., Marais, B., Sintchenko, V. (2015). Added value of whole-genome sequencing for management of highly drug-resistant TB. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(4), 1198-1202. [More Information]
  • Zumla, A., Maeurer, M., Marais, B., Chakaya, J., Wejse, C., Lipman, M., McHugh, T., Petersen, E. (2015). Commemorating World Tuberculosis Day 2015. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 32, 1-4. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Grzemska, M., Brands, A., Nguyen, H., Amini, J., Triasih, R., Talukder, K., Ahmed, S., Amanullah, F., Kumar, B., Marais, B., et al (2015). Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: Perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 32, 166-169. [More Information]
  • Oliwa, J., Karumbi, J., Marais, B., Madhi, S., Graham, S. (2015). Tuberculosis as a cause or comorbidity of childhood pneumonia in tuberculosis-endemic areas: A systematic review. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(3), 235-243. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2015). Twelve-Dose Drug Regimen Now Also an Option for Preventing Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(3), 208-210. [More Information]
  • Portevin, D., Moukambi, F., Clowes, P., Bauer, A., Chachage, M., Ntinginya, N., Mfinanga, E., Said, K., Haraka, F., Rachow, A., Marais, B., et al (2014). Assessment of the novel T-cell activation marker-tuberculosis assay for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in children: a prospective proof-of-concept study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 931-938. [More Information]
  • Morkel, G., Bekker, A., Marais, B., Kirsten, G., van Wyk, J., Dramowski, A. (2014). Bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in a South African neonatal intensive care unit. Paediatrics and International Child Health, 34(2), 108-114. [More Information]
  • Bissell, K., Viney, K., Brostrom, R., Gounder, S., Khogali, M., Kishore, K., Kool, B., Kumar, A., Manzi, M., Marais, B., Marks, G., et al (2014). Building operational research capacity in the Pacific. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S2-S13. [More Information]
  • Matoto, V., Viney, K., Roseveare, C., Colagiuri, R., Marais, B. (2014). Burden and spectrum of disease in people with diabetes in Tonga. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S44-S49. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Graham, S. (2014). Child health and tuberculosis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2(4), 254-256. [More Information]
  • Solomons, R., van Elsland, S., Visser, D., Hoek, K., Marais, B., Schoeman, J., van Furth, A. (2014). Commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in tuberculous meningitis -a meta-analysis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 78(4), 398-403. [More Information]
  • Majumdar, S., Marais, B., Denholm, J., Britton, W. (2014). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: collaborative regional leadership required. Medical Journal of Australia, 200(5), 241-242. [More Information]
  • Mukherjee, A., Saini, S., Kabra, S., Gupta, N., Singh, V., Singh, S., Bhatnagar, S., Saini, D., Grewal, H., et al, Marais, B. (2014). Effect of micronutrient deficiency on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test and tuberculin skin test in diagnosis of childhood intrathoracic tuberculosis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(1), 38-42. [More Information]
  • Esposito, S., DAmbrosio, L., Tadolini, M., Schaaf, H., Luna, J., Marais, B., Centis, R., Dara, M., Matteelli, A., Blasi, F., et al (2014). ERS/WHO Tuberculosis Consilium assistance with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis management in a child: case study of compassionate delamanid use. The European Respiratory Journal, 44(3), 811-815. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Sismanidis, C., Menzies, H., Marais, B., Detjen, A., Black, R. (2014). Importance of tuberculosis control to address child survival. The Lancet, 383(9928), 1605-1607. [More Information]
  • Hill, P., Dye, C., Viney, K., Tabutoa, K., Kienene, T., Bissell, K., Williams, B., Zachariah, R., Marais, B., Harries, A. (2014). Mass treatment to eliminate tuberculosis from an island population. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 18(8), 899-904. [More Information]
  • Harries, A., Marais, B., Kool, B., Ram, S., Kumar, A., Gounder, S., Viney, K., Brostrom, R., Roseveare, C., Bissell, K., et al (2014). Mentorship for operational research capacity building: hands-on or hands-off? Public Health Action, 4(S1), S56-S58. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Tadolini, M., Zignol, M., Migliori, G. (2014). Paediatric tuberculosis in Europe: lessons from Denmark and inclusive strategies to consider. The European Respiratory Journal, 43(3), 678-684.
  • Fanai, S., Viney, K., Tarivonda, L., Roseveare, C., Tagaro, M., Marais, B. (2014). Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S19-S24. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Quantifying the tuberculosis disease burden in children. The Lancet, 383(9928), 1530-1531. [More Information]
  • Gurjav, U., Jelfs, P., Holmes (nee McCallum), N., Marais, B., Sintchenko, V. (2014). Temporal dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in New South Wales, Australia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14(455), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Tagaro, M., Harries, A., Kool, B., Ram, S., Viney, K., Marais, B., Tarivonda, L. (2014). Tuberculosis case burden and treatment outcomes in children, adults and older adults, Vanuatu, 2007-2011. Public Health Action, 4(S1), S14-S18. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2014). Tuberculosis in Children. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 4(9), 1-21. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Tuberculosis in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50(10), 759-767. [More Information]
  • Solomons, R., Wessels, M., Visser, D., Donald, P., Marais, B., Schoeman, J., van Furth, A. (2014). Uniform research case definition criteria differentiate tuberculous and bacterial meningitis in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(11), 1574-1578. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Urine lipoarabinomannan testing in children with tuberculosis. The Lancet Global Health, 2(5), e245-e246. [More Information]
  • Lawn, S., Mwaba, P., Bates, M., Piatek, A., Alexander, H., Marais, B., Cuevas, L., McHugh, T., Zijenah, L., Kapata, N., et al (2013). Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 349-361. [More Information]
  • Walters, E., Reichmuth, K., Dramowski, A., Marais, B., Cotton, M., Rabie, H. (2013). Antiretroviral Regimens Containing a Single Protease Inhibitor Increase Risk of Virologic Failure in Young HIV-infected Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 32(4), 361-363. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2013). Challenges in the use of tests to diagnose tuberculosis infection - In Reply. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 24(2), 92-93.
  • Seddon, J., Perez-Velez, C., Schaaf, H., Furin, J., Marais, B., Tebruegge, M., Detjen, A., Hesseling, A., Shah, S., Adams, L., et al (2013). Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 2(2), 100-109. [More Information]
  • Ho, J., Marais, B., Gilbert, G., Ralph, A. (2013). Diagnosing tuberculous meningitis - have we made any progress? Tropical Medicine and International Health, 18(6), 783-793. [More Information]
  • Britton, P., Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2013). Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in children. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 24(1), 15-21. [More Information]
  • Abubakar, I., Zignol, M., Falzon, D., Raviglione, M., Ditiu, L., Masham, S., Adetifa, I., Ford, N., Cox, H., Lawn, S., Marais, B., et al (2013). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 529-539. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Mlambo, C., Rastogi, N., Zozio, T., Duse, A., Victor, T., Marais, E., Warren, R. (2013). Epidemic spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(6), 1818-1825. [More Information]
  • Khatami, A., Isaacs, D., Marais, B. (2013). Fever in the returned child traveller. Medicine Today, 14(12), 27-38.
  • Murray, E., Bond, V., Marais, B., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Ayles, H., Beyers, N. (2013). High levels of vulnerability and anticipated stigma reduce the impetus for tuberculosis diagnosis in Cape Town, South Africa. Health Policy and Planning, 28(4), 410-418. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Zumla, A. (2013). History of tuberculosis and drug resistance. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 88-88. [More Information]
  • Vanden Driessche, K., Persson, A., Marais, B., Fink, P., Urdahl, K. (2013). Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis. Clinical & Developmental Immunology, 2013, 1-16. [More Information]
  • Mandalakas, A., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Sinanovic, E. (2013). Modelling the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent tuberculosis in child contacts in a high-burden setting. Thorax, 68(3), 247-255. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Graham, S., Maeurer, M., Zumla, A. (2013). Progress and challenges in childhood tuberculosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 287-289. [More Information]
  • Britton, P., Yeung, V., Lowbridge, C., Isaacs, D., Marais, B. (2013). Spectrum of Disease in Children Treated for Tuberculosis at a Tertiary Children's Hospital in Australia. Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 224-231. [More Information]
  • Vanden Driessche, K., Marais, B., Wattenberg, M., Magis-Escurra, C., Reijers, M., Tuinman, I., Boeree, M., van Soolingen, D., de Groot, R., Cotton, M. (2013). The Cough Cylinder: a tool to study measures against airborne spread of (myco-) bacteria. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 17(1), 46-53. [More Information]
  • Kapata, N., Chanda-Kapata, P., O'Grady, J., Bates, M., Mwaba, P., Janssen, S., Marais, B., Cobelens, F., Grobusch, M., Zumla, A. (2013). Trends in Childhood Tuberculosis in Zambia: A Situation Analysis. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 59(2), 134-139. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2013). Tuberculosis. Australian Doctor, 2013 (30 August), 27-34.
  • Marais, B., Lonnroth, K., Lawn, S., Migliori, G., Mwaba, P., Glaziou, P., Bates, M., Colagiuri, R., Zijenah, L., Swaminathan, S., et al (2013). Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 436-448. [More Information]
  • Raviglione, M., Zumla, A., Marais, B., Horton, R., Motsoaledi, A. (2012). A sustainable agenda for tuberculosis control and research. The Lancet, 379(9821), 1077-1078. [More Information]
  • Bhargava, A., Pai, M., Bhargava, M., Marais, B., Menzies, D. (2012). Can Social Interventions Prevent Tuberculosis? The Papworth Experiment (1918-1943) Revisited. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 186(5), 442-449. [More Information]
  • Zumla, A., Abubakar, I., Raviglione, M., Hoelscher, M., Ditiu, L., McHugh, T., Squire, S., Cox, H., Ford, N., McNerney, R., Marais, B., et al (2012). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis - Current Dilemmas, Unanswered Questions, Challenges, and Priority Needs. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(2), S228-S240. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Ahmed, T., Amanullah, F., Browning, R., Cardenas, V., Casenghi, M., Cuevas, L., Gale, M., Gie, R., Grzemska, M., Marais, B., et al (2012). Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(2), S199-S208. [More Information]
  • Cuevas, L., Browning, R., Bossuyt, P., Casenghi, M., Cotton, M., Cruz, A., Dodd, L., Drobniewski, F., Gale, M., Graham, S., Marais, B., et al (2012). Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 2. Methodological issues for conducting and reporting research evaluations of tuberculosis diagnostics for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. Consensus from an expert panel. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205, S209-S215. [More Information]
  • Talukder, K., Salim, M., Jerin, I., Sharmin, F., Talukder, M., Marais, B., Nandi, P., Cooreman, E., Rahman, M. (2012). Intervention to increase detection of childhood tuberculosis in Bangladesh. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(1), 70-75. [More Information]
  • Al-Dabbagh, M., Driessche, K., Marais, B., Kollmann, T. (2012). Management of Multi-drug-resistant Tuberculosis in Children. European Infectious Disease, 6(1), 35-40.
  • Cotton, M., Marais, B., Andersson, M., Eley, B., Rabie, H., Slogrove, A., Dramowski, A., Schaaf, H., Mehtar, S. (2012). Minimizing the risk of non-vertical, non-sexual HIV infection in children - beyond mother to child transmission. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 15(2), 1-5. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Crawford, J., Iredell, J., Ward, M., Simpson, S., Gilbert, G., Griffiths, P., Kamradt-Scott, A., Colagiuri, R., Jones, C., et al (2012). One world, one health: Beyond the Millennium Development Goals. The Lancet, 380(9844), 805-806. [More Information]
  • Seddon, J., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., McIlleron, H., Peloquin, C., Donald, P., Schaaf, H. (2012). Paediatric use of second-line anti-tuberculosis agents: A review. Tuberculosis, 92(1), 9-17. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Menzies, D. (2012). Prevention of TB in areas of high incidence. European Respiratory Monograph, 58, 84-94. [More Information]
  • Mukinda, F., Theron, D., van der Spuy, G., Jacobson, K., Roscher, M., Streicher, E., Musekiwa, A., Coetzee, G., Victor, T., Marais, B., et al (2012). Rise in rifampicin-monoresistant tuberculosis in Western Cape, South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(2), 196-202. [More Information]
  • Raviglione, M., Marais, B., Floyd, K., Lonnroth, K., Getahun, H., Migliori, G., Harries, A., Nunn, P., Lienhardt, C., Graham, S., et al (2012). Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments. The Lancet, 379(9829), 1902-1913. [More Information]
  • Seddon, J., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., Jordaan, A., Victor, T., Schaaf, H. (2012). The evolving epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis among children in Cape Town, South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(7), 928-933. [More Information]
  • McNerney, R., Maeurer, M., Abubakar, I., Marais, B., McHugh, T., Ford, N., Weyer, K., Lawn, S., Grobusch, M., Memish, Z., et al (2012). Tuberculosis Diagnostics and Biomarkers: Needs, Challenges, Recent Advances, and Opportunities. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(SUPPL. 2), S147-S158. [More Information]
  • Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2012). Tuberculosis in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(4), 348-361. [More Information]
  • Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2012). Tuberculosis in Children- Author's reply. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(16), 1569-1569.
  • Obihara, C., Marais, B., Detjen, A., van Furth, M. (2011). A Brief Overview of Mycobacterial Diseases in Children. European Infectious Disease, 5(2), 102-111.
  • Dramowski, A., Bekker, A., Kirsten, G., Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). A case of congenital measles during the 2010 South African epidemic. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 31(2), 18-188. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). Childhood Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Natural History of Disease. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 78(3), 321-327. [More Information]
  • Konstantinos, A., Simpson, G., Sorrell, T., Marais, B. (2011). Doing the right thing for tuberculosis control in the Torres Strait Islands. Medical Journal of Australia, 195(9), 512-512. [More Information]
  • Al-Dabbagh, M., Lapphra, K., McGloin, R., Inrig, K., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Sauve, L., Kitai, I., Kollmann, T., Marais, B. (2011). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: pediatric guidelines. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 30(6), 501-505. [More Information]
  • Teasdale, C., Marais, B., Abrams, E. (2011). HIV: prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, , 1-33.
  • Teasdale, C., Marais, B., Abrams, E. (2011). HIV: prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, 2011, 1-33. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). Impact of tuberculosis on maternal and child health. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 203(3), 304-305. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Marais, B. (2011). Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a survival guide for paediatricians. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 31-38. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Donald, P. (2011). Management of tuberculosis in children and new treatment options. Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, 11(2), 144-156. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). On the role of chest CT scanning in a TB outbreak investigation. Chest, 139(1), 229. [More Information]
  • Du Preez, K., Hesseling, A., Mandalakas, A., Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2011). Opportunities for chemoprophylaxis in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 31(4), 301-310. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 39-45. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 39-45. [More Information]
  • Van Wyk, A., Marais, B., Warren, R., Van Wyk, S., Wright, C. (2011). The use of light-emitting diode fluorescence to diagnose mycobacterial lymphadenitis in fine-needle aspirates from children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 15(1), 56-60. [More Information]
  • Uys, P., Marais, B., Johnstone-Robertson, S., Hargrove, J., Wood, R. (2011). Transmission Elasticity in Communities Hyperendemic for Tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(12), 1399-1404. [More Information]
  • Rose, P., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Gie, R., Stefan, D. (2011). Value of bone marrow biopsy in children with suspected disseminated mycobacterial disease. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 15(2), 200-204. [More Information]
  • Ligthelm, L., Nicol, M., Hoek, K., Jacobson, R., van Helden, P., Marais, B., Warren, R., Wright, C. (2011). Xpert MTB/RIF for Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis from Fine-Needle-Aspiration Biopsy Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(11), 3967-3970. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., van Helden, P., Donald, P. (2010). Adequacy of 6-month follow-up in chemotherapy trials. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(7), 927; author reply 928-927; author reply 928. [More Information]
  • Donald, P., Marais, B., Barry 3rd, C. (2010). Age and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. The Lancet, 375(9729), 1852-1854. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2010). Childhood Tuberculosis: an emerging and previously neglected problem. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 24(3), 727-749. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Hoek, K., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2010). Combining fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and high-resolution melt analysis to reduce diagnostic delay in Mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 38(7), 482-488. [More Information]
  • Marais, S., Pepper, D., Marais, B., Török, E. (2010). HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis - diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Tuberculosis, 90(6), 367-374. [More Information]
  • Stefan, D., Dippenaar, A., Detjen, A., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Kriel, B., Loebenberg, L., Walzl, G., Hesseling, A. (2010). Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(6), 689-694. [More Information]
  • Hesseling, A., Marais, B., Kirchner, H., Mandalakas, A., Brittle, W., Victor, T., Warren, R., Schaaf, H. (2010). Mycobacterial genotype is associated with disease phenotype in children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(10), 1252-1258. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Bamford, C., Prince, Y., Vermaak, A., Hoek, K., Marais, B., Warren, R. (2010). Mycobacterial transport medium for routine culture of fine needle aspiration biopsies. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95(1), 48-50. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Raviglione, M., Donald, P., Harries, A., Kritski, A., Kritski, A., Graham, S., El-Sadr, W., Harrington, M., Churchyard, G., et al (2010). Scale-up of services and research priorities for diagnosis, management, and control of tuberculosis: a call to action. The Lancet, 375(9732), 2179-2191. [More Information]
  • Atun, R., Raviglione, M., Marais, B., Zumla, A. (2010). Tuberculosis control is crucial to achieve the MDGs. The Lancet, 376(9745), 940-941. [More Information]
  • Marais, S., Thwaites, G., Schoeman, J., Török, E., Misra, U., Prasad, K., Donald, P., Wilkinson, R., Marais, B. (2010). Tuberculous meningitis: a uniform case defi nition for use in clinical research. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 803-812. [More Information]
  • Wilson, N., Couper, I., De Vries, E., Reid, S., Fish, T., Marais, B. (2009). A critical review of interventions to redress the inequitable distribution of healthcare professionals to rural and remote areas. Rural and Remote Health, 9(2), 1060. [More Information]
  • Murray, E., Marais, B., Mans, G., Beyers, N., Ayles, H., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Wallman, S., Bond, V. (2009). A multidisciplinary method to map potential tuberculosis transmission 'hot spots' in high-burden communities. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(6), 767-774.
  • Hesseling, A., Caldwell, J., Cotton, M., Eley, B., Jaspan, H., Jennings, K., Marais, B., Nuttall, J., Rabie, H., et al (2009). BCG vaccination in South African HIV-exposed infants--risks and benefits. SAMJ South African Medical Journal, 99(2), 88-91. [More Information]
  • van der Spuy, G., Kremer, K., Ndabambi, S., Beyers, N., Dunbar, R., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2009). Changing Mycobacterium tuberculosis population highlights clade-specific pathogenic characteristics. Tuberculosis, 89(2), 120-125. [More Information]
  • Moore, D., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Nuttall, J. (2009). Childhood tuberculosis guidelines of the Southern African Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The Southern African journal of Epidemiology and Infection, 24(3), 57-68.
  • Rowe, J., Shah, S., Marais, B., Steenhoff, A. (2009). Diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected pediatric patients. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 28(2), 147-148. [More Information]
  • Hesseling, A., Johnson, L., Jaspan, H., Cotton, M., Schaaf, H., Fine, P., Eley, B., Marais, B., Nuttall, J., et al (2009). Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin disease in HIV-infected South African infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(7), 505-511. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Victor, T., Venter, A., Brittle, W., Jordaan, A., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Donald, P. (2009). Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(11), 1355-1359. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2009). Fine needle aspiration biopsy: an undervalued diagnostic modality in paediatric mycobacterial disease. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(12), 1467-1475. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Hesseling, A., Bamford, C., Burgess, S., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2009). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a first-line diagnostic procedure in paediatric tuberculosis suspects with peripheral lymphadenopathy? International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(11), 1373-1379. [More Information]
  • Webb, E., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Lombard, C., Spitaels, A., Delport, S., Marais, B., Donald, K., Hindmarsh, P., et al (2009). High prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(7), 868-874. [More Information]
  • Hesseling, A., Mandalakas, A., Kirchner, H., Chegou, N., Marais, B., Stanley, K., Zhu, X., Black, G., Beyers, N., Walzl, G. (2009). Highly discordant T cell responses in individuals with recent exposure to household tuberculosis. Thorax, 64(10), 840-846. [More Information]
  • Brittle, W., Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Kidd, M., Wasserman, E., Botha, T. (2009). Improvement in mycobacterial yield and reduced time to detection in pediatric samples by use of a nutrient broth growth supplement. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(5), 1287-1279. [More Information]
  • Grobler, L., Marais, B., Mabunda, S., Marindi, P., Reuter, H., Volmink, J. (2009). Interventions for increasing the proportion of health professionals practising in rural and other underserved areas (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009 (1), 1-25. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2009). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission Is Not Related to Household Genotype in a Setting of High Endemicity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(5), 1338-1343. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Donald, P. (2009). Pediatric tuberculosis: Issues related to current and future treatment options. Future Microbiology, 4(6), 661-675. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Ayles, H., Graham, S., Godfrey-Faussett, P. (2009). Screening and Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 30(4), 827-846. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Brittle, W., Donald, P. (2009). Surveillance of antituberculosis drug resistance among children from the Western Cape Province of South Africa--an upward trend. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1486-1490. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2008). Childhood tuberculosis – risk assessment and diagnosis. SAMJ South African Medical Journal, 97(10), 978-982.
  • Walters, E., Cotton, M., Rabie, H., Schaaf, H., Walters, L., Marais, B. (2008). Clinical presentation and outcome of Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected children on anti-retroviral therapy. BMC Pediatrics, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., van der Burg, M., Geiger, D., Noordzij, J., Burgess, S., Marais, B. (2008). Diagnosing mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children using fine needle aspiration biopsy: cytomorphology, ZN staining and autofluorescence-making more of less. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 36(4), 245-251. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Pienaar, J., Marais, B. (2008). Fine needle aspiration biopsy: diagnostic utility in resource-limited settings. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 28(1), 65-70. [More Information]
  • Mandalakas, A., Hesseling, A., Chegou, N., Kirchner, H., Zhu, X., Marais, B., Black, G., Beyers, N., Walzl, G. (2008). High level of discordant IGRA results in HIV-infected adults and children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 12(4), 417-423.
  • Volmink, J., Marais, B. (2008). HIV: mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, , 909.
  • Wilson, N., Bouhuijs, P., Conradie, H., Reuter, H., Van Heerden, B., Marais, B. (2008). Perceived educational value and enjoyment of a rural clinical rotation for medical students. Rural and Remote Health, 8(3), 1-13.
  • Marais, B., Esser, M., Godwin, S., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2008). Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: A view from the Western Cape, South Africa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 21-27.
  • Kruk, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Marais, B. (2008). Symptom-Based Screening of Child Tuberculosis Contacts: Improved Feasibility in Resource-Limited Settings. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1646-e1652. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2008). Tuberculosis in children. Pediatric Pulmonology, 43(4), 322-329. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Brittle, W., Painczyk, K., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N., Wasserman, E., van Soolingen, D., van Soolingen, D., Warren, R. (2008). Use of Light-Emitting Diode Fluorescence Microscopy to Detect Acid-Fast Bacilli in Sputum. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(2), 203-207. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2007). Adult-type TB in children. Salud(i)Ciencia, 14, 977-982.
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., van Toorn, R., Nel, E., Cotton, M. (2007). Common opportunistic infections in HIV infected infants and children: Part 2 non-respiratory infections. South African Family Practice, 49(2), 40-45.
  • Marais, B., Graham, S., Cotton, M., Beyers, N. (2007). Diagnostic and Management Challenges for Childhood Tuberculosis in the Era of HIV. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Supp. 1, S76-S85. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., van Toorn, R., Nourse, P., Nel, E., Goussard, P., Sellers, N., Cotton, M. (2007). Important HIV-associated conditions in HIV–infected infants and children. South African Family Practice, 49(4), 19-23.
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2007). New approaches and emerging technologies in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 8(2), 124-133. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., De Villiers, M., Kruger, J., Conradie, H., Jenkins, L., Reuter, H. (2007). The role of educational strategies to reverse the inverse performance spiral in academically isolated rural hospitals. South African Family Practice, 49(7), 15-15.
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Lombard, C., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). A Refined Symptom-Based Approach to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children. Pediatrics, 118(5), e1350-e1359. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., van Zyl, S., Schaaf, H., van Aardt, M., Gie, R., Beyers, N. (2006). Adherence to isoniazid preventive chemotherapy: a prospective community based study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(9), 762-765. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Bacteriologic yield in children with intra-thoracic tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42, e69-e71.
  • Marais, B., Victor, T., Hesseling, A., Barnard, M., Jordaan, A., Brittle, W., Reuter, H., Beyers, N., van Helden, P., Warren, R., et al (2006). Beijing and Haarlem Genotypes Are Overrepresented among Children with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(10), 3539-3543. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N., Donald, P., Starkes, J. (2006). Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Old Wisdom and New Challenges. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173(10), 1078-1090. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Schaaf, H., Cotton, M. (2006). Common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected infants and children: Part 1 - respiratory infections. South African Family Practice, 48(10), 52-56.
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Initiating anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-infected infants and children. South African Family Practice, 48(7), 54-58.
  • Marais, B. (2006). Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education and Practice Edition, 91(1), ep1-ep7. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Maintaining infants and children on highly active antiretroviral therapy. South African Family Practice, 48(8), 55-60.
  • Heyns, L., Gie, R., Goussard, P., Beyers, N., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2006). Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in kangaroo mother care units: A risk in tuberculosis-endemic areas. Acta Paediatrica: Nurturing the Child, 95(5), 535-539. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Preventing and diagnosing HIV infection in infants and children. South African Family Practice, 48(6), 35-41.
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Radiographic signs and symptoms in children treated for tuberculosis: possible implications for symptom-based screening in resource-limited settings. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(3), 237-240. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2006). Recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 92(5), 446-452. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2006). Specimen collection methods in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 24(4), 249-251.
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2006). The burden of childhood tuberculosis and the accuracy of community-based surveillance data. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(3), 259-263.
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Hesseling, A., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). The spectrum of disease in children treated for tuberculosis in a highly endemic area. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(7), 732-738.
  • Marais, B., Wright, C., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Tuberculous lymphadenitis as a cause of persistent cervical lymphadenopathy in children from a tuberculosis-endemic area. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(2), 142-146. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N. (2005). Adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis in children 10-14 years of age. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 24(8), 743-744. [More Information]
  • Theart, A., Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N. (2005). Criteria used for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis at primary health care level in a high-burden, urban setting. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(11), 1210-1214.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2005). Diversity of disease in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 25(2), 79-86. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Obihara, C., Warren, R., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Donald, P. (2005). The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(12), 1305-1313.
  • Marais, B., Obihara, C., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Hesseling, A., Lombard, C., Enarson, D., Bateman, E., Beyers, N. (2005). The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(11), 1166-1170. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Obihara, C., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2005). Well defined symptoms are of value in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(11), 1162-1165. [More Information]

Other

  • Volmink, J., Marais, B. (2008), HIV: mother to child transmission.

2015

  • Outhred, A., Jelfs, P., Suliman, B., Hill-Cawthorne, G., Crawford, A., Marais, B., Sintchenko, V. (2015). Added value of whole-genome sequencing for management of highly drug-resistant TB. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70(4), 1198-1202. [More Information]
  • Zumla, A., Maeurer, M., Marais, B., Chakaya, J., Wejse, C., Lipman, M., McHugh, T., Petersen, E. (2015). Commemorating World Tuberculosis Day 2015. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 32, 1-4. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Grzemska, M., Brands, A., Nguyen, H., Amini, J., Triasih, R., Talukder, K., Ahmed, S., Amanullah, F., Kumar, B., Marais, B., et al (2015). Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: Perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 32, 166-169. [More Information]
  • Oliwa, J., Karumbi, J., Marais, B., Madhi, S., Graham, S. (2015). Tuberculosis as a cause or comorbidity of childhood pneumonia in tuberculosis-endemic areas: A systematic review. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 3(3), 235-243. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2015). Twelve-Dose Drug Regimen Now Also an Option for Preventing Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(3), 208-210. [More Information]

2014

  • Portevin, D., Moukambi, F., Clowes, P., Bauer, A., Chachage, M., Ntinginya, N., Mfinanga, E., Said, K., Haraka, F., Rachow, A., Marais, B., et al (2014). Assessment of the novel T-cell activation marker-tuberculosis assay for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in children: a prospective proof-of-concept study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 931-938. [More Information]
  • Morkel, G., Bekker, A., Marais, B., Kirsten, G., van Wyk, J., Dramowski, A. (2014). Bloodstream infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in a South African neonatal intensive care unit. Paediatrics and International Child Health, 34(2), 108-114. [More Information]
  • Bissell, K., Viney, K., Brostrom, R., Gounder, S., Khogali, M., Kishore, K., Kool, B., Kumar, A., Manzi, M., Marais, B., Marks, G., et al (2014). Building operational research capacity in the Pacific. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S2-S13. [More Information]
  • Matoto, V., Viney, K., Roseveare, C., Colagiuri, R., Marais, B. (2014). Burden and spectrum of disease in people with diabetes in Tonga. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S44-S49. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Graham, S. (2014). Child health and tuberculosis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 2(4), 254-256. [More Information]
  • Solomons, R., van Elsland, S., Visser, D., Hoek, K., Marais, B., Schoeman, J., van Furth, A. (2014). Commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in tuberculous meningitis -a meta-analysis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 78(4), 398-403. [More Information]
  • Majumdar, S., Marais, B., Denholm, J., Britton, W. (2014). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: collaborative regional leadership required. Medical Journal of Australia, 200(5), 241-242. [More Information]
  • Mukherjee, A., Saini, S., Kabra, S., Gupta, N., Singh, V., Singh, S., Bhatnagar, S., Saini, D., Grewal, H., et al, Marais, B. (2014). Effect of micronutrient deficiency on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test and tuberculin skin test in diagnosis of childhood intrathoracic tuberculosis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(1), 38-42. [More Information]
  • Esposito, S., DAmbrosio, L., Tadolini, M., Schaaf, H., Luna, J., Marais, B., Centis, R., Dara, M., Matteelli, A., Blasi, F., et al (2014). ERS/WHO Tuberculosis Consilium assistance with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis management in a child: case study of compassionate delamanid use. The European Respiratory Journal, 44(3), 811-815. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Sismanidis, C., Menzies, H., Marais, B., Detjen, A., Black, R. (2014). Importance of tuberculosis control to address child survival. The Lancet, 383(9928), 1605-1607. [More Information]
  • Hill, P., Dye, C., Viney, K., Tabutoa, K., Kienene, T., Bissell, K., Williams, B., Zachariah, R., Marais, B., Harries, A. (2014). Mass treatment to eliminate tuberculosis from an island population. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 18(8), 899-904. [More Information]
  • Harries, A., Marais, B., Kool, B., Ram, S., Kumar, A., Gounder, S., Viney, K., Brostrom, R., Roseveare, C., Bissell, K., et al (2014). Mentorship for operational research capacity building: hands-on or hands-off? Public Health Action, 4(S1), S56-S58. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Tadolini, M., Zignol, M., Migliori, G. (2014). Paediatric tuberculosis in Europe: lessons from Denmark and inclusive strategies to consider. The European Respiratory Journal, 43(3), 678-684.
  • Fanai, S., Viney, K., Tarivonda, L., Roseveare, C., Tagaro, M., Marais, B. (2014). Profile of tuberculosis patients with delayed sputum smear conversion in the Pacific island of Vanuatu. Public Health Action, 4(Suppl 1), S19-S24. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Quantifying the tuberculosis disease burden in children. The Lancet, 383(9928), 1530-1531. [More Information]
  • Gurjav, U., Jelfs, P., Holmes (nee McCallum), N., Marais, B., Sintchenko, V. (2014). Temporal dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in New South Wales, Australia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 14(455), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Tagaro, M., Harries, A., Kool, B., Ram, S., Viney, K., Marais, B., Tarivonda, L. (2014). Tuberculosis case burden and treatment outcomes in children, adults and older adults, Vanuatu, 2007-2011. Public Health Action, 4(S1), S14-S18. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2014). Tuberculosis in Children. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 4(9), 1-21. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Tuberculosis in children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50(10), 759-767. [More Information]
  • Solomons, R., Wessels, M., Visser, D., Donald, P., Marais, B., Schoeman, J., van Furth, A. (2014). Uniform research case definition criteria differentiate tuberculous and bacterial meningitis in children. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(11), 1574-1578. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2014). Urine lipoarabinomannan testing in children with tuberculosis. The Lancet Global Health, 2(5), e245-e246. [More Information]

2013

  • Lawn, S., Mwaba, P., Bates, M., Piatek, A., Alexander, H., Marais, B., Cuevas, L., McHugh, T., Zijenah, L., Kapata, N., et al (2013). Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 349-361. [More Information]
  • Walters, E., Reichmuth, K., Dramowski, A., Marais, B., Cotton, M., Rabie, H. (2013). Antiretroviral Regimens Containing a Single Protease Inhibitor Increase Risk of Virologic Failure in Young HIV-infected Children. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 32(4), 361-363. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2013). Challenges in the use of tests to diagnose tuberculosis infection - In Reply. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 24(2), 92-93.
  • Seddon, J., Perez-Velez, C., Schaaf, H., Furin, J., Marais, B., Tebruegge, M., Detjen, A., Hesseling, A., Shah, S., Adams, L., et al (2013). Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 2(2), 100-109. [More Information]
  • Ho, J., Marais, B., Gilbert, G., Ralph, A. (2013). Diagnosing tuberculous meningitis - have we made any progress? Tropical Medicine and International Health, 18(6), 783-793. [More Information]
  • Britton, P., Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2013). Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in children. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 24(1), 15-21. [More Information]
  • Abubakar, I., Zignol, M., Falzon, D., Raviglione, M., Ditiu, L., Masham, S., Adetifa, I., Ford, N., Cox, H., Lawn, S., Marais, B., et al (2013). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(6), 529-539. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Mlambo, C., Rastogi, N., Zozio, T., Duse, A., Victor, T., Marais, E., Warren, R. (2013). Epidemic spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(6), 1818-1825. [More Information]
  • Khatami, A., Isaacs, D., Marais, B. (2013). Fever in the returned child traveller. Medicine Today, 14(12), 27-38.
  • Murray, E., Bond, V., Marais, B., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Ayles, H., Beyers, N. (2013). High levels of vulnerability and anticipated stigma reduce the impetus for tuberculosis diagnosis in Cape Town, South Africa. Health Policy and Planning, 28(4), 410-418. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Zumla, A. (2013). History of tuberculosis and drug resistance. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(1), 88-88. [More Information]
  • Vanden Driessche, K., Persson, A., Marais, B., Fink, P., Urdahl, K. (2013). Immune Vulnerability of Infants to Tuberculosis. Clinical & Developmental Immunology, 2013, 1-16. [More Information]
  • Mandalakas, A., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Sinanovic, E. (2013). Modelling the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent tuberculosis in child contacts in a high-burden setting. Thorax, 68(3), 247-255. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Graham, S., Maeurer, M., Zumla, A. (2013). Progress and challenges in childhood tuberculosis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(4), 287-289. [More Information]
  • Britton, P., Yeung, V., Lowbridge, C., Isaacs, D., Marais, B. (2013). Spectrum of Disease in Children Treated for Tuberculosis at a Tertiary Children's Hospital in Australia. Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 2(3), 224-231. [More Information]
  • Vanden Driessche, K., Marais, B., Wattenberg, M., Magis-Escurra, C., Reijers, M., Tuinman, I., Boeree, M., van Soolingen, D., de Groot, R., Cotton, M. (2013). The Cough Cylinder: a tool to study measures against airborne spread of (myco-) bacteria. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 17(1), 46-53. [More Information]
  • Kapata, N., Chanda-Kapata, P., O'Grady, J., Bates, M., Mwaba, P., Janssen, S., Marais, B., Cobelens, F., Grobusch, M., Zumla, A. (2013). Trends in Childhood Tuberculosis in Zambia: A Situation Analysis. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 59(2), 134-139. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2013). Tuberculosis. Australian Doctor, 2013 (30 August), 27-34.
  • Marais, B., Lonnroth, K., Lawn, S., Migliori, G., Mwaba, P., Glaziou, P., Bates, M., Colagiuri, R., Zijenah, L., Swaminathan, S., et al (2013). Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13(5), 436-448. [More Information]

2012

  • Raviglione, M., Zumla, A., Marais, B., Horton, R., Motsoaledi, A. (2012). A sustainable agenda for tuberculosis control and research. The Lancet, 379(9821), 1077-1078. [More Information]
  • Bhargava, A., Pai, M., Bhargava, M., Marais, B., Menzies, D. (2012). Can Social Interventions Prevent Tuberculosis? The Papworth Experiment (1918-1943) Revisited. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 186(5), 442-449. [More Information]
  • Zumla, A., Abubakar, I., Raviglione, M., Hoelscher, M., Ditiu, L., McHugh, T., Squire, S., Cox, H., Ford, N., McNerney, R., Marais, B., et al (2012). Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis - Current Dilemmas, Unanswered Questions, Challenges, and Priority Needs. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(2), S228-S240. [More Information]
  • Graham, S., Ahmed, T., Amanullah, F., Browning, R., Cardenas, V., Casenghi, M., Cuevas, L., Gale, M., Gie, R., Grzemska, M., Marais, B., et al (2012). Evaluation of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Children: 1. Proposed Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis Disease. Consensus From an Expert Panel. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(2), S199-S208. [More Information]
  • Cuevas, L., Browning, R., Bossuyt, P., Casenghi, M., Cotton, M., Cruz, A., Dodd, L., Drobniewski, F., Gale, M., Graham, S., Marais, B., et al (2012). Evaluation of tuberculosis diagnostics in children: 2. Methodological issues for conducting and reporting research evaluations of tuberculosis diagnostics for intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. Consensus from an expert panel. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205, S209-S215. [More Information]
  • Talukder, K., Salim, M., Jerin, I., Sharmin, F., Talukder, M., Marais, B., Nandi, P., Cooreman, E., Rahman, M. (2012). Intervention to increase detection of childhood tuberculosis in Bangladesh. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(1), 70-75. [More Information]
  • Al-Dabbagh, M., Driessche, K., Marais, B., Kollmann, T. (2012). Management of Multi-drug-resistant Tuberculosis in Children. European Infectious Disease, 6(1), 35-40.
  • Cotton, M., Marais, B., Andersson, M., Eley, B., Rabie, H., Slogrove, A., Dramowski, A., Schaaf, H., Mehtar, S. (2012). Minimizing the risk of non-vertical, non-sexual HIV infection in children - beyond mother to child transmission. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 15(2), 1-5. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Crawford, J., Iredell, J., Ward, M., Simpson, S., Gilbert, G., Griffiths, P., Kamradt-Scott, A., Colagiuri, R., Jones, C., et al (2012). One world, one health: Beyond the Millennium Development Goals. The Lancet, 380(9844), 805-806. [More Information]
  • Seddon, J., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., McIlleron, H., Peloquin, C., Donald, P., Schaaf, H. (2012). Paediatric use of second-line anti-tuberculosis agents: A review. Tuberculosis, 92(1), 9-17. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Menzies, D. (2012). Prevention of TB in areas of high incidence. European Respiratory Monograph, 58, 84-94. [More Information]
  • Mukinda, F., Theron, D., van der Spuy, G., Jacobson, K., Roscher, M., Streicher, E., Musekiwa, A., Coetzee, G., Victor, T., Marais, B., et al (2012). Rise in rifampicin-monoresistant tuberculosis in Western Cape, South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(2), 196-202. [More Information]
  • Raviglione, M., Marais, B., Floyd, K., Lonnroth, K., Getahun, H., Migliori, G., Harries, A., Nunn, P., Lienhardt, C., Graham, S., et al (2012). Scaling up interventions to achieve global tuberculosis control: progress and new developments. The Lancet, 379(9829), 1902-1913. [More Information]
  • Seddon, J., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., Jordaan, A., Victor, T., Schaaf, H. (2012). The evolving epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis among children in Cape Town, South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(7), 928-933. [More Information]
  • McNerney, R., Maeurer, M., Abubakar, I., Marais, B., McHugh, T., Ford, N., Weyer, K., Lawn, S., Grobusch, M., Memish, Z., et al (2012). Tuberculosis Diagnostics and Biomarkers: Needs, Challenges, Recent Advances, and Opportunities. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(SUPPL. 2), S147-S158. [More Information]
  • Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2012). Tuberculosis in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(4), 348-361. [More Information]
  • Perez-Velez, C., Marais, B. (2012). Tuberculosis in Children- Author's reply. The New England Journal of Medicine, 367(16), 1569-1569.

2011

  • Obihara, C., Marais, B., Detjen, A., van Furth, M. (2011). A Brief Overview of Mycobacterial Diseases in Children. European Infectious Disease, 5(2), 102-111.
  • Dramowski, A., Bekker, A., Kirsten, G., Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). A case of congenital measles during the 2010 South African epidemic. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 31(2), 18-188. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). Childhood Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Natural History of Disease. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 78(3), 321-327. [More Information]
  • Konstantinos, A., Simpson, G., Sorrell, T., Marais, B. (2011). Doing the right thing for tuberculosis control in the Torres Strait Islands. Medical Journal of Australia, 195(9), 512-512. [More Information]
  • Al-Dabbagh, M., Lapphra, K., McGloin, R., Inrig, K., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Sauve, L., Kitai, I., Kollmann, T., Marais, B. (2011). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: pediatric guidelines. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 30(6), 501-505. [More Information]
  • Teasdale, C., Marais, B., Abrams, E. (2011). HIV: prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, , 1-33.
  • Teasdale, C., Marais, B., Abrams, E. (2011). HIV: prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, 2011, 1-33. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). Impact of tuberculosis on maternal and child health. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 203(3), 304-305. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Marais, B. (2011). Management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a survival guide for paediatricians. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 31-38. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Donald, P. (2011). Management of tuberculosis in children and new treatment options. Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets, 11(2), 144-156. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Ling, D., Pai, M. (2011). New Approaches to TB Diagnosis in Children. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 380-394). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Marais, B. (2011). On the role of chest CT scanning in a TB outbreak investigation. Chest, 139(1), 229. [More Information]
  • Du Preez, K., Hesseling, A., Mandalakas, A., Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2011). Opportunities for chemoprophylaxis in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 31(4), 301-310. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 39-45. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2011). TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 12(1), 39-45. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2011). TB in HIV Infected Children. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 218-221). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • McNeeley, D., Raoof, A., Lin, J., Marais, B. (2011). The Evaluation of New Antituberculosis Drugs in Children. In Peter R. Donald, Paul D. van Helden (Eds.), Antituberculosis Chemotherapy, (pp. 235-242). Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger AG.
  • Van Wyk, A., Marais, B., Warren, R., Van Wyk, S., Wright, C. (2011). The use of light-emitting diode fluorescence to diagnose mycobacterial lymphadenitis in fine-needle aspirates from children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 15(1), 56-60. [More Information]
  • Uys, P., Marais, B., Johnstone-Robertson, S., Hargrove, J., Wood, R. (2011). Transmission Elasticity in Communities Hyperendemic for Tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52(12), 1399-1404. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2011). Tuberculous Lymphadenitis. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children, (pp. 122-127). New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Rose, P., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Gie, R., Stefan, D. (2011). Value of bone marrow biopsy in children with suspected disseminated mycobacterial disease. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 15(2), 200-204. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2011). What do we know about how to treat tuberculosis? In Nigel Curtis, Adam Finn, Andrew J. Pollard (Eds.), Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VIII: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 179, (pp. 171-184). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
  • Ligthelm, L., Nicol, M., Hoek, K., Jacobson, R., van Helden, P., Marais, B., Warren, R., Wright, C. (2011). Xpert MTB/RIF for Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis from Fine-Needle-Aspiration Biopsy Specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 49(11), 3967-3970. [More Information]

2010

  • Marais, B., van Helden, P., Donald, P. (2010). Adequacy of 6-month follow-up in chemotherapy trials. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(7), 927; author reply 928-927; author reply 928. [More Information]
  • Donald, P., Marais, B., Barry 3rd, C. (2010). Age and the epidemiology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. The Lancet, 375(9729), 1852-1854. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2010). Childhood Tuberculosis: an emerging and previously neglected problem. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 24(3), 727-749. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Hoek, K., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2010). Combining fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and high-resolution melt analysis to reduce diagnostic delay in Mycobacterial lymphadenitis. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 38(7), 482-488. [More Information]
  • Marais, S., Pepper, D., Marais, B., Török, E. (2010). HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis - diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Tuberculosis, 90(6), 367-374. [More Information]
  • Stefan, D., Dippenaar, A., Detjen, A., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Kriel, B., Loebenberg, L., Walzl, G., Hesseling, A. (2010). Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(6), 689-694. [More Information]
  • Hesseling, A., Marais, B., Kirchner, H., Mandalakas, A., Brittle, W., Victor, T., Warren, R., Schaaf, H. (2010). Mycobacterial genotype is associated with disease phenotype in children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 14(10), 1252-1258. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Bamford, C., Prince, Y., Vermaak, A., Hoek, K., Marais, B., Warren, R. (2010). Mycobacterial transport medium for routine culture of fine needle aspiration biopsies. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 95(1), 48-50. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Raviglione, M., Donald, P., Harries, A., Kritski, A., Kritski, A., Graham, S., El-Sadr, W., Harrington, M., Churchyard, G., et al (2010). Scale-up of services and research priorities for diagnosis, management, and control of tuberculosis: a call to action. The Lancet, 375(9732), 2179-2191. [More Information]
  • Zumla, A., Raviglione, M., Marais, B. (2010). The Lancet Series: Tuberculosis. United Kingdom: The Lancet Publishing Group.
  • Atun, R., Raviglione, M., Marais, B., Zumla, A. (2010). Tuberculosis control is crucial to achieve the MDGs. The Lancet, 376(9745), 940-941. [More Information]
  • Marais, S., Thwaites, G., Schoeman, J., Török, E., Misra, U., Prasad, K., Donald, P., Wilkinson, R., Marais, B. (2010). Tuberculous meningitis: a uniform case defi nition for use in clinical research. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 10(11), 803-812. [More Information]

2009

  • Wilson, N., Couper, I., De Vries, E., Reid, S., Fish, T., Marais, B. (2009). A critical review of interventions to redress the inequitable distribution of healthcare professionals to rural and remote areas. Rural and Remote Health, 9(2), 1060. [More Information]
  • Murray, E., Marais, B., Mans, G., Beyers, N., Ayles, H., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Wallman, S., Bond, V. (2009). A multidisciplinary method to map potential tuberculosis transmission 'hot spots' in high-burden communities. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(6), 767-774.
  • Spector, J., Gibson, T., Chakraborty, R., Mandalakas, A., Marais, B. (2009). Atlas of Pediatrics in the Tropics and Resource-limited Settings. United States: American Academy of Pediatrics.
  • Hesseling, A., Caldwell, J., Cotton, M., Eley, B., Jaspan, H., Jennings, K., Marais, B., Nuttall, J., Rabie, H., et al (2009). BCG vaccination in South African HIV-exposed infants--risks and benefits. SAMJ South African Medical Journal, 99(2), 88-91. [More Information]
  • van der Spuy, G., Kremer, K., Ndabambi, S., Beyers, N., Dunbar, R., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2009). Changing Mycobacterium tuberculosis population highlights clade-specific pathogenic characteristics. Tuberculosis, 89(2), 120-125. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2009). Childhood Intra-thoracic Tuberculosis. In Adam Finn, Nigel Curtis, Andrew J. Pollard (Eds.), Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 634, (pp. 129-146). United States: Springer.
  • Marais, B. (2009). Childhood Tuberculosis. In Samir S. Shah (Eds.), Pediatric Practice: Infectious Diseases, (pp. 332-347). United States: McGraw Hill.
  • Moore, D., Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Nuttall, J. (2009). Childhood tuberculosis guidelines of the Southern African Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The Southern African journal of Epidemiology and Infection, 24(3), 57-68.
  • Graham, S., Marais, B., Gie, R. (2009). Clinical Features and Index of Suspicion of Turberculosis in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 154-163). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Rowe, J., Shah, S., Marais, B., Steenhoff, A. (2009). Diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected pediatric patients. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 28(2), 147-148. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2009). Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis: Recent Advances and Applicability of New Tools. In Surendra K. Sharma, Alladi Mohan (Eds.), Tuberculosis: 2nd Edition, (pp. 602-614). India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
  • Hesseling, A., Johnson, L., Jaspan, H., Cotton, M., Schaaf, H., Fine, P., Eley, B., Marais, B., Nuttall, J., et al (2009). Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin disease in HIV-infected South African infants. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(7), 505-511. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Victor, T., Venter, A., Brittle, W., Jordaan, A., Hesseling, A., Marais, B., van Helden, P., Donald, P. (2009). Ethionamide cross- and co-resistance in children with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(11), 1355-1359. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Wright, C. (2009). Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 823-825). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Wright, C., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2009). Fine needle aspiration biopsy: an undervalued diagnostic modality in paediatric mycobacterial disease. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(12), 1467-1475. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Hesseling, A., Bamford, C., Burgess, S., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2009). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a first-line diagnostic procedure in paediatric tuberculosis suspects with peripheral lymphadenopathy? International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(11), 1373-1379. [More Information]
  • Webb, E., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Lombard, C., Spitaels, A., Delport, S., Marais, B., Donald, K., Hindmarsh, P., et al (2009). High prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(7), 868-874. [More Information]
  • Hesseling, A., Mandalakas, A., Kirchner, H., Chegou, N., Marais, B., Stanley, K., Zhu, X., Black, G., Beyers, N., Walzl, G. (2009). Highly discordant T cell responses in individuals with recent exposure to household tuberculosis. Thorax, 64(10), 840-846. [More Information]
  • Brittle, W., Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Kidd, M., Wasserman, E., Botha, T. (2009). Improvement in mycobacterial yield and reduced time to detection in pediatric samples by use of a nutrient broth growth supplement. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(5), 1287-1279. [More Information]
  • Grobler, L., Marais, B., Mabunda, S., Marindi, P., Reuter, H., Volmink, J. (2009). Interventions for increasing the proportion of health professionals practising in rural and other underserved areas (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2009 (1), 1-25. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Donald, P., Schaaf, H. (2009). Management Algorithms for Paediatric Tuberculosis. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 323-331). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., van Helden, P., Warren, R. (2009). Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transmission Is Not Related to Household Genotype in a Setting of High Endemicity. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 47(5), 1338-1343. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2009). Natural History of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 133-145). United Kingdom: Elsevier.
  • Jeena, P., Marais, B., Schaaf, H. (2009). Paediatric Tuberculosis. In D. Wilson, M. Cotton, L.-G. Bekker, T. Meyers, F. Venter, G. Maartens (Eds.), Handbook of HIV Medicine: 2nd Edition, (pp. 162-172). South Africa: Oxford University Press.
  • Marais, B., Schaaf, H., Donald, P. (2009). Pediatric tuberculosis: Issues related to current and future treatment options. Future Microbiology, 4(6), 661-675. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Ayles, H., Graham, S., Godfrey-Faussett, P. (2009). Screening and Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 30(4), 827-846. [More Information]
  • Schaaf, H., Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Brittle, W., Donald, P. (2009). Surveillance of antituberculosis drug resistance among children from the Western Cape Province of South Africa--an upward trend. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1486-1490. [More Information]
  • Cotton, M., Schaaf, H., Rabie, H., Marais, B. (2009). Tuberculosis. In D.F. Wittenberg (Eds.), Coovadias Paediatrics & Child Health: 6th Edition, (pp. 362-386). South Africa: Oxford University Press.
  • Marais, B., Graham, S. (2009). Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis and Involvement of the Reticuloendothelial System in Children. In H. Simon Schaaf, Alimuddin I. Zumla (Eds.), Tuberculosis: A Comprehensive Clinical Reference, (pp. 391-396). United Kingdom: Elsevier.

2008

  • Marais, B. (2008). Childhood tuberculosis – risk assessment and diagnosis. SAMJ South African Medical Journal, 97(10), 978-982.
  • Walters, E., Cotton, M., Rabie, H., Schaaf, H., Walters, L., Marais, B. (2008). Clinical presentation and outcome of Tuberculosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected children on anti-retroviral therapy. BMC Pediatrics, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., van der Burg, M., Geiger, D., Noordzij, J., Burgess, S., Marais, B. (2008). Diagnosing mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children using fine needle aspiration biopsy: cytomorphology, ZN staining and autofluorescence-making more of less. Diagnostic Cytopathology, 36(4), 245-251. [More Information]
  • Wright, C., Pienaar, J., Marais, B. (2008). Fine needle aspiration biopsy: diagnostic utility in resource-limited settings. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 28(1), 65-70. [More Information]
  • Mandalakas, A., Hesseling, A., Chegou, N., Kirchner, H., Zhu, X., Marais, B., Black, G., Beyers, N., Walzl, G. (2008). High level of discordant IGRA results in HIV-infected adults and children. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 12(4), 417-423.
  • Volmink, J., Marais, B. (2008), HIV: mother to child transmission.
  • Volmink, J., Marais, B. (2008). HIV: mother-to-child transmission. Clinical Evidence, , 909.
  • Wilson, N., Bouhuijs, P., Conradie, H., Reuter, H., Van Heerden, B., Marais, B. (2008). Perceived educational value and enjoyment of a rural clinical rotation for medical students. Rural and Remote Health, 8(3), 1-13.
  • Marais, B., Esser, M., Godwin, S., Rabie, H., Cotton, M. (2008). Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: A view from the Western Cape, South Africa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 21-27.
  • Kruk, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Marais, B. (2008). Symptom-Based Screening of Child Tuberculosis Contacts: Improved Feasibility in Resource-Limited Settings. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1646-e1652. [More Information]
  • Marais, B. (2008). Tuberculosis in children. Pediatric Pulmonology, 43(4), 322-329. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Brittle, W., Painczyk, K., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N., Wasserman, E., van Soolingen, D., van Soolingen, D., Warren, R. (2008). Use of Light-Emitting Diode Fluorescence Microscopy to Detect Acid-Fast Bacilli in Sputum. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(2), 203-207. [More Information]

2007

  • Marais, B. (2007). Adult-type TB in children. Salud(i)Ciencia, 14, 977-982.
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., van Toorn, R., Nel, E., Cotton, M. (2007). Common opportunistic infections in HIV infected infants and children: Part 2 non-respiratory infections. South African Family Practice, 49(2), 40-45.
  • Marais, B., Graham, S., Cotton, M., Beyers, N. (2007). Diagnostic and Management Challenges for Childhood Tuberculosis in the Era of HIV. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Supp. 1, S76-S85. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., van Toorn, R., Nourse, P., Nel, E., Goussard, P., Sellers, N., Cotton, M. (2007). Important HIV-associated conditions in HIV–infected infants and children. South African Family Practice, 49(4), 19-23.
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2007). New approaches and emerging technologies in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 8(2), 124-133. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., De Villiers, M., Kruger, J., Conradie, H., Jenkins, L., Reuter, H. (2007). The role of educational strategies to reverse the inverse performance spiral in academically isolated rural hospitals. South African Family Practice, 49(7), 15-15.

2006

  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Lombard, C., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). A Refined Symptom-Based Approach to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children. Pediatrics, 118(5), e1350-e1359. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., van Zyl, S., Schaaf, H., van Aardt, M., Gie, R., Beyers, N. (2006). Adherence to isoniazid preventive chemotherapy: a prospective community based study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(9), 762-765. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Bacteriologic yield in children with intra-thoracic tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42, e69-e71.
  • Marais, B., Victor, T., Hesseling, A., Barnard, M., Jordaan, A., Brittle, W., Reuter, H., Beyers, N., van Helden, P., Warren, R., et al (2006). Beijing and Haarlem Genotypes Are Overrepresented among Children with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44(10), 3539-3543. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N., Donald, P., Starkes, J. (2006). Childhood Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Old Wisdom and New Challenges. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 173(10), 1078-1090. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Rabie, H., Schaaf, H., Cotton, M. (2006). Common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected infants and children: Part 1 - respiratory infections. South African Family Practice, 48(10), 52-56.
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Initiating anti-retroviral therapy in HIV-infected infants and children. South African Family Practice, 48(7), 54-58.
  • Marais, B. (2006). Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children. Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education and Practice Edition, 91(1), ep1-ep7. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Maintaining infants and children on highly active antiretroviral therapy. South African Family Practice, 48(8), 55-60.
  • Heyns, L., Gie, R., Goussard, P., Beyers, N., Warren, R., Marais, B. (2006). Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in kangaroo mother care units: A risk in tuberculosis-endemic areas. Acta Paediatrica: Nurturing the Child, 95(5), 535-539. [More Information]
  • Rabie, H., Marais, B., Cotton, M. (2006). Preventing and diagnosing HIV infection in infants and children. South African Family Practice, 48(6), 35-41.
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Radiographic signs and symptoms in children treated for tuberculosis: possible implications for symptom-based screening in resource-limited settings. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(3), 237-240. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2006). Recent advances in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 92(5), 446-452. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Pai, M. (2006). Specimen collection methods in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 24(4), 249-251.
  • Marais, B., Hesseling, A., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2006). The burden of childhood tuberculosis and the accuracy of community-based surveillance data. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(3), 259-263.
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Hesseling, A., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). The spectrum of disease in children treated for tuberculosis in a highly endemic area. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(7), 732-738.
  • Marais, B., Wright, C., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Enarson, D., Beyers, N. (2006). Tuberculous lymphadenitis as a cause of persistent cervical lymphadenopathy in children from a tuberculosis-endemic area. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 25(2), 142-146. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Donald, P. (2006). Tuberculous Peripheral Lymphadenitis. In Vimlesh Seth, S.K. Kabra (Eds.), Essentials of Tuberculosis in Children: 3rd Edition, (pp. 134-142). India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

2005

  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N. (2005). Adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis in children 10-14 years of age. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 24(8), 743-744. [More Information]
  • Theart, A., Marais, B., Gie, R., Hesseling, A., Beyers, N. (2005). Criteria used for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis at primary health care level in a high-burden, urban setting. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(11), 1210-1214.
  • Marais, B., Donald, P., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2005). Diversity of disease in childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, 25(2), 79-86. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Obihara, C., Warren, R., Schaaf, H., Gie, R., Donald, P. (2005). The burden of childhood tuberculosis: a public health perspective. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(12), 1305-1313.
  • Marais, B., Obihara, C., Gie, R., Schaaf, H., Hesseling, A., Lombard, C., Enarson, D., Bateman, E., Beyers, N. (2005). The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(11), 1166-1170. [More Information]
  • Marais, B., Gie, R., Obihara, C., Hesseling, A., Schaaf, H., Beyers, N. (2005). Well defined symptoms are of value in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90(11), 1162-1165. [More Information]

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