Associate Professor Clare Hawkins

ARC Future Fellow
Medicine, Central Clinical School
Heart Research Institute

Telephone +61 2 8208 8900
Fax +61 2 9565 5584

Map

Selected grants

2014

  • The Physiological Role of Glutathione-S-Transferase in the Intracellular Storage and Transport of Nitric Oxide and its Biomedical Effects; Richardson D, Hawkins C; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2013

  • Understanding how protein damage influences cell function; Hawkins C; DVC Research/Bridging Support Grant.
  • Cellular mechanisms linking smoking and cardiovascular disease; Hawkins C; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Future Fellowships (FT).
  • Robotic High Throughput Western Analysis for the Open Access, Multi-User Sydney Cancer Research Core Facility; Richardson D, Scolyer R, Boyer M, Halliday G, Damian D, Christopherson R, Joshua D, Kench J, Hong A, Murray M, Lee C, Kalinowski D, Naylor M, Lay P, Lyons G, Kovacevic Z, Mason R, Dixon K, Chan-Ling T, Hawkins C, Sunde M, Lovejoy D, Owens T, Rendina L, Jansson P, Dos Remedios C, Charles (nee Slaviero) K, Lane D, Witting P, Dong Q, Ammit A, Groundwater P, Assinder S, Bao B, Byrne S, Zhou F, Buckland M, Grewal T, Huq F, Lai D, Codd R, Zhang D, Fu D, de Graaf S, Huang M, Payne R, Slobedman B, Barrs V, Ho J, Williamson P, Murphy C; DVC Research/Equipment Grant.

2012

  • Investigating the Cellular Response to Iron-Depletion: The Trilogy of ASK1, Thioredoxin and Ribonucleotide Reductase; Richardson D, Hawkins C, Suryo Rahmanto Y, Lovejoy D, Ponka P; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2009

  • The role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in inducing damage in atherosclerosis; Hawkins C; National Heart Foundation/Career Development Fellowship.
  • Does oxidation of lipoproteins by thiocyanate-derived oxidants produced by myeloperoxidase contribute to atherosclerosis; Hawkins C, Davies M; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2006

  • Identifying the targets of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in plasma and cells; Hawkins C; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

Selected publications

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Book Chapters

  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Whiteman, M., Davies, M. (2007). Chlorination and nitration of DNA and nucleic acid components. In Evans M; Cooke M (Eds.), Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids, (pp. 14-39). United States: Springer.

Journals

  • Rayner, B., Love, D., Hawkins, C. (2014). Comparative reactivity of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants with mammalian cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 71, 240-255. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2014). Detection and characterisation of radicals in biological materials using EPR methodology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids), 1840 (2), 708-721. [More Information]
  • Kajer, T., Fairfull-Smith, K., Yamasaki, T., Yamada, K., Fu, S., Bottle, S., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2014). Inhibition of myeloperoxidase- and neutrophil-mediated oxidant production by tetraethyl and tetramethyl nitroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 70, 96-105. [More Information]
  • Lloyd, M., Grima, M., Rayner, B., Hadfield, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2013). Comparative reactivity of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants hypochlorous acid and hypothiocyanous acid with human coronary artery endothelial cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 65, 1352-1362. [More Information]
  • Hadfield, K., Pattison, D., Brown, B., Hou, L., Rye, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2013). Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants modify apolipoprotein A-I and generate dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins: comparison of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with hypochlorous acid (HOCI). The Biochemical Journal, 449(2), 531-542. [More Information]
  • Barrett, T., Hawkins, C. (2012). Hypothiocyanous Acid: Benign or Deadly? Chemical Research in Toxicology, 25(2), 263-273. [More Information]
  • Summers, F., Forsman Quigley, A., Hawkins, C. (2012). Identification of proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 425(2), 157-161. [More Information]
  • Barrett, T., Pattison, D., Leonard, S., Carroll, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2012). Inactivation of thiol-dependent enzymes by hypothiocyanous acid: role of sulfenyl thiocyanate and sulfenic acid intermediates. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 52(6), 1075-1085. [More Information]
  • Lok, H., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Hawkins, C., Kalinowski, D., Morrow, C., Townsend, A., Ponka, P., Richardson, D. (2012). Nitric oxide storage and transport in cells are mediated by glutathione S-transferase P1-1 and Multidrug Resistant Protein 1 via Dinitrosyl iron complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(1), 607-618. [More Information]
  • Pattison, D., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2012). Reactions and reactivity of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants: Differential biological effects of hypochlorous and hypothiocyanous acids. Free Radical Research, 46(8), 975-995. [More Information]
  • Boon, A., Hawkins, C., Bisht, K., Coombes, J., Bakrania, B., Wagner, K., Bulmer, A. (2012). Reduced circulating oxidized LDL is associated with hypocholesterolemia and enhanced thiol status in Gilbert syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 52(10), 2120-2127. [More Information]
  • Gracanin, M., Lam, M., Morgan, P., Rodgers, K., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2011). Amino acid, peptide, and protein hydroperoxides and their decomposition products modify the activity of the 26S proteasome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 50(2), 389-399. [More Information]
  • Morgan, P., Pattison, D., Talib, J., Summers, F., Harmer, J., Celermajer, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2011). High plasma thiocyanate levels in smokers are a key determinant of thiol oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51(9), 1815-1822. [More Information]
  • Yu, Y., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Hawkins, C., Richardson, D. (2011). The Potent and Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators Di-2- pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and 2- Benzoylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone Affect Crucial Thiol Systems Required for Ribonucleotide Reductase Activity. Molecular Pharmacology, 79(6), 921-931. [More Information]
  • Stanley, N., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C. (2010). Ability of Hypochlorous Acid and N-Chloramines to Chlorinate DNA and Its Constituents. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 23(7), 1293-1302. [More Information]
  • Koelsch, M., Mallak, R., Graham, G., Kajer, T., Milligan, M., Nguyen, L., Newsham, D., Keh, J., Kettle, A., Scott, K., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., et al (2010). Acetaminophen (paracetamol) inhibits myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidant production and biological damage at therapeutically achievable concentrations. Biochemical Pharmacology, 79(8), 1156-1164. [More Information]
  • Suryo Rahmanto, A., Morgan, P., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2010). Cellular effects of peptide and protein hydroperoxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 48(8), 1071-1078. [More Information]
  • Rahmanto, A., Morgan, P., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2010). Cellular effects of photo-generated oxidants and long-lived, reactive, hydroperoxide photoproducts. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49(10), 1505-1515. [More Information]
  • Jansson, P., Hawkins, C., Lovejoy, D., Richardson, D. (2010). The iron complex of Dp44mT is redox-active and induces hydroxyl radical formation: An EPR study. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 104(11), 1224-1228. [More Information]
  • Lane, A., Tan, J., Hawkins, C., Heather, A., Davies, M. (2010). The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant HOSCN inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases and modulates cell signalling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in macrophages. Biochemical Journal, 430(1), 161-169. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Morgan, P., Davies, M. (2009). Quantification of protein modification by oxidants. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 46(8), 965-988. [More Information]
  • Gracanin, M., Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2009). Singlet-oxygen-mediated amino acid and protein oxidation: formation of tryptophan peroxides and decomposition products. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 47(1), 92-102. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C. (2009). The role of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) in biological systems. Free Radical Research, 43(12), 1147-1158. [More Information]
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2009). What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 22(5), 807-817. [More Information]
  • Szuchman-Sapir, A., Pattison, D., Ellis, N., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., Witting, P. (2008). Hypochlorous acid oxidizes methionine and tryptophan residues in myoglobin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(6), 789-798. [More Information]
  • Szuchman-Sapir, A., Pattison, D., Hamilton (Ellis), N., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., Witting, P. (2008). Hypochlorous acid oxidizes methionine and tryptophan residues in myoglobin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(6), 789-798.
  • Lloyd, M., van Reyk, D., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2008). Hypothiocyanous acid is a more potent inducer of apoptosis and protein thiol depletion in murine macrophage cells than hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid. Biochemical Journal, 414(2), 271-280. [More Information]
  • Summers, F., Morgan, P., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2008). Identification of plasma proteins that are susceptible to thiol oxidation by hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21(9), 1832-1840. [More Information]
  • Davies, M., Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Rees, M. (2008). Mammalian heme peroxidases: from molecular mechanisms to health implications. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10(7), 1199-1234. [More Information]
  • Morgan, P., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2008). Separation, detection, and quantification of hydroperoxides formed at side-chain and backbone sites on amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(9), 1279-1289. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Stanley, N., Davies, M. (2008). Tryptophan residues are targets in hypothiocyanous acid-mediated protein oxidation. Biochemical Journal, 416(3), 441-452. [More Information]
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2007). Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Protein Oxidation: How Important Are Chloramine Transfer Reactions and Protein Tertiary Structure? Biochemistry, 46(34), 9853-9864. [More Information]
  • Agon, V., Bubb, W., Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2006). Corrigendum to “Sensitizer-mediated photo-oxidation of histidine residues: Evidence for the formation of reactive side-chain peroxides�? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40(12), 2242-2242. [More Information]
  • Watts, R., Hawkins, C., Ponka, P., Richardson, D. (2006). Nitrogen monoxide (NO)-mediated iron release from cells is linked to NO-induced glutathione efflux via multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 103(20), 7670-7675. [More Information]
  • Agon, V., Bubb, W., Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2006). Sensitizer-mediated photooxidation of histidine residues: evidence for the formation of reactive side-chain peroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40(4 to 5), 698-710. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). Inactivation of protease inhibitors and lysozyme by hypochlorous acid: role of side-chain oxidation and protein unfolding in loss of biological function. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18(10), 1600-1610.
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). The Role of Aromatic Amino Acid Oxidation, Protein Unfolding, and Aggregation in the Hypobromous Acid-Induced Inactivation of Trypsin Inhibitor and Lysozyme. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18(11), 1669-1677. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). The role of reactive N-bromo species and radical intermediates in hypobromous acid-induced protein oxidation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. [More Information]
  • Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2004). EPR spin trapping of protein radicals. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 36(9), 1072-1086. [More Information]
  • Rees, M., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2004). Hypochlorite and superoxide radicals can act synergistically to induce fragmentation of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulphates. Biochemical Journal, 381(1), 175-184.
  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins. Amino Acids, 25(3-4), 259-274. [More Information]
  • Rees, M., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorite-Mediated Fragmentation of Hyaluronan, Chondroitin Sulfates, and Related N-Acetyl Glycosamines: Evidence for Chloramide Intermediates, Free Radical Transfer Reactions, and Site-Specific Fragmentation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125(45), 13719-13733.
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Oxidation of Lipid Components and Antioxidants Present in Low- Density Lipoproteins: Absolute Rate Constants, Product Analysis, and Computational Modeling. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 16(4), 439-449.
  • Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Photo-oxidation of cells generates long-lived intracellular protein peroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 34(6), 637-647.
  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2002). Reaction of protein chloramines with DNA and nucleosides: evidence for the formation of radicals, protein-DNA cross-links and DNA fragmentation. Biochemical Journal, 365(3), 605-615.
  • Wright, A., Bubb, W., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2002). Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation: evidence for the formation of reactive side chain peroxides on tyrosine residues. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 76(1), 35-46.
  • Hawkins, C., Rees, M., Davies, M. (2002). Superoxide radicals can act synergistically with hypochlorite to induce damage to proteins. FEBS Letters, 510(1-2), 41-44.
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2001). Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins. BBA - Bioenergetics, 1504 (2-3), 196-219.
  • Hawkins, C., Brown, B., Davies, M. (2001). Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 395, 137-145.
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2001). Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centered radicals. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 14, 1071-1081.
  • Carr, A., Hawkins, C., Thomas, S., Stocker, R., Frei, B. (2001). Relative reactivities of N-chloramines and hypochlorous with human plasma constitutes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 30, 526-536.

2014

  • Rayner, B., Love, D., Hawkins, C. (2014). Comparative reactivity of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants with mammalian cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 71, 240-255. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2014). Detection and characterisation of radicals in biological materials using EPR methodology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids), 1840 (2), 708-721. [More Information]
  • Kajer, T., Fairfull-Smith, K., Yamasaki, T., Yamada, K., Fu, S., Bottle, S., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2014). Inhibition of myeloperoxidase- and neutrophil-mediated oxidant production by tetraethyl and tetramethyl nitroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 70, 96-105. [More Information]

2013

  • Lloyd, M., Grima, M., Rayner, B., Hadfield, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2013). Comparative reactivity of the myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants hypochlorous acid and hypothiocyanous acid with human coronary artery endothelial cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 65, 1352-1362. [More Information]
  • Hadfield, K., Pattison, D., Brown, B., Hou, L., Rye, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2013). Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants modify apolipoprotein A-I and generate dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins: comparison of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with hypochlorous acid (HOCI). The Biochemical Journal, 449(2), 531-542. [More Information]

2012

  • Barrett, T., Hawkins, C. (2012). Hypothiocyanous Acid: Benign or Deadly? Chemical Research in Toxicology, 25(2), 263-273. [More Information]
  • Summers, F., Forsman Quigley, A., Hawkins, C. (2012). Identification of proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 425(2), 157-161. [More Information]
  • Barrett, T., Pattison, D., Leonard, S., Carroll, K., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2012). Inactivation of thiol-dependent enzymes by hypothiocyanous acid: role of sulfenyl thiocyanate and sulfenic acid intermediates. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 52(6), 1075-1085. [More Information]
  • Lok, H., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Hawkins, C., Kalinowski, D., Morrow, C., Townsend, A., Ponka, P., Richardson, D. (2012). Nitric oxide storage and transport in cells are mediated by glutathione S-transferase P1-1 and Multidrug Resistant Protein 1 via Dinitrosyl iron complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(1), 607-618. [More Information]
  • Pattison, D., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2012). Reactions and reactivity of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants: Differential biological effects of hypochlorous and hypothiocyanous acids. Free Radical Research, 46(8), 975-995. [More Information]
  • Boon, A., Hawkins, C., Bisht, K., Coombes, J., Bakrania, B., Wagner, K., Bulmer, A. (2012). Reduced circulating oxidized LDL is associated with hypocholesterolemia and enhanced thiol status in Gilbert syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 52(10), 2120-2127. [More Information]

2011

  • Gracanin, M., Lam, M., Morgan, P., Rodgers, K., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2011). Amino acid, peptide, and protein hydroperoxides and their decomposition products modify the activity of the 26S proteasome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 50(2), 389-399. [More Information]
  • Morgan, P., Pattison, D., Talib, J., Summers, F., Harmer, J., Celermajer, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2011). High plasma thiocyanate levels in smokers are a key determinant of thiol oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 51(9), 1815-1822. [More Information]
  • Yu, Y., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Hawkins, C., Richardson, D. (2011). The Potent and Novel Thiosemicarbazone Chelators Di-2- pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and 2- Benzoylpyridine-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone Affect Crucial Thiol Systems Required for Ribonucleotide Reductase Activity. Molecular Pharmacology, 79(6), 921-931. [More Information]

2010

  • Stanley, N., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C. (2010). Ability of Hypochlorous Acid and N-Chloramines to Chlorinate DNA and Its Constituents. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 23(7), 1293-1302. [More Information]
  • Koelsch, M., Mallak, R., Graham, G., Kajer, T., Milligan, M., Nguyen, L., Newsham, D., Keh, J., Kettle, A., Scott, K., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., et al (2010). Acetaminophen (paracetamol) inhibits myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidant production and biological damage at therapeutically achievable concentrations. Biochemical Pharmacology, 79(8), 1156-1164. [More Information]
  • Suryo Rahmanto, A., Morgan, P., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2010). Cellular effects of peptide and protein hydroperoxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 48(8), 1071-1078. [More Information]
  • Rahmanto, A., Morgan, P., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2010). Cellular effects of photo-generated oxidants and long-lived, reactive, hydroperoxide photoproducts. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 49(10), 1505-1515. [More Information]
  • Jansson, P., Hawkins, C., Lovejoy, D., Richardson, D. (2010). The iron complex of Dp44mT is redox-active and induces hydroxyl radical formation: An EPR study. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 104(11), 1224-1228. [More Information]
  • Lane, A., Tan, J., Hawkins, C., Heather, A., Davies, M. (2010). The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant HOSCN inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases and modulates cell signalling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in macrophages. Biochemical Journal, 430(1), 161-169. [More Information]

2009

  • Hawkins, C., Morgan, P., Davies, M. (2009). Quantification of protein modification by oxidants. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 46(8), 965-988. [More Information]
  • Gracanin, M., Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2009). Singlet-oxygen-mediated amino acid and protein oxidation: formation of tryptophan peroxides and decomposition products. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 47(1), 92-102. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C. (2009). The role of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) in biological systems. Free Radical Research, 43(12), 1147-1158. [More Information]
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2009). What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 22(5), 807-817. [More Information]

2008

  • Szuchman-Sapir, A., Pattison, D., Ellis, N., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., Witting, P. (2008). Hypochlorous acid oxidizes methionine and tryptophan residues in myoglobin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(6), 789-798. [More Information]
  • Szuchman-Sapir, A., Pattison, D., Hamilton (Ellis), N., Hawkins, C., Davies, M., Witting, P. (2008). Hypochlorous acid oxidizes methionine and tryptophan residues in myoglobin. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(6), 789-798.
  • Lloyd, M., van Reyk, D., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2008). Hypothiocyanous acid is a more potent inducer of apoptosis and protein thiol depletion in murine macrophage cells than hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid. Biochemical Journal, 414(2), 271-280. [More Information]
  • Summers, F., Morgan, P., Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2008). Identification of plasma proteins that are susceptible to thiol oxidation by hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21(9), 1832-1840. [More Information]
  • Davies, M., Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Rees, M. (2008). Mammalian heme peroxidases: from molecular mechanisms to health implications. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 10(7), 1199-1234. [More Information]
  • Morgan, P., Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2008). Separation, detection, and quantification of hydroperoxides formed at side-chain and backbone sites on amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(9), 1279-1289. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Stanley, N., Davies, M. (2008). Tryptophan residues are targets in hypothiocyanous acid-mediated protein oxidation. Biochemical Journal, 416(3), 441-452. [More Information]

2007

  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Whiteman, M., Davies, M. (2007). Chlorination and nitration of DNA and nucleic acid components. In Evans M; Cooke M (Eds.), Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids, (pp. 14-39). United States: Springer.
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2007). Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Protein Oxidation: How Important Are Chloramine Transfer Reactions and Protein Tertiary Structure? Biochemistry, 46(34), 9853-9864. [More Information]

2006

  • Agon, V., Bubb, W., Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2006). Corrigendum to “Sensitizer-mediated photo-oxidation of histidine residues: Evidence for the formation of reactive side-chain peroxides�? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40(12), 2242-2242. [More Information]
  • Watts, R., Hawkins, C., Ponka, P., Richardson, D. (2006). Nitrogen monoxide (NO)-mediated iron release from cells is linked to NO-induced glutathione efflux via multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 103(20), 7670-7675. [More Information]
  • Agon, V., Bubb, W., Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2006). Sensitizer-mediated photooxidation of histidine residues: evidence for the formation of reactive side-chain peroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40(4 to 5), 698-710. [More Information]

2005

  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). Inactivation of protease inhibitors and lysozyme by hypochlorous acid: role of side-chain oxidation and protein unfolding in loss of biological function. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18(10), 1600-1610.
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). The Role of Aromatic Amino Acid Oxidation, Protein Unfolding, and Aggregation in the Hypobromous Acid-Induced Inactivation of Trypsin Inhibitor and Lysozyme. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18(11), 1669-1677. [More Information]
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2005). The role of reactive N-bromo species and radical intermediates in hypobromous acid-induced protein oxidation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. [More Information]

2004

  • Davies, M., Hawkins, C. (2004). EPR spin trapping of protein radicals. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 36(9), 1072-1086. [More Information]
  • Rees, M., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2004). Hypochlorite and superoxide radicals can act synergistically to induce fragmentation of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulphates. Biochemical Journal, 381(1), 175-184.

2003

  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins. Amino Acids, 25(3-4), 259-274. [More Information]
  • Rees, M., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorite-Mediated Fragmentation of Hyaluronan, Chondroitin Sulfates, and Related N-Acetyl Glycosamines: Evidence for Chloramide Intermediates, Free Radical Transfer Reactions, and Site-Specific Fragmentation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 125(45), 13719-13733.
  • Pattison, D., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Hypochlorous Acid-Mediated Oxidation of Lipid Components and Antioxidants Present in Low- Density Lipoproteins: Absolute Rate Constants, Product Analysis, and Computational Modeling. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 16(4), 439-449.
  • Wright, A., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2003). Photo-oxidation of cells generates long-lived intracellular protein peroxides. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 34(6), 637-647.

2002

  • Hawkins, C., Pattison, D., Davies, M. (2002). Reaction of protein chloramines with DNA and nucleosides: evidence for the formation of radicals, protein-DNA cross-links and DNA fragmentation. Biochemical Journal, 365(3), 605-615.
  • Wright, A., Bubb, W., Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2002). Singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation: evidence for the formation of reactive side chain peroxides on tyrosine residues. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 76(1), 35-46.
  • Hawkins, C., Rees, M., Davies, M. (2002). Superoxide radicals can act synergistically with hypochlorite to induce damage to proteins. FEBS Letters, 510(1-2), 41-44.

2001

  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2001). Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins. BBA - Bioenergetics, 1504 (2-3), 196-219.
  • Hawkins, C., Brown, B., Davies, M. (2001). Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 395, 137-145.
  • Hawkins, C., Davies, M. (2001). Hypochlorite-induced damage to nucleosides: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centered radicals. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 14, 1071-1081.
  • Carr, A., Hawkins, C., Thomas, S., Stocker, R., Frei, B. (2001). Relative reactivities of N-chloramines and hypochlorous with human plasma constitutes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 30, 526-536.

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