Professor Deborah Schofield

Professor of Health Economics
NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, School of Public Health

Telephone +61 2 9562 5044
Fax +61 2 9565 1863

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Biographical details

Professor Schofield’s career has spanned the Australian Government public service, academia and clinical practice and she has a national and international reputation for her work in economic modelling of the health system.

Professor Schofield established the health microsimulation modelling program at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling. She undertook nation-leading work on modelling the distribution of health expenditure and health expenditure trends and private health insurance. As a result Australia is now seen as the international leader in the application of microsimulation to health. Prof Schofield has provided advice to organisations such as the World Health Organisation, the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sweden, the National Health Service in the UK and the Associations of the Faculties of Medicine in the UK and Canada. She established Australia’s first model of child care subsidies and their relationship to family earnings and was a developer of STINMOD, a model of income, government benefits and taxation. Over the last 15 years this model has been, and still is, used extensively by major government departments including the Treasury, the opposition for election promises, Cabinet and Budget cabinet, for analysis and costing of major tax-benefit policy changes such as Tax Reform at the time the GST was introduced. She went on to hold senior positions in several Australian Government Departments. These included the Department of Health and Ageing where she managed $42 billion in funding for the current Australian Health Care Agreements which fund public hospitals and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme Budget Policy. At the Australian Treasury she was Director of Health Policy where she managed all analysis and advice to the Treasurer on the Health Portfolio and its funding. She also spent several years as Specialist Adviser at the Treasury and during this time she pioneered the methods for forecasting health expenditure used in the landmark Budget paper called "The Intergenerational Report (IGR)". This report has had a far-reaching impact on the approach to State and Australian Government expenditure policy. It has also fundamentally altered the understanding of the impact of ageing on future demand for health expenditure in Australia. It has been reported by the OECD and has been influential in leading first world nations to recognise that demographic change will place as much pressure on health care as it will on pension systems. Prof Schofield subsequently provided extensive advice to the Productivity Commission on their report of on the Economic Impact of Ageing and was a consultant to the Treasury on the second Intergenerational Report. While at Treasury she wrote a paper on the relationship between health and labour force participation of older workers which led to preventive health policy changes in the 2004-06 budget. Professor Schofield has developed an excellent reputation for her work on the health workforce and is co-lead for the Australian delegation for the International Medical Workforce Collaborative (IMWC), and member of the IMWC planning committee. She has undertaken consultancies for NSW Treasury and Southern Cross University in this area and made a significant contribution to the North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) Workforce Development Plan 2005-2015 and now sits on the NCAHS Workforce Development Implementation Plan Committee. She now sits on several government committees including the Professional Programs and Services Advisory Committee (PPSAC) research committee of the Department of Health and Ageing. She is a regular reviewer for the Medical Journal of Australia and other journals

Research interests

Professor Deborah Schofield currently leads a work program focusing on: modelling ageing and retirement and their relationships with health and the labour force; modelling of demographic change and the health workforce; long term forecasting of health services and expenditure; and a cohort study of rural health clinicians. Her current major research projects include:

• The economic impacts of illness: - Leads a $717K grant undertaken with NATSEM examining labour force participation and income tax and savings lost due to early retirement, funded by the ARC and Pfizer Australia; and - A $1.8m grant on understanding the impact of social, economic and geographic disadvantage on the health of Australians in mid - later life where she leads the economic engagement theme, funded by the NHMRC. • Ageing and retirement of the medical workforce - Co-leads the Australian contingent for the International Medical Workforce Collaborative - Leads the health workforce research stream for a $1.5 m Research and Development Capacity Building Infrastructure Grant funded by NSW Health

Selected grants

2013

  • Advancing the evidence base for care and policy in priority health areas; Simes R, Keech A, Gebski V, Stockler M, Caterson I, Colagiuri S, Schofield D, Marschner C; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Program Grants.
  • Societal costs of premi children; Schofield D; DVC Research/Bridging Support Grant.
  • Does bovine lactoferrin (bLF) reduce mortality and morbidity in very low birthweight infants?; Tarnow-Mordi W, Soll R, Manzoni P, Darlow B, Isaacs D, Lui K, Schofield D, Wilkinson D, Martin A, Hague W; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2012

  • Improving decision making on health interventions: factoring in the long term economic impacts of informal (unpaid) care.; Schofield D, Vos E, Kelly S, Passey M, Shrestha R, Tanton R, Grobler M; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Partnership Projects.
  • Working beyond the traditional retirement age: quantifying the benefits for retirement savings; Schofield D, Callander E, Shrestha R, Kelly S; National Seniors Australia Productive Ageing Centre/Research Grants.
  • Centre Obesity Management and Prevention Research Excellence in Primary Health Care; Schofield D, Caterson I, Bauman A; Australian Primary Health Care Research Institute/Centres of Research Excellence in Primary Care - Stream 2.
  • Health and Work Research Network; Buchanan J, Bohle P, Schofield D, Colagiuri S, Hickie I, Glozier N, Shaw T, Leeder S, Grunstein R, Riley J, Johnstone R, Quinlan M, Schofield T, Jones M, Matthews L, Grant A, West S, Chen T, Nyberg D, Shrestha R, Fattore T, Scott L, Knox-Haly M, McNamara M, Callander E; DVC Research/Research Network Scheme (SyReNS).

2010

  • Long term economic impacts of disease on older workers to 2030: Costs to government and individuals and opportunities for intervention; Schofield D, Vos E, Grobler M, Percival R, Kelly S, Passey M, Kelly S, Vos E, Percival R; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Projects (LP).

2009

  • Review of emergency department workforce design; Schofield D; Health Administration Corporation/Research Support.
  • Modelling Future Health and Medical Workforce; Schofield D; Australian Society for Medical Research/Research Grant.

2007

  • Understanding the impact of social, economic and geographic disadvantage on the health of Australians in mid-later life: what are the opportunities for prevention?; Bauman A, Harris M, Banks E, Redman S, Banks E, Harris M, Schofield D, McMichael A, Bailey S, Bambrick H, Beard J, Broom D, Byles J, Clarke J, Jalaludin B, Louisa J, Nutbeam D, Rodgers B, Woodruff R, Woodward M; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Strategic Awards: Preventative Healthcare and Strengthening Australia's Social and Economic Fabric.
  • Economic impacts of disease on older workers: Costs to government and individuals and opportunities for intervention; Schofield D, Earnest A, Edwards D, Percival R, Kelly S, Kelly S, Passey M, Earnest A, Percival R, Kelly S; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Projects (LP).

2006

  • Workforce analysis; Schofield D; Southern Cross University/Research Grant.
  • Policy advice on the second Intergenerational; Schofield D; Department of Treasury (QLD)/Research Support.
  • Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration; Frager L, Kelly B, Schofield D, Passey M, Lyle D, Beard J; NSW Health/Research and Development Capacity Building Infrastructure Grants Program.
  • Work, health and older working life; Passey M, Schofield D, Earnest A; Pfizer Australia/Research Contract.
  • NSW Doctors: A workforce study of the International Medical Workforce; Schofield D, Walton M, Page Mitchell S, et a; NSW Health/Research Grant.
  • The future of the regional health workforce; Schofield D, Fuller J; University of Sydney/Early Career Researcher.

Selected publications

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Books

  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Dal Poz, M., Dreesch, N., Gedik, G., Gupta, N., Hornby, P. (2010). Human Resources for Health Observer: Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections. Bern, Switzerland: WHO Press.

Book Chapters

  • Schofield, D., Beard, J. (2010). Baby boomer doctors and nurses: Demographic change and transitions to retirement. In Ann Larson; David Lyle (Eds.), A Bright Future for Rural Health – Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Rural and Remote Australian Health Care, (pp. 76-78). Canberra: Australian Rural Health Education Network.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2010). Estimation and forecasting of workforce attrition to retirement: a case-study from Australia. Human Resources for Health Observer: Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections, (pp. 11-12). Bern, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  • Schofield, D., Rothman, G. (2007). Projections of Commonwealth Health Expenditure in Australia's First Intergenerational Report. In Gupta, A. and Harding, A. (Eds.), Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care, (pp. 149-168). UK: Elsevier.

Journals

  • Carter, H., Zannino, D., Simes, R., Schofield, D., Howard, K., Zalcberg, J., Price, T., Tebbutt, N. (2014). The cost effectiveness of bevacizumab when added to capecitabine, with or without mitomycin-C, in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: Results from the Australasian phase III MAX study. European Journal of Cancer, 50(3), 535-543. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Cunich, M., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Veerman, L., Callander, E., Kelly, S., Tanton, R. (2014). The economic impact of diabetes through lost labour force participation on individuals and government: evidence from a microsimulation model. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Cunich, M., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Tanton, R., Veerman, L. (2014). The impact of diabetes on the labour force participation and income poverty of workers aged 45-64 years in australia. PLoS One, 9(2), e89360. [More Information]
  • Fuller, N., Colagiuri, S., Schofield, D., Olson, A., Shrestha, R., Holzapfel, C., Wolfenstetter, S., Holle, R., Ahem, A., Hauner, H., Caterson, I., et al (2013). A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment, relative to standard care - an international randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 37(6), 828-834. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2013). Chronic health conditions and poverty: a cross-sectional study using a multidimensional poverty measure. BMJ Open, 3(11), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Byles, J., Kimman, M. (2013). Costs of being a carer: labour force participation and lost earnings among older working-aged Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(2), 192-193. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2013). Freedom poverty: A new tool to identify the multiple disadvantages affecting those with CVD. International Journal of Cardiology, 166(2), 321-326. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2013). Multiple chronic health conditions and their link with labour force participation and economic status. PLoS One, 8(11), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2013). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians. Public Health, 127(6), 561-571. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2013). Premature retirement due to ill health and income poverty: a cross-sectional study of older workers. BMJ Open, 3(5), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2013). The association between labour force participation and being in income poverty amongst those with mental health problems. Aging & Mental Health, 17(2), 250-257. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Percival, R. (2013). The impact of co-morbidities on the wealth of people with heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology, 169(1), e12-e13. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2013). The indirect economic impacts of co-morbidities on people with depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(6), 796-801. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2013). The personal and national costs of CVD: Impacts on income, taxes, government support payments and GDP due to lost labour force participation. International Journal of Cardiology, 166(1), 68-71. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2013). The personal and national costs of lost labour force participation due to arthritis: an economic study. BMC Public Health, 13, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D. (2013). The relationship between employment and social participation among Australians with a disabling chronic health condition: a cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open, 3(1), 1-5. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E. (2012). Access to general practitioner services amongst underserved Australians: a microsimulation study. Human Resources for Health, 10(1), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2012). Association between co-morbidities and labour force participation amongst persons with back problems. Pain, 153(10), 2068-2072. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom - Using a New Poverty Measure to Look at Regional Differences in Living Standards within Australia. Geographical Research, 50(4), 411-420. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom – Using a New Poverty Measure to Look at Regional Differences in Living Standards within Australia. Geographical Research, 50(4), 411-420. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom-A New Way of Measuring Poverty Amongst Australian Children. Child Indicators Research, 5(1), 179-198. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Simon, K. (2012). Health and functional capacity: capturing capability limitations in measures of health. Health Sociology Review, 21(3), 322-331.
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Labor force participation and the influence of having back problems on income poverty in Australia. Spine, 37(13), 1156-1163. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Labour force participation and the influence of having CVD on income poverty of older workers. International Journal of Cardiology, 156(1), 80-83. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Letter to the editor regarding Kawada's comments on the paper labour force participation and the influence of having CVD on income poverty of older workers. International Journal of Cardiology, 157(1), 139-140. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Multiple Disadvantages Among Older Citizens: What a Multidimensional Measure of Poverty Can Show. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 24(4), 368-383. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Kimman, M., Scuteri, J., Fodero, L. (2012). Projecting the Radiation Oncology Workforce in Australia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(4), 1159-1166. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Kelly, S. (2012). Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia. Journal of Social Inclusion, 3(1), 7-20.
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M., Percival, R. (2012). The impact of back problems on retirement wealth. Pain, 153(1), 203-210. [More Information]
  • Passey, M., Shrestha, R., Bertram, M., Schofield, D., Vos, T., Callander, E., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2012). The impact of diabetes prevention on labour force participation and income of older Australians: an economic study. BMC Public Health, 12, 1-16. [More Information]
  • Kelly, S., Percival, R., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M. (2012). The Impact of Illness on Retirement Finances. Economic Record, 88(283), 576-584. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Percival, R. (2012). The long term financial impacts of CVD: Living standards in retirement. International Journal of Cardiology, 155(3), 406-408. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2012). The personal and national costs of early retirement because of spinal disorders: impacts on income, taxes, and government support payments. The Spine Journal, 12(12), 1111-1118. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Towards a holistic understanding of poverty: A new multidimensional measure of poverty for Australia. Health Sociology Review, 21(2), 141-155. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Meachem, S., West, C., Kavallaris, M., Callander, E. (2011). A Crisis in the Making? Education, Ageing Populations and the Future of the Medical Research Workforce. Medical Education, 45(2), 200-207. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Callander, E. (2011). Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending. BMC Public Health, 11(418), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D. (2011). Emergency Department Workforce Models: What the literature can tell us. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 23(1), 84-94. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Percival, R., Passey, M. (2011). How depression and other mental health problems can affect future living standards of those out of the labour force. Aging and Mental Health, 15(5), 654-662. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M., Fletcher, S. (2011). Modelling the cost of ill health in Health&WealthMOD (Version II): lost labour force participation, income and taxation, and the impact of disease prevention. International Journal of Microsimulation, 4(3), 32-36.
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2011). Multi-dimensional poverty in Australia and the barriers ill health imposes on the employment of the disadvantaged. Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(6), 736-742.
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Fletcher, S., Kelly, S., Percival, R. (2011). Projecting the impacts of illness on labour force participation: an application of Health and Wealth MOD. International Journal of Microsimulation, 4(3), 37-47.
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M., Callander, E. (2011). Quantifying the effect of early retirement on the wealth of individuals with depression or other mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(2), 123-128. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Percival, R., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). Retiring early with cardiovascular disease - impact on individual's financial assets. International Journal of Cardiology, 146(1), 125-126. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Percival, R., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). Retiring early with cardiovascular disease-impact on individual's financial assets. International Journal of Cardiology, 146(1), 125-126. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). The personal and national costs of mental health conditions: impacts on income, taxes, government support payments due to lost labour force participation. BMC Psychiatry, 11(72), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2011). Truncated careers in nuclear medicine technology: Increased job control may improve retention. Australian Health Review, 35(2), 124-129. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2010). Early retirement and the financial assets of individuals with back problems. European Spine Journal, , 1-6. [More Information]
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Health problems and retirement due to ill-health among Australian retirees aged 45-64 years. Health Policy, 94(2), 175-181. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Page, S., Callander, E., Shrestha, R. (2010). How well prepared are australian dentists for retirement? A survey of practitioners aged 50 and above. International Dental Journal, 60(4), 285-292. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Page Mitchell, S., Callander, E. (2010). Retirement intentions of dentists in New South Wales, Australia. Human Resources for Health, 8(9 (April)), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Percival, R., Passey, M., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2010). The Financial Vulnerability of Individuals with Diabetes. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 10(6), 300-304. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2010). The work environment and its effect on engagement and retention of nuclear medicine technologists: differences between public and private sector workers. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 31(6), 513-520. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Callander, E. (2009). Ageing medical workforce in Australia - where will the medical educators come from? Human Resources for Health, 7(82), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Keane, S., Fletcher, S., Shrestha, R., Percival, R. (2009). Loss of income and levels of scholarship support for students on rural clinical placements: A survey of medical, nursing and allied health students. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17, 134-140. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Wagner, S., Friis, L., Tyrell, B. (2009). Multidisciplinary management of complex care. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17(1), 45-48. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Schofield, D., Adamson, B. (2009). The effects of technological developments on nuclear medicine technologist productivity: a systematic review. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 25(3), 383-390. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Fuller, J., Birden, H., Page Mitchell, S. (2009). Where do students in the health professions want to work? Human Resources for Health, 7, 74-1-74-8. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2008). A profile of Australian Nuclear Medicine Technologist Practice. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 29(1), 83-90. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D. (2008). Change of the guard in obstetrics and gynaecology: projected retirement to 2025. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, 48(1), 107-121. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Fletcher, S. (2008). Chronic disease and labour force participation among older Australians. Medical Journal of Australia, 189(8), 447-450. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Earnest, A., Passey, M., Shrestha, R. (2008). Where are older workers with chronic conditions employed? Medical Journal of Australia, 188(4), 231-234. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Schofield, D., Cox, J., Adamson, B. (2008). Will the Australian nuclear medicine technologist workforce meet anticipated health care demands? Australian Health Review, 32(2), 282-291. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I., Shrestha, R. (2007). Are We Getting Healthier As We Grow Older? Implications for baby boomer labour force participation. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, 1114, 230-240. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Johnston, N. (2007). Baby boomer pharmacists: ageing and projections of retirement. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 15(3), 161-166.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Baby boomer retirement and the future of dentistry. Australian Dental Journal. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Fletcher, S., Birden, H., Page, S., Kostal, K., Wagner, S., Schultz, L. (2007). Decision criteria in health professionals choosing a rural practice setting: development of the Careers in Rural Health Tracking Survey (CIRHTS). Rural and Remote Health, 7(666(online)), 1-15. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D. (2007). Replacing the projected retiring baby boomer nursing cohort 2001 – 2026. BMC Health Services Research, 7(87), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Fletcher, S., Schofield, D. (2007). The impact of generational change and retirement on psychiatry to 2025. BMC Health Services Research, 7(doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-141), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). The physiotherapy workforce is ageing, becoming more masculinised, and is working longer hours: a demographic study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 53(2), 121-126. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Page Mitchell, S., Lyle, D., Walker, T. (2006). Ageing of the baby boomer generation: how demographic change will impact on city and rural GP and nursing workforce. Rural and Remote Health, 6(4), 604-604. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Earnest, A. (2006). Demographic change and the future demand for public hospital care in Australia, 2005 to 2050. Australian Health Review, 30(4), 507-515. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Beard, J. (2005). Baby boomer doctors and nurses: demographic change and transitions to retirement. Medical Journal of Australia, 183(2), 80-83. [More Information]

Conferences

  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians: health problems. 4th Symposium on Work Ability, Tampere, Finland.
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians: health problems and rurality. International Federation on Ageing 10th Global Conference 2010, Australia: International Federation on Ageing.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Medical Retention and Retirement in Australia, 2000 to 2025 - Australia. International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Medical Workforce Data in Australia. International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I. (2007). Premature retirement in Australia: What role does illness play? International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Fletcher, S., Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Birden, H., Page Mitchell, S. (2007). Where do students want to work? The Careers in Rural Health Tracking Study (CIRHTS). Asia-Pacific Action Alliance on Human Resource for Health 2nd Annual Conference "Health Workforce for Rural Health and Primary Care", on line: Asia Pacific Action Alliance on Human Resources for Health (AAAH).
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I., Shrestha, R. (2006). Are We Getting Healthier As We Grow Older? Implications for baby boomer labour force participation. 3rd International Conference on Healthy Ageing & Longevity, New York: Research Centre for Healthy Ageing & Longevity (IRCHAL).
  • Schofield, D. (2005). Ageing, the health system and the economy: where do the intersections lie? 27th Australian Conference of Health Economists, DVD: Australian Health Economics Society.

Report

  • Schofield, D. (2002). Intergenerational Report 2002-03.
  • Schofield, D., McCrea, G. (2002). The relationship between health and labour force participation of older workers.

2014

  • Carter, H., Zannino, D., Simes, R., Schofield, D., Howard, K., Zalcberg, J., Price, T., Tebbutt, N. (2014). The cost effectiveness of bevacizumab when added to capecitabine, with or without mitomycin-C, in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: Results from the Australasian phase III MAX study. European Journal of Cancer, 50(3), 535-543. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Cunich, M., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Veerman, L., Callander, E., Kelly, S., Tanton, R. (2014). The economic impact of diabetes through lost labour force participation on individuals and government: evidence from a microsimulation model. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Cunich, M., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Tanton, R., Veerman, L. (2014). The impact of diabetes on the labour force participation and income poverty of workers aged 45-64 years in australia. PLoS One, 9(2), e89360. [More Information]

2013

  • Fuller, N., Colagiuri, S., Schofield, D., Olson, A., Shrestha, R., Holzapfel, C., Wolfenstetter, S., Holle, R., Ahem, A., Hauner, H., Caterson, I., et al (2013). A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment, relative to standard care - an international randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 37(6), 828-834. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2013). Chronic health conditions and poverty: a cross-sectional study using a multidimensional poverty measure. BMJ Open, 3(11), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Byles, J., Kimman, M. (2013). Costs of being a carer: labour force participation and lost earnings among older working-aged Australians. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(2), 192-193. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2013). Freedom poverty: A new tool to identify the multiple disadvantages affecting those with CVD. International Journal of Cardiology, 166(2), 321-326. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2013). Multiple chronic health conditions and their link with labour force participation and economic status. PLoS One, 8(11), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2013). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians. Public Health, 127(6), 561-571. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2013). Premature retirement due to ill health and income poverty: a cross-sectional study of older workers. BMJ Open, 3(5), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2013). The association between labour force participation and being in income poverty amongst those with mental health problems. Aging & Mental Health, 17(2), 250-257. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Percival, R. (2013). The impact of co-morbidities on the wealth of people with heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology, 169(1), e12-e13. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2013). The indirect economic impacts of co-morbidities on people with depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(6), 796-801. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2013). The personal and national costs of CVD: Impacts on income, taxes, government support payments and GDP due to lost labour force participation. International Journal of Cardiology, 166(1), 68-71. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2013). The personal and national costs of lost labour force participation due to arthritis: an economic study. BMC Public Health, 13, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D. (2013). The relationship between employment and social participation among Australians with a disabling chronic health condition: a cross-sectional analysis. BMJ Open, 3(1), 1-5. [More Information]

2012

  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E. (2012). Access to general practitioner services amongst underserved Australians: a microsimulation study. Human Resources for Health, 10(1), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2012). Association between co-morbidities and labour force participation amongst persons with back problems. Pain, 153(10), 2068-2072. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom - Using a New Poverty Measure to Look at Regional Differences in Living Standards within Australia. Geographical Research, 50(4), 411-420. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom – Using a New Poverty Measure to Look at Regional Differences in Living Standards within Australia. Geographical Research, 50(4), 411-420. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Capacity for Freedom-A New Way of Measuring Poverty Amongst Australian Children. Child Indicators Research, 5(1), 179-198. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Simon, K. (2012). Health and functional capacity: capturing capability limitations in measures of health. Health Sociology Review, 21(3), 322-331.
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Labor force participation and the influence of having back problems on income poverty in Australia. Spine, 37(13), 1156-1163. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Labour force participation and the influence of having CVD on income poverty of older workers. International Journal of Cardiology, 156(1), 80-83. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2012). Letter to the editor regarding Kawada's comments on the paper labour force participation and the influence of having CVD on income poverty of older workers. International Journal of Cardiology, 157(1), 139-140. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Multiple Disadvantages Among Older Citizens: What a Multidimensional Measure of Poverty Can Show. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 24(4), 368-383. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Callander, E., Kimman, M., Scuteri, J., Fodero, L. (2012). Projecting the Radiation Oncology Workforce in Australia. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 13(4), 1159-1166. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Kelly, S. (2012). Sufficient education attainment for a decent standard of living in modern Australia. Journal of Social Inclusion, 3(1), 7-20.
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M., Percival, R. (2012). The impact of back problems on retirement wealth. Pain, 153(1), 203-210. [More Information]
  • Passey, M., Shrestha, R., Bertram, M., Schofield, D., Vos, T., Callander, E., Percival, R., Kelly, S. (2012). The impact of diabetes prevention on labour force participation and income of older Australians: an economic study. BMC Public Health, 12, 1-16. [More Information]
  • Kelly, S., Percival, R., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Passey, M. (2012). The Impact of Illness on Retirement Finances. Economic Record, 88(283), 576-584. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Percival, R. (2012). The long term financial impacts of CVD: Living standards in retirement. International Journal of Cardiology, 155(3), 406-408. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2012). The personal and national costs of early retirement because of spinal disorders: impacts on income, taxes, and government support payments. The Spine Journal, 12(12), 1111-1118. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2012). Towards a holistic understanding of poverty: A new multidimensional measure of poverty for Australia. Health Sociology Review, 21(2), 141-155. [More Information]

2011

  • Schofield, D., Meachem, S., West, C., Kavallaris, M., Callander, E. (2011). A Crisis in the Making? Education, Ageing Populations and the Future of the Medical Research Workforce. Medical Education, 45(2), 200-207. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Kelly, S., Callander, E. (2011). Economic impacts of illness in older workers: quantifying the impact of illness on income, tax revenue and government spending. BMC Public Health, 11(418), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D. (2011). Emergency Department Workforce Models: What the literature can tell us. Emergency Medicine Australasia, 23(1), 84-94. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Kelly, S., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Percival, R., Passey, M. (2011). How depression and other mental health problems can affect future living standards of those out of the labour force. Aging and Mental Health, 15(5), 654-662. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M., Fletcher, S. (2011). Modelling the cost of ill health in Health&WealthMOD (Version II): lost labour force participation, income and taxation, and the impact of disease prevention. International Journal of Microsimulation, 4(3), 32-36.
  • Callander, E., Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. (2011). Multi-dimensional poverty in Australia and the barriers ill health imposes on the employment of the disadvantaged. Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(6), 736-742.
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Fletcher, S., Kelly, S., Percival, R. (2011). Projecting the impacts of illness on labour force participation: an application of Health and Wealth MOD. International Journal of Microsimulation, 4(3), 37-47.
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Kelly, S., Passey, M., Callander, E. (2011). Quantifying the effect of early retirement on the wealth of individuals with depression or other mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198(2), 123-128. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Percival, R., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). Retiring early with cardiovascular disease - impact on individual's financial assets. International Journal of Cardiology, 146(1), 125-126. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Percival, R., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). Retiring early with cardiovascular disease-impact on individual's financial assets. International Journal of Cardiology, 146(1), 125-126. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Passey, M., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2011). The personal and national costs of mental health conditions: impacts on income, taxes, government support payments due to lost labour force participation. BMC Psychiatry, 11(72), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2011). Truncated careers in nuclear medicine technology: Increased job control may improve retention. Australian Health Review, 35(2), 124-129. [More Information]

2010

  • Schofield, D., Beard, J. (2010). Baby boomer doctors and nurses: Demographic change and transitions to retirement. In Ann Larson; David Lyle (Eds.), A Bright Future for Rural Health – Evidence-Based Policy and Practice in Rural and Remote Australian Health Care, (pp. 76-78). Canberra: Australian Rural Health Education Network.
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Percival, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S., Passey, M. (2010). Early retirement and the financial assets of individuals with back problems. European Spine Journal, , 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2010). Estimation and forecasting of workforce attrition to retirement: a case-study from Australia. Human Resources for Health Observer: Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections, (pp. 11-12). Bern, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Health problems and retirement due to ill-health among Australian retirees aged 45-64 years. Health Policy, 94(2), 175-181. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Page, S., Callander, E., Shrestha, R. (2010). How well prepared are australian dentists for retirement? A survey of practitioners aged 50 and above. International Dental Journal, 60(4), 285-292. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Dal Poz, M., Dreesch, N., Gedik, G., Gupta, N., Hornby, P. (2010). Human Resources for Health Observer: Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections. Bern, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians: health problems. 4th Symposium on Work Ability, Tampere, Finland.
  • Pit, S., Shrestha, R., Schofield, D., Passey, M. (2010). Partial and complete retirement due to ill-health among mature age Australians: health problems and rurality. International Federation on Ageing 10th Global Conference 2010, Australia: International Federation on Ageing.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Page Mitchell, S., Callander, E. (2010). Retirement intentions of dentists in New South Wales, Australia. Human Resources for Health, 8(9 (April)), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Percival, R., Passey, M., Shrestha, R., Callander, E., Kelly, S. (2010). The Financial Vulnerability of Individuals with Diabetes. British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 10(6), 300-304. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2010). The work environment and its effect on engagement and retention of nuclear medicine technologists: differences between public and private sector workers. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 31(6), 513-520. [More Information]

2009

  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Callander, E. (2009). Ageing medical workforce in Australia - where will the medical educators come from? Human Resources for Health, 7(82), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Keane, S., Fletcher, S., Shrestha, R., Percival, R. (2009). Loss of income and levels of scholarship support for students on rural clinical placements: A survey of medical, nursing and allied health students. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17, 134-140. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Wagner, S., Friis, L., Tyrell, B. (2009). Multidisciplinary management of complex care. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17(1), 45-48. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Schofield, D., Adamson, B. (2009). The effects of technological developments on nuclear medicine technologist productivity: a systematic review. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 25(3), 383-390. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Fuller, J., Birden, H., Page Mitchell, S. (2009). Where do students in the health professions want to work? Human Resources for Health, 7, 74-1-74-8. [More Information]

2008

  • Adams, E., Cox, J., Adamson, B., Schofield, D. (2008). A profile of Australian Nuclear Medicine Technologist Practice. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 29(1), 83-90. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D. (2008). Change of the guard in obstetrics and gynaecology: projected retirement to 2025. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales, 48(1), 107-121. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Shrestha, R., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Fletcher, S. (2008). Chronic disease and labour force participation among older Australians. Medical Journal of Australia, 189(8), 447-450. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Earnest, A., Passey, M., Shrestha, R. (2008). Where are older workers with chronic conditions employed? Medical Journal of Australia, 188(4), 231-234. [More Information]
  • Adams, E., Schofield, D., Cox, J., Adamson, B. (2008). Will the Australian nuclear medicine technologist workforce meet anticipated health care demands? Australian Health Review, 32(2), 282-291. [More Information]

2007

  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I., Shrestha, R. (2007). Are We Getting Healthier As We Grow Older? Implications for baby boomer labour force participation. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, 1114, 230-240. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S., Johnston, N. (2007). Baby boomer pharmacists: ageing and projections of retirement. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 15(3), 161-166.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Baby boomer retirement and the future of dentistry. Australian Dental Journal. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Fletcher, S., Birden, H., Page, S., Kostal, K., Wagner, S., Schultz, L. (2007). Decision criteria in health professionals choosing a rural practice setting: development of the Careers in Rural Health Tracking Survey (CIRHTS). Rural and Remote Health, 7(666(online)), 1-15. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Medical Retention and Retirement in Australia, 2000 to 2025 - Australia. International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). Medical Workforce Data in Australia. International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I. (2007). Premature retirement in Australia: What role does illness play? International Medical Workforce Conference (2007), Sydney, Australia: Univesity of Sydney.
  • Schofield, D., Rothman, G. (2007). Projections of Commonwealth Health Expenditure in Australia's First Intergenerational Report. In Gupta, A. and Harding, A. (Eds.), Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care, (pp. 149-168). UK: Elsevier.
  • Schofield, D. (2007). Replacing the projected retiring baby boomer nursing cohort 2001 – 2026. BMC Health Services Research, 7(87), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Fletcher, S., Schofield, D. (2007). The impact of generational change and retirement on psychiatry to 2025. BMC Health Services Research, 7(doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-141), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Fletcher, S. (2007). The physiotherapy workforce is ageing, becoming more masculinised, and is working longer hours: a demographic study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 53(2), 121-126. [More Information]
  • Fletcher, S., Schofield, D., Fuller, J., Birden, H., Page Mitchell, S. (2007). Where do students want to work? The Careers in Rural Health Tracking Study (CIRHTS). Asia-Pacific Action Alliance on Human Resource for Health 2nd Annual Conference "Health Workforce for Rural Health and Primary Care", on line: Asia Pacific Action Alliance on Human Resources for Health (AAAH).

2006

  • Schofield, D., Page Mitchell, S., Lyle, D., Walker, T. (2006). Ageing of the baby boomer generation: how demographic change will impact on city and rural GP and nursing workforce. Rural and Remote Health, 6(4), 604-604. [More Information]
  • Schofield, D., Passey, M., Earnest, A., Gloor, I., Shrestha, R. (2006). Are We Getting Healthier As We Grow Older? Implications for baby boomer labour force participation. 3rd International Conference on Healthy Ageing & Longevity, New York: Research Centre for Healthy Ageing & Longevity (IRCHAL).
  • Schofield, D., Earnest, A. (2006). Demographic change and the future demand for public hospital care in Australia, 2005 to 2050. Australian Health Review, 30(4), 507-515. [More Information]

2005

  • Schofield, D. (2005). Ageing, the health system and the economy: where do the intersections lie? 27th Australian Conference of Health Economists, DVD: Australian Health Economics Society.
  • Schofield, D., Beard, J. (2005). Baby boomer doctors and nurses: demographic change and transitions to retirement. Medical Journal of Australia, 183(2), 80-83. [More Information]

2002

  • Schofield, D. (2002). Intergenerational Report 2002-03.
  • Schofield, D., McCrea, G. (2002). The relationship between health and labour force participation of older workers.

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