Dr Gerald Liew

Clinical Senior Lecturer
Clinical Ophthalmology & Eye Health, Westmead Clinical School

Telephone 9382 7111

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Selected grants

2014

  • Using new retinal imaging technologies to improve treatment and classification of diabetic retinopathy; Liew G; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Early Career Fellowships (ECF).

2012

  • A cohort study of the impact of sedentary behaviour, physical activity and diet on the retinal microvasculature in adolescents; Mitchell P, Gopinath B, Baur L, Flood V, Hardy L, Liew G; Heart Foundation of Australia/Grants-in-Aid.

2010

  • Fractal Dimension of the Retinal Microvasculature: A New Imaging Biomarker for Vascular Disease; Liew G, Hsu W, Wang J, Tan-Koay A, Kifley A; Heart Foundation of Australia/Grants-in-Aid.

2009

  • The Australian Heart Eye Study (AHES); Mitchell P, Thiagalingam A, Kovoor P, Liew G, Rochtchina E; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2007

  • Retinal vascular architecture and prediction of cardiovascular disease; Wang J, Mitchell P, Liew G; Pfizer Pty Ltd/Research Grants.
  • Retinal vascular structure and the risk of diabetes and prediabetes; Wang J, Mitchell P, Liew G; Diabetes Australia Research Trust/Research Grants.

Selected publications

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Journals

  • Gopinath, B., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2014). Age-related macular degeneration and 5-year incidence of impaired activities of daily living. Maturitas, 77(3), 263-266. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Baker, M., Wong, T., Hand, P., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., De Silva, D., Wong, M., Rochtchina, E., Lindley, R., et al (2014). Differing associations of white matter lesions and lacunar infarction with retinal microvascular signs. International Journal of Stroke, 9(7), 921-925. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Quin, G., Gillies, M., Fraser-Bell, S. (2013). Central serous chorioretinopathy: a review of epidemiology and pathophysiology. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 41(2), 201-214. [More Information]
  • Quin, G., Liew, G., Ho, I., Gillies, M., Fraser-Bell, S. (2013). Diagnosis and interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: review and update. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 41(2), 187-200. [More Information]
  • Jensen, R., Sim, X., Li, X., Cotch, M., Ikram, M., Holliday, E., Eiriksdottir, G., Harris, T., Jonasson, F., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., et al (2013). Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes. PLoS One, 8(2), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Holliday, E., Smith, A., Cornes, B., Buitendijk, G., Jensen, R., Sim, X., Aspelund, T., Aung, T., Baird, P., Boerwinkle, E., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., et al (2013). Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Early Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2013). Is 81-mg Aspirin Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk? - reply. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(15), 1476-1477. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J. (2013). The association of aspirin use with age-related macular degeneration. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(4), 258-264. [More Information]
  • Cheung, N., Saw, S., Liew, G., Liu, E., Hodgson, L., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2012). Childhood Vascular Risk Factors and Retinal Vessel Caliber. Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 1(4), 193-197. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2012). Retinal Microvascular Signs Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Persons with and without Diabetes. Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, 35(6), 589-594. [More Information]
  • Kawasaki, R., Che Azemin, M., Kumar, D., Tan-Koay, A., Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2011). Fractal Dimension of the Retinal Vasculature and Risk of Stroke: A Nested Case-Control Study. Neurology, 76(20), 1766-1767. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J. (2011). Retinal Vascular Signs: A Window to the Heart? Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, 64(6), 515-521. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Campbell, S., Klein, R., Klein, B., Sharrett, A., Cotch, M., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2011). Ten-Year Longitudinal Changes in Retinal Microvascular Lesions The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ophthalmology, 118(8), 1612-1618. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Baker, M., Hand, P., Hankey, G., Lindley, R., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2011). Transient Ischemic Attack and Acute Ischemic Stroke: Associations With Retinal Microvascular Signs. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 42(2), 404-408. [More Information]
  • Baker, M., Wang, J., Liew, G., Hand, P., De Silva, D., Lindley, R., Mitchell, P., Wong, M., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., et al (2010). Differential Associations of Cortical and Subcortical Cerebral Atrophy With Retinal Vascular Signs in Patients With Acute Stroke. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 41(10), 2143-2150. [More Information]
  • Wainwright, A., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Rochtchina, E., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, J., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2010). Effect of Image Quality, Color and Format on the Measurement of Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(11), 5525-5529. [More Information]
  • Ikram, M., Sim, X., Jensen, R., Cotch, M., Hewitt, A., Ikram, M., Wang, J., Klein, R., Klein, B., Breteler, M., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Mackay, D., et al (2010). Four Novel Loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24, and 5q14) Influence the Microcirculation In Vivo. PLoS Genetics, 6(10), e1001184 - 1-e1001184 - 12. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Wainwright, A., Wang, J. (2010). Fractal analysis of retinal microvasculature and coronary heart disease mortality. European Heart Journal, 32, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Li, H., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Kifley, A., Wong, T., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Zhang, Y., Wang, J. (2010). Lens opacity and refractive influences on the measurement of retinal vascular fractal dimension. Acta Ophthalmologica, 88(6), e234-e240. [More Information]
  • Lim, L., Liew, G., Cheung, N., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2010). Mixed messages on systemic therapies for diabetic retinopathy. The Lancet, 376(9751), 1461; author reply 1462. [More Information]
  • Cheung, N., Liew, G., Lindley, R., Liu, E., Wang, J., Hand, P., Baker, M., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2010). Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke. Annals of Neurology, 68(1), 107-111. [More Information]
  • Baker, M., Hand, P., Liew, G., Wong, T., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., Hankey, G., Wang, J. (2010). Retinal microvascular signs may provide clues to the underlying vasculopathy in patients with deep intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 41(4), 618-623. [More Information]
  • Cosatto, V., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wainwright, A., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Lau, Q., Hamzah, H., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., et al (2010). Retinal vascular fractal dimension measurement and its influence from imaging variation: results of two segmentation methods. Current Eye Research, 35(9), 850-856. [More Information]
  • Baker, M., Hand, P., Wong, T., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., Hankey, G., Wang, J. (2010). Retinopathy and Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Insights Into Pathogenesis. JAMA Neurology, 67(10), 1224-1230. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2010). Retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(22), 2171-2; author reply 2173-4. [More Information]
  • Gopinath, B., Baur, L., Wang, J., Teber, E., Liew, G., Cheung, N., Wong, T., Mitchell, P. (2010). Smaller Birth Size is Associated With Narrower Retinal Arterioles in Early Adolescence. Microcirculation, 17(2), 660-668. [More Information]
  • Samarawickrama, C., Huynh, S., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2009). Birth Weight and Optic Nerve Head Parameters. Ophthalmology, 116(6), 1112-1118. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2009). Geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration and TLR3. New England Journal of Medicine. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J., de Jong, P., et al (2009). Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(6), 404-413. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J., de Jong, P., et al (2009). Prediction of incident stroke events based on retinal vessel caliber: a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(11), 1323-1332. [More Information]
  • Cheung, N., Donaghue, K., Liew, G., Rogers, S., Wang, J., Lim, S., Jenkins, A., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Wong, T. (2009). Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis. Diabetes Care, 32(1), 106-110. [More Information]
  • Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., Robaei, D., Cheung, N., Wong, T. (2009). Response to letter regarding article, "evidence of arteriolar narrowing in low-birth-weight children". Circulation, 119(20), e 538.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Lindley, R., Cheung, N., Kaushik, S., Gopinath, B., Wang, J. (2009). Retinal microvascular signs and cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(10), 1892-1896. [More Information]
  • Lindley, R., Wang, J., Wong, M., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Hand, P., Wardlaw, J., De Silva, D., Baker, M., Rochtchina, E., Fung, V., Gomes, L., et al (2009). Retinal microvasculature in acute lacunar stroke: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurology, 8(7), 628-634. [More Information]
  • De Silva, D., Liew, G., Wong, M., Chang, H., Chen, C., Wang, J., Baker, M., Hand, P., Rochtchina, E., Liu, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., et al (2009). Retinal Vascular Caliber and Extracranial Carotid Disease in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke. The Multi-Centre Retinal Stroke (MCRS) Study. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 40(12), 3695-3699. [More Information]
  • Lim, S., Cheung, N., Wang, J., Donaghue, K., Liew, G., Amirul Islam, F., Jenkins, A., Wong, T. (2009). Retinal vascular fractal dimension and risk of early diabetic retinopathy: A prospective study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(11), 2081-2083. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Cheung, N., Wang, J. (2009). Retinopathy predicts coronary heart disease mortality. Heart, 95(5), 391-394. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2009). Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy. BMJ (online), 338, b441. [More Information]
  • Tan, J., Wang, J., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P. (2008). Age-related macular degeneration and mortality from cardiovascular disease or stroke. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 92(4), 509-512. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Wong, T. (2008). Are retinal examinations useful in assessing cardiovascular risk? American Journal of Hypertension, 21(8), 847. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Liew, G., Wong, T. (2008). Assessing New Biomarkers and Predictive Models for Use in Clinical Practice. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(21), 2304-2310. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Klein, R., Duncan, B., Yeh, H., Brancati, F., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Birth weight is not related to risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Current Eye Research, 33(2), 193-198. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Iyengar, S., Wang, J. (2008). CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 19(4), 806-811. [More Information]
  • Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., Robaei, D., Cheung, N., Wong, T. (2008). Evidence of Arteriolar Narrowing in Low-Birth-Weight Children. Circulation, 118(5), 518-524. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Gillies, M., Wang, J. (2008). Fenofibrate and diabetic retinopathy. The Lancet, 371(9614), 721-721. [More Information]
  • Kaushik, S., Wang, J., Flood, V., Liew, G., Smith, W., Mitchell, P. (2008). Frequency of Fish Consumption, Retinal Microvascular Signs and Vascular Mortality. Microcirculation, 15(1), 27-36. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Duncan, B., Klein, R., Sharrett, A., Brancati, F., Yeh, H., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, A. (2008). Low birthweight is associated with narrower arterioles in adults. Hypertension, 51(4), 933-938. [More Information]
  • Loon, S., Liew, G., Fung, A., Reid, S., Craig, J. (2008). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing timolol with brimonidine in the treatment of glaucoma. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 36(3), 281-289. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2008). Preterm birth, long-term survival, and fertility. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(2), 167-167. [More Information]
  • Wong, T., Liew, G., Tapp, R., Schmidt, M., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Klein, B., Zimmet, P., Shaw, J. (2008). Relation between fasting glucose and retinopathy for diagnosis of diabetes: three population-based cross-sectional studies. The Lancet, 371(9614), 736-743. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Sharrett, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Klein, B., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Relative importance of systemic determinants of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(10), 1404-1410. [More Information]
  • Sun, C., Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Saw, S., Aung, T., Tai, E., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vascular caliber, blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk factors in an Asian population: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(5), 1784-1790. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vascular imaging: A new tool in microvascular disease research. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, 1(2), 156-161. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Cheung, N., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vessels and retinopathy of prematurity. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(6), 869-870. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Sharrett, A., Klein, B., Wang, J., Chambless, L., Wong, T. (2008). Risk Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Retinal Vascular Caliber (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] Study). The American Journal of Cardiology, 102(1), 58-63. [More Information]
  • Gopinath, B., Liew, G., Flood, V., Wang, J., Kifley, A., Leeder, S., Mitchell, P. (2008). The association between weight gain and thyroid function in an older population (Research letter). Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(20), 2283-2284. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Rochtchina, E., Liew, G., Tan-Koay, A., Wong, T., Leeder, S., Smith, W., Shankar, A., Mitchell, P. (2008). The Long-term Relation among Retinal Arteriolar Narrowing, Blood Pressure, and Incident Severe Hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(1), 80-88. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Klein, R., Duncan, B., Brancati, F., Yeh, H., Wong, T. (2008). The relationship between birthweight and early age-related maculopathy: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 15(1), 56-61. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Cheung, N., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Mitchell, P., Tikellis, G., Taylor, B., Wong, T. (2008). The Retinal Vasculature as a Fractal: Methodology, Reliability, and Relationship to Blood Pressure. Ophthalmology, 115(11), 1951-1956.el. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2008). Which is the better marker for susceptibility to disease later in life – low birthweight or prematurity? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93(5), 450-450. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Shankar, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Bray, M., Couper, D., Sharrett, A., Wong, T. (2007). Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and retinal vascular signs - The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 125(6), 813-818.
  • Wong, T., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Clinical update: new treatments for age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet, 370(9583), 204-206. [More Information]
  • Kaushik, S., Wang, J., Flood, V., Liew, G., Smith, W., Mitchell, P. (2007). Frequency of Fish Consumption, Retinal Microvascular Signs and Vascular Mortality. Microcirculation, iFirst publication. [More Information]
  • Kifley, A., Liew, G., Wang, J., Kaushik, S., Smith, W., Wong, T., Mitchell, P. (2007). Long-term Effects of Smoking on Retinal Microvascular Caliber. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(11), 1288-1297. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2007). Macular Degeneration and Heart Disease. Ophthalmology, 114(9), 1793-1793.
  • Liew, G., Sharrett, A., Kronmal, R., Klein, R., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Kifley, A., Wang, J. (2007). Measurement of retinal vascular caliber: issues and alternatives to using the arteriole to venule ratio. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 48(1), 52-57. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2007). Migraine and coronary heart disease mortality: a prospective cohort study. Cephalalgia: an international journal of headache, 27(4), 368-371. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(7), 747-8; author reply 749-50. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Newall, P., Smith, W., Wang, J. (2007). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and age-related hearing loss: the Blue Mountains hearing study. Ear And Hearing, 28(3), 394-401. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J. (2007). Retinal vascular signs in diabetes and hypertension. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, 51(2), 352-362. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Klein, R., Rochtchina, E., Knudtson, M., Klein, B., Wong, T., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations. European Heart Journal, 28(16), 1984-1992. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Shankar, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Bray, M., Couper, D., Wong, T. (2006). Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are not associated with diabetic retinopathy: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 142(1), 105-111. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2006). Are narrower or wider retinal venules associated with incident hypertension. Hypertension, 48(2), e10.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2006). Effect of axial length on retinal vascular network geometry. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 141(3), 597. [More Information]
  • Cugati, S., Cikamatana, L., Wang, J., Kifley, A., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2006). Five-year incidence and progression of vascular retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Eye, 20(11), 1239-1245. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2006). Fundoscopy: to dilate or not to dilate? [editorial]. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 332(7532), 3-3.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Hypermetropia is not associated with hypertension: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 141(4), 746-748. [More Information]
  • Leeder, S., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Smith, W., Wang, J. (2006). Low hemoglobin, chronic kidney disease, and risk for coronary heart disease-related death: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 17(1), 279-284. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Leeder, S., Smith, W., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Regular aspirin use and retinal microvascular signs: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of Hypertension, 24(7), 1329-1335. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Retinal vascular caliber and migraine: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Headache, 46(6), 997-1004. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Wong, T., Smith, W., Klein, R., Leeder, S., Mitchell, P. (2006). Retinal vascular caliber and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death. Heart, 92. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Kaushik, S., Rochtchina, E., Tan-Koay, A., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2006). Retinal Vessel Signs and 10-Year Incident Age-Related Maculopathy The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 113(9), 1481-1487. [More Information]

2014

  • Gopinath, B., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2014). Age-related macular degeneration and 5-year incidence of impaired activities of daily living. Maturitas, 77(3), 263-266. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Baker, M., Wong, T., Hand, P., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., De Silva, D., Wong, M., Rochtchina, E., Lindley, R., et al (2014). Differing associations of white matter lesions and lacunar infarction with retinal microvascular signs. International Journal of Stroke, 9(7), 921-925. [More Information]

2013

  • Liew, G., Quin, G., Gillies, M., Fraser-Bell, S. (2013). Central serous chorioretinopathy: a review of epidemiology and pathophysiology. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 41(2), 201-214. [More Information]
  • Quin, G., Liew, G., Ho, I., Gillies, M., Fraser-Bell, S. (2013). Diagnosis and interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: review and update. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 41(2), 187-200. [More Information]
  • Jensen, R., Sim, X., Li, X., Cotch, M., Ikram, M., Holliday, E., Eiriksdottir, G., Harris, T., Jonasson, F., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., et al (2013). Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes. PLoS One, 8(2), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Holliday, E., Smith, A., Cornes, B., Buitendijk, G., Jensen, R., Sim, X., Aspelund, T., Aung, T., Baird, P., Boerwinkle, E., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., et al (2013). Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Early Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2013). Is 81-mg Aspirin Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk? - reply. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(15), 1476-1477. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J. (2013). The association of aspirin use with age-related macular degeneration. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173(4), 258-264. [More Information]

2012

  • Cheung, N., Saw, S., Liew, G., Liu, E., Hodgson, L., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2012). Childhood Vascular Risk Factors and Retinal Vessel Caliber. Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 1(4), 193-197. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2012). Retinal Microvascular Signs Are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease in Persons with and without Diabetes. Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, 35(6), 589-594. [More Information]

2011

  • Kawasaki, R., Che Azemin, M., Kumar, D., Tan-Koay, A., Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2011). Fractal Dimension of the Retinal Vasculature and Risk of Stroke: A Nested Case-Control Study. Neurology, 76(20), 1766-1767. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J. (2011). Retinal Vascular Signs: A Window to the Heart? Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, 64(6), 515-521. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Campbell, S., Klein, R., Klein, B., Sharrett, A., Cotch, M., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2011). Ten-Year Longitudinal Changes in Retinal Microvascular Lesions The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ophthalmology, 118(8), 1612-1618. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Baker, M., Hand, P., Hankey, G., Lindley, R., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2011). Transient Ischemic Attack and Acute Ischemic Stroke: Associations With Retinal Microvascular Signs. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 42(2), 404-408. [More Information]

2010

  • Baker, M., Wang, J., Liew, G., Hand, P., De Silva, D., Lindley, R., Mitchell, P., Wong, M., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., et al (2010). Differential Associations of Cortical and Subcortical Cerebral Atrophy With Retinal Vascular Signs in Patients With Acute Stroke. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 41(10), 2143-2150. [More Information]
  • Wainwright, A., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Rochtchina, E., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, J., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2010). Effect of Image Quality, Color and Format on the Measurement of Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(11), 5525-5529. [More Information]
  • Ikram, M., Sim, X., Jensen, R., Cotch, M., Hewitt, A., Ikram, M., Wang, J., Klein, R., Klein, B., Breteler, M., Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Mackay, D., et al (2010). Four Novel Loci (19q13, 6q24, 12q24, and 5q14) Influence the Microcirculation In Vivo. PLoS Genetics, 6(10), e1001184 - 1-e1001184 - 12. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Rochtchina, E., Wong, T., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Wainwright, A., Wang, J. (2010). Fractal analysis of retinal microvasculature and coronary heart disease mortality. European Heart Journal, 32, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Li, H., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Kifley, A., Wong, T., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Zhang, Y., Wang, J. (2010). Lens opacity and refractive influences on the measurement of retinal vascular fractal dimension. Acta Ophthalmologica, 88(6), e234-e240. [More Information]
  • Lim, L., Liew, G., Cheung, N., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2010). Mixed messages on systemic therapies for diabetic retinopathy. The Lancet, 376(9751), 1461; author reply 1462. [More Information]
  • Cheung, N., Liew, G., Lindley, R., Liu, E., Wang, J., Hand, P., Baker, M., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2010). Retinal fractals and acute lacunar stroke. Annals of Neurology, 68(1), 107-111. [More Information]
  • Baker, M., Hand, P., Liew, G., Wong, T., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., Hankey, G., Wang, J. (2010). Retinal microvascular signs may provide clues to the underlying vasculopathy in patients with deep intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 41(4), 618-623. [More Information]
  • Cosatto, V., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wainwright, A., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Lau, Q., Hamzah, H., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., et al (2010). Retinal vascular fractal dimension measurement and its influence from imaging variation: results of two segmentation methods. Current Eye Research, 35(9), 850-856. [More Information]
  • Baker, M., Hand, P., Wong, T., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., Hankey, G., Wang, J. (2010). Retinopathy and Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Insights Into Pathogenesis. JAMA Neurology, 67(10), 1224-1230. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2010). Retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363(22), 2171-2; author reply 2173-4. [More Information]
  • Gopinath, B., Baur, L., Wang, J., Teber, E., Liew, G., Cheung, N., Wong, T., Mitchell, P. (2010). Smaller Birth Size is Associated With Narrower Retinal Arterioles in Early Adolescence. Microcirculation, 17(2), 660-668. [More Information]

2009

  • Samarawickrama, C., Huynh, S., Liew, G., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2009). Birth Weight and Optic Nerve Head Parameters. Ophthalmology, 116(6), 1112-1118. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2009). Geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration and TLR3. New England Journal of Medicine. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J., de Jong, P., et al (2009). Meta-analysis: retinal vessel caliber and risk for coronary heart disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(6), 404-413. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Klein, B., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Vingerling, J., de Jong, P., et al (2009). Prediction of incident stroke events based on retinal vessel caliber: a systematic review and individual-participant meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(11), 1323-1332. [More Information]
  • Cheung, N., Donaghue, K., Liew, G., Rogers, S., Wang, J., Lim, S., Jenkins, A., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Wong, T. (2009). Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis. Diabetes Care, 32(1), 106-110. [More Information]
  • Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., Robaei, D., Cheung, N., Wong, T. (2009). Response to letter regarding article, "evidence of arteriolar narrowing in low-birth-weight children". Circulation, 119(20), e 538.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Lindley, R., Cheung, N., Kaushik, S., Gopinath, B., Wang, J. (2009). Retinal microvascular signs and cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(10), 1892-1896. [More Information]
  • Lindley, R., Wang, J., Wong, M., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Hand, P., Wardlaw, J., De Silva, D., Baker, M., Rochtchina, E., Fung, V., Gomes, L., et al (2009). Retinal microvasculature in acute lacunar stroke: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Neurology, 8(7), 628-634. [More Information]
  • De Silva, D., Liew, G., Wong, M., Chang, H., Chen, C., Wang, J., Baker, M., Hand, P., Rochtchina, E., Liu, E., Mitchell, P., Lindley, R., et al (2009). Retinal Vascular Caliber and Extracranial Carotid Disease in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke. The Multi-Centre Retinal Stroke (MCRS) Study. Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation, 40(12), 3695-3699. [More Information]
  • Lim, S., Cheung, N., Wang, J., Donaghue, K., Liew, G., Amirul Islam, F., Jenkins, A., Wong, T. (2009). Retinal vascular fractal dimension and risk of early diabetic retinopathy: A prospective study of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(11), 2081-2083. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Cheung, N., Wang, J. (2009). Retinopathy predicts coronary heart disease mortality. Heart, 95(5), 391-394. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2009). Systemic management of diabetic retinopathy. BMJ (online), 338, b441. [More Information]

2008

  • Tan, J., Wang, J., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Mitchell, P. (2008). Age-related macular degeneration and mortality from cardiovascular disease or stroke. The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 92(4), 509-512. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Wong, T. (2008). Are retinal examinations useful in assessing cardiovascular risk? American Journal of Hypertension, 21(8), 847. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Liew, G., Wong, T. (2008). Assessing New Biomarkers and Predictive Models for Use in Clinical Practice. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(21), 2304-2310. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Klein, R., Duncan, B., Yeh, H., Brancati, F., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Birth weight is not related to risk of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Current Eye Research, 33(2), 193-198. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Iyengar, S., Wang, J. (2008). CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 19(4), 806-811. [More Information]
  • Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Wang, J., Robaei, D., Cheung, N., Wong, T. (2008). Evidence of Arteriolar Narrowing in Low-Birth-Weight Children. Circulation, 118(5), 518-524. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Gillies, M., Wang, J. (2008). Fenofibrate and diabetic retinopathy. The Lancet, 371(9614), 721-721. [More Information]
  • Kaushik, S., Wang, J., Flood, V., Liew, G., Smith, W., Mitchell, P. (2008). Frequency of Fish Consumption, Retinal Microvascular Signs and Vascular Mortality. Microcirculation, 15(1), 27-36. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Duncan, B., Klein, R., Sharrett, A., Brancati, F., Yeh, H., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, A. (2008). Low birthweight is associated with narrower arterioles in adults. Hypertension, 51(4), 933-938. [More Information]
  • Loon, S., Liew, G., Fung, A., Reid, S., Craig, J. (2008). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing timolol with brimonidine in the treatment of glaucoma. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 36(3), 281-289. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2008). Preterm birth, long-term survival, and fertility. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(2), 167-167. [More Information]
  • Wong, T., Liew, G., Tapp, R., Schmidt, M., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Klein, R., Klein, B., Zimmet, P., Shaw, J. (2008). Relation between fasting glucose and retinopathy for diagnosis of diabetes: three population-based cross-sectional studies. The Lancet, 371(9614), 736-743. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Sharrett, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Klein, B., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Relative importance of systemic determinants of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(10), 1404-1410. [More Information]
  • Sun, C., Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Saw, S., Aung, T., Tai, E., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vascular caliber, blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk factors in an Asian population: the Singapore Malay Eye Study. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(5), 1784-1790. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vascular imaging: A new tool in microvascular disease research. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, 1(2), 156-161. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Cheung, N., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2008). Retinal vessels and retinopathy of prematurity. Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(6), 869-870. [More Information]
  • McGeechan, K., Liew, G., Macaskill, P., Irwig, L., Klein, R., Sharrett, A., Klein, B., Wang, J., Chambless, L., Wong, T. (2008). Risk Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Based on Retinal Vascular Caliber (from the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities [ARIC] Study). The American Journal of Cardiology, 102(1), 58-63. [More Information]
  • Gopinath, B., Liew, G., Flood, V., Wang, J., Kifley, A., Leeder, S., Mitchell, P. (2008). The association between weight gain and thyroid function in an older population (Research letter). Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(20), 2283-2284. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Rochtchina, E., Liew, G., Tan-Koay, A., Wong, T., Leeder, S., Smith, W., Shankar, A., Mitchell, P. (2008). The Long-term Relation among Retinal Arteriolar Narrowing, Blood Pressure, and Incident Severe Hypertension. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168(1), 80-88. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Klein, R., Duncan, B., Brancati, F., Yeh, H., Wong, T. (2008). The relationship between birthweight and early age-related maculopathy: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 15(1), 56-61. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Cheung, N., Zhang, Y., Hsu, W., Lee, M., Mitchell, P., Tikellis, G., Taylor, B., Wong, T. (2008). The Retinal Vasculature as a Fractal: Methodology, Reliability, and Relationship to Blood Pressure. Ophthalmology, 115(11), 1951-1956.el. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2008). Which is the better marker for susceptibility to disease later in life – low birthweight or prematurity? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93(5), 450-450. [More Information]

2007

  • Liew, G., Shankar, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Bray, M., Couper, D., Sharrett, A., Wong, T. (2007). Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms and retinal vascular signs - The atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Archives of Ophthalmology, 125(6), 813-818.
  • Wong, T., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Clinical update: new treatments for age-related macular degeneration. The Lancet, 370(9583), 204-206. [More Information]
  • Kaushik, S., Wang, J., Flood, V., Liew, G., Smith, W., Mitchell, P. (2007). Frequency of Fish Consumption, Retinal Microvascular Signs and Vascular Mortality. Microcirculation, iFirst publication. [More Information]
  • Kifley, A., Liew, G., Wang, J., Kaushik, S., Smith, W., Wong, T., Mitchell, P. (2007). Long-term Effects of Smoking on Retinal Microvascular Caliber. American Journal of Epidemiology, 166(11), 1288-1297. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2007). Macular Degeneration and Heart Disease. Ophthalmology, 114(9), 1793-1793.
  • Liew, G., Sharrett, A., Kronmal, R., Klein, R., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Kifley, A., Wang, J. (2007). Measurement of retinal vascular caliber: issues and alternatives to using the arteriole to venule ratio. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 48(1), 52-57. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J., Mitchell, P. (2007). Migraine and coronary heart disease mortality: a prospective cohort study. Cephalalgia: an international journal of headache, 27(4), 368-371. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The New England Journal of Medicine, 356(7), 747-8; author reply 749-50. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Newall, P., Smith, W., Wang, J. (2007). Retinal microvascular abnormalities and age-related hearing loss: the Blue Mountains hearing study. Ear And Hearing, 28(3), 394-401. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wang, J. (2007). Retinal vascular signs in diabetes and hypertension. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, 51(2), 352-362. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Klein, R., Rochtchina, E., Knudtson, M., Klein, B., Wong, T., Burlutsky, G., Mitchell, P. (2007). Retinal vessel diameter and cardiovascular mortality: pooled data analysis from two older populations. European Heart Journal, 28(16), 1984-1992. [More Information]

2006

  • Liew, G., Shankar, A., Wang, J., Klein, R., Bray, M., Couper, D., Wong, T. (2006). Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are not associated with diabetic retinopathy: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 142(1), 105-111. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Wong, T., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2006). Are narrower or wider retinal venules associated with incident hypertension. Hypertension, 48(2), e10.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2006). Effect of axial length on retinal vascular network geometry. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 141(3), 597. [More Information]
  • Cugati, S., Cikamatana, L., Wang, J., Kifley, A., Liew, G., Mitchell, P. (2006). Five-year incidence and progression of vascular retinopathy in persons without diabetes: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Eye, 20(11), 1239-1245. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wang, J., Wong, T. (2006). Fundoscopy: to dilate or not to dilate? [editorial]. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 332(7532), 3-3.
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Hypermetropia is not associated with hypertension: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology, 141(4), 746-748. [More Information]
  • Leeder, S., Mitchell, P., Liew, G., Rochtchina, E., Smith, W., Wang, J. (2006). Low hemoglobin, chronic kidney disease, and risk for coronary heart disease-related death: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 17(1), 279-284. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Leeder, S., Smith, W., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Regular aspirin use and retinal microvascular signs: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Journal of Hypertension, 24(7), 1329-1335. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Mitchell, P., Wong, T., Wang, J. (2006). Retinal vascular caliber and migraine: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Headache, 46(6), 997-1004. [More Information]
  • Wang, J., Liew, G., Wong, T., Smith, W., Klein, R., Leeder, S., Mitchell, P. (2006). Retinal vascular caliber and the risk of coronary heart disease-related death. Heart, 92. [More Information]
  • Liew, G., Kaushik, S., Rochtchina, E., Tan-Koay, A., Mitchell, P., Wang, J. (2006). Retinal Vessel Signs and 10-Year Incident Age-Related Maculopathy The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 113(9), 1481-1487. [More Information]

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