Professor Karen Waters

Professor
Paediatrics & Child Health, Children's Hospital, Westmead

Telephone +61 2 9845 3441
Fax +61 2 9845 3396

Map

Biographical details

Email now is karen.waters@sydney.edu.au

Research interests

There are three research themes for A/Prof Waters group:

1. clinical studies in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children. At present, our main focus is on treatment outcomes, but we continue to evaluate the morbidities associated with OSA in children. 2. SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Our focus over the past 10 years has been the neuropathology of the brainstem in SIDS and correlations with clinical history, particularly prone sleeping or cigarette smoke exposure. Our focus now is to pursue the associations with cigarette smoke exposure. 3. Respiratory physiology during early development and effects of intermittent (hypercapnic) hypoxia. We use the piglet as a model in the physiology studies of intermittent hypoxia and also in our neuropathology studies.

Selected grants

2013

  • Does Adenotonsillectomy Improve Neurocognition in pre-school children with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)?; Waters K, Lushington K, Dakin C; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2010

  • The POSTA child study: Does adenotonsillectomy improve neurocognition in pre-school children with obstructive sleep apnea(OSA)?; Waters K; DVC Research/Bridging Support Grant.

2008

  • A multi-Centre trial to evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy in 3-5 year old children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); Waters K; DVC Research/Bridging Support Fellowship.

2004

  • Neuropathological consequences of intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during early development: a piglet model versus SIDS; Waters K; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2002

  • No Title Defined; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Career Awards: Practitioner Fellowships.

Selected publications

Download citations: PDF RTF Endnote

Book Chapters

  • Caldwell, P., Waters, K. (2013). Nocturnal Enuresis. In Amy R. Wolfson, Hawley E. Montgomery-Downs (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Sleep and Behavior, (pp. 370-378). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  • Waters, K. (2013). Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Adolescents. In Steibeck, K; Kohn, M. (Eds.), A Clinical Handbook in Adolescent Medicine: A Guide for Health Professionals Who Work with Adolescents and Young Adults, (pp. 0-0). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
  • Sillence, D., Waters, K., Donaldson, S., Shaw, P., Ellaway, C. (2012). Combined Enzyme Replacement Therapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Mucopolysacharidosis Type VI. In Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Eds.), JIMD Reports - Case and Research Reports, 2011/2, (pp. 103-106). Heidelberg: Springer.

Journals

  • Baguley, K., Cheng, A., Castro, C., Wainbergas, N., Waters, K. (2014). Is day stay adenotonsillectomy safe in children with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea? A retrospective review of 100 patients. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78(1), 71-74. [More Information]
  • Daniel, M., Bailey, S., Walker, K., Hensley, R., Kol-Castro, C., Badawi, N., Cheng, A., Waters, K. (2013). Airway, feeding and growth in infants with Robin sequence and sleep apnoea. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 77(4), 499-503. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Tan, S., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2013). Assessing Ventilatory Control in Infants at High Risk of Sleep Disordered Breathing: A Study of Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate. Pediatric Pulmonology, 48(3), 265-273. [More Information]
  • Ngiam, J., Balasubramaniam, R., Darendeliler, M., Cheng, A., Waters, K., Sullivan, C. (2013). Clinical guidelines for oral appliance therapy in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. Australian Dental Journal, 58(4), 408-419. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Kol-Castro, C., Varghese, A., Lam, L., Prelog, K., Cheng, A. (2013). Correlations between polysomnographic and lateral airway radiograph measurements in paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(6), 445-451. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Hunt, N., Waters, K. (2013). Effects of changes in energy homeostasis and exposure of noxious insults on the expression of orexin (hypocretin) and its receptors in the brain. Brain Research, 1526, 102-122. [More Information]
  • Hunt, N., Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2013). Orexin receptors in the developing piglet hypothalamus, and effects of nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia exposures. Brain Research, 1508, 73-82. [More Information]
  • Heussler, H., Chan, P., Price, A., Waters, K., Davey, M., Hiscock, H. (2013). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of sleep disturbance in children: An Australian Paediatric Research Network survey. Sleep Medicine, 14(2), 189-194. [More Information]
  • Afsharpaiman, S., Saburi, A., Waters, K. (2013). Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 14(4), 250-255. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Suresh, S., Nixon, G. (2013). Sleep Disorders in Children. Medical Journal of Australia, 199(8), S31-S35. [More Information]
  • Bejjani, C., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2013). The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Pathways leading to apoptosis. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 185(2), 203-210. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2012). Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 180(1), 25-33. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Fitzsimons, D., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2012). The spectrum of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms and respiratory events in infants with cleft lip and/or palate. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(12), 1058-1063. [More Information]
  • Cheng, A., Corke, M., Loughran-Fowlds, A., Birman, C., Hayward, P., Waters, K. (2011). Distraction osteogenesis and glossopexy for Robin sequence with airway obstruction. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 81(5), 320-325. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Say, M., Waters, K. (2011). Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 257(3), 396-404. [More Information]
  • Hensley, R., Machaalani, R., Cheng, A., Waters, K. (2011). How effective is adenoidectomy alone for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in a child who presents with adenoid hypertrophy? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 47, 568-571. [More Information]
  • Trivedi, A., Waters, K., Suresh, S., Nair, R. (2010). Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: Four families. Sleep and Breathing, 15(4), 785-789. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Katebi Kashi, P., Waters, K. (2010). Distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha7 and beta2 in the human brainstem and hippocampal formation. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 40(3), 223-231. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Gozal, E., Berger, F., Waters, K., Dematteis, M. (2010). Effects of post-mortem intervals on regional brain protein profiles in rats using SELDI-TOF-MS analysis. Neurochemistry International, 57(6), 655-661. [More Information]
  • Relf, B., Larkin, E., de Torres, C., Baur, L., Christodoulou, J., Waters, K. (2010). Genome-wide linkage of obstructive sleep apnoea and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a Filipino family: bivariate linkage analysis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(2), 349-357. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2010). Immunolocalisation of pro- and mature-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB in the human brainstem and hippocampus. Brain Research, 1354 (doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.051), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2010). Serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome. Drug News and Perspectives: the international drug newsmagazine, 23(9), 537-548. [More Information]
  • Browne, C., Sharma, N., Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2010). The effects of nicotine on the alpha-7 and beta-2 nicotinic acetycholine receptor subunits in the developing piglet brainstem. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 1-7. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Cheng, A. (2009). Adenotonsillectomy in the context of obstructive sleep apnoea. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 10(1), 25-31. [More Information]
  • Hayward, P., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2009). Cleft lip and/or palate and breathing during sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13(5), 345-54. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Kashem, M., Matsumoto, I., Waters, K. (2009). Intermittent Hypercapnic Hypoxia Induced Protein Changes in the Piglet Hippocampus Identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Neurochemical Research, 34(12), 2215-2225. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Waters, K., Fitzsimons, D., Hayward, P., Fitzgerald, D. (2009). Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in preschool children with cleft palate. Cleft Palate - Craniofacial Journal: Official Publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, 46(2), 117-123. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Say, M., Waters, K. (2009). Serotoninergic receptor 1A in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem medulla and associations with clinical risk factors. Acta Neuropathologica, 117(3), 257-265. [More Information]
  • Robinson, P., Waters, K. (2008). Are children just small adults? The differences between paediatric and adult sleep medicine. Internal Medicine Journal, 38(9), 719-731. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2008). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB in the piglet brainstem after post-natal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia. Brain Research, 1232, 195-205. [More Information]
  • Aouad, L., Tam, K., Waters, K. (2008). Effects of acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia on insulin sensitivity in piglets using euglycemic clamp. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 57(8), 1056-1063. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2008). Interventions in the paediatric sleep laboratory: the use and titration of respiratory support therapies. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 9(3), 181-192. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2008). Neuronal cell death in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome brainstem and associations with risk factors. Brain, 131(Pt 1), 218-228. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Fitzsimons, D., Hayward, P., Waters, K., Fitzgerald, D. (2008). The identification of children with cleft palate and sleep disordered breathing using a referral system. Pediatric Pulmonology, 43(3), 245-250. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Arlotto, M., Waters, K., Gozal, E., Berger, F., Dematteis, M. (2007). A Novel Method of Tissue Collection and Storage: Validation Using SELDI-TOF MS Analysis. Clinical Chemistry (Washington, DC). [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Rodriguez, M., Waters, K. (2007). Active caspase-3 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem. Acta Neuropathologica. [More Information]
  • Say, M., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2007). Changes in serotoninergic receptors 1A and 2A in the piglet brainstem after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) and nicotine. Brain Research, 1152, 17-26. [More Information]
  • Young, H., Lowe, A., Fitzgerald, D., Seton, C., Waters, K., Kenny, E., Hynan, L., Iannaccone, S., North, K., Ryan, M. (2007). Outcome of noninvasive ventilation in children with neuromuscular disease. Neurology, 68(3), 198-201. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Mast, B., Vella, S., de la Eva, R., O'Brien, L., Bailey, S., Tam, C., Wong, M., Baur, L. (2007). Structural equation modeling of sleep apnea, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in children. Journal of Sleep Research, 16(4), 388-395. [More Information]
  • Tam, C., Wong, M., Tam, K., Aouad, L., Waters, K. (2007). The effect of acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia treatment on IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP levels in piglets. Sleep, 30(6), 723-727. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Radford, J., Waters, K. (2007). Tissue fixation effects on immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3 in brain tissue. Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, 15(4), 463-470. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Sithamparanathan, S., O'Brien, L., Bibby, S., de Torres, C., Vella, S., de la Eva, R. (2006). Follow-up on Metabolic Markers in Children Treated for Obstructive Sleep Aopnea. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 174(4), 455-460. [More Information]
  • Tam, C., Wong, M., McBain, R., Bailey, S., Waters, K. (2006). Inflammatory measures in children with obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 42(5), 277-282. [More Information]
  • Fanous, A., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2006). N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 changes in the piglet brainstem after nicotine and/or intermittent hypercapnic-hypoxia. Neuroscience, 142(2), 401-409. [More Information]
  • O'Brien, L., Sithamparanathan, S., Baur, L., Waters, K. (2006). Obesity increases the risk for persisting obstructive sleep apnea after treatment in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 70(9), 1555-1560. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2006). Postnatal nicotine and/or intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brainstem medulla. Neuroscience, 142(1), 107-117. [More Information]
  • Kennedy, J., Waters, K. (2005). 8. Investigation and treatment of upper-airway obstruction: childhood sleep disorders I. Medical Journal of Australia, 182(8), 419-23. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2005). Effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brain. Neuroscience, 132(2), 325-333. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2005). Habituation of arousal responses after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in piglets. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171(11), 1305-11. [More Information]
  • Kennedy, J., Waters, K. (2005). Investigation and treatment of upper-airway obstruction: childhood sleep disorders I. Medical Journal of Australia, 182(8), 419-423.
  • Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2005). Role of NMDA receptors in development of respiratory control. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 149(1-3). [More Information]
  • Peiris, T., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2004). Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mrna And Protein In The Piglet Brainstem And Effects Of Intermittent Hypercapnic Hypoxia. Brain Research, 1029 (1), 11-23. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2004). Cytokines In Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Lancet Neurology, 3(2), 81-81.
  • Waters, K., Gozal, D. (2004). Developmental And Metabolic Implications Of The Hypoxic Ventilatory Response. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 5(3), 173-181.
  • Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2004). Nmda Receptors In The Developing Brain And Effects Of Noxious Insults. NeuroSignals, 13(4), 162-174.
  • Yates, K., Festa, M., Gillis, J., Waters, K., North, K. (2004). Outcome Of Children With Neuromuscular Disease Admitted To Paediatric Intensive Care. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89, 170-175.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). Correlations between brainstem NMDA receptor changes and active neuronal cell death after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in the developing piglet. Brain Research, 975(1-2), 141-148.
  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2003). Effect of stimulus cycle time on acute respiratory responses to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in unsedated piglets. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(6), 2465-2474.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). Increased neuronal cell death after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in the developing piglet brainstem. Brain Research, 985(2), 127-134.
  • Don, G., Waters, K. (2003). Influence of sleep state on frequency of swallowing, apnea, and arousal in human infants. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(6), 2456-2464.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). NMDA receptor 1 expression in the brainstem of human infants and its relevance to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 62(10), 1076-1085.
  • Waters, K., Gozal, D. (2003). Responses to hypoxia during early development. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 136(2-3), 115-129.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2002). Distribution and quantification of NMDA R1 and mRNA and protein in the piglet brainstem and effects of intermittent hypercapnic hopoxia (IHH). Brain Research, 951(2), 293-300.
  • Waters, K., McBrien, F., Stewart, P., Hinder, M., Wharton, S. (2002). Effects of OSA, inhalational anesthesia, and fentanyl on the airway and ventilation of children. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(5), 1987-1994.
  • Baur, L., Waters, K., de, L., Donaghue, K. (2002). Metabolic correlates with obstructive sleep apnea in obese subjects. The Journal of Pediatrics, 140(6), 654-659.
  • Reyes, L., Tinworth, K., Li, K., Yau, D., Waters, K. (2002). Observer-blinded comparison of two nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain in piglets. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 73(3), 521-528.
  • Relf, B., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2002). Retrieval of mRNA from paraffin-embedded human infant brain tissue for non-radioactive in situ hybridization using oligonucleotides. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 115(2), 129-136.
  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2001). Depression of ventilatory responses after daily, cyclic hypercapnic hypoxia in piglets. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, 1065-1073.

2014

  • Baguley, K., Cheng, A., Castro, C., Wainbergas, N., Waters, K. (2014). Is day stay adenotonsillectomy safe in children with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea? A retrospective review of 100 patients. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 78(1), 71-74. [More Information]

2013

  • Daniel, M., Bailey, S., Walker, K., Hensley, R., Kol-Castro, C., Badawi, N., Cheng, A., Waters, K. (2013). Airway, feeding and growth in infants with Robin sequence and sleep apnoea. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 77(4), 499-503. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Tan, S., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2013). Assessing Ventilatory Control in Infants at High Risk of Sleep Disordered Breathing: A Study of Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate. Pediatric Pulmonology, 48(3), 265-273. [More Information]
  • Ngiam, J., Balasubramaniam, R., Darendeliler, M., Cheng, A., Waters, K., Sullivan, C. (2013). Clinical guidelines for oral appliance therapy in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. Australian Dental Journal, 58(4), 408-419. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Kol-Castro, C., Varghese, A., Lam, L., Prelog, K., Cheng, A. (2013). Correlations between polysomnographic and lateral airway radiograph measurements in paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(6), 445-451. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Hunt, N., Waters, K. (2013). Effects of changes in energy homeostasis and exposure of noxious insults on the expression of orexin (hypocretin) and its receptors in the brain. Brain Research, 1526, 102-122. [More Information]
  • Caldwell, P., Waters, K. (2013). Nocturnal Enuresis. In Amy R. Wolfson, Hawley E. Montgomery-Downs (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Sleep and Behavior, (pp. 370-378). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  • Hunt, N., Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2013). Orexin receptors in the developing piglet hypothalamus, and effects of nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia exposures. Brain Research, 1508, 73-82. [More Information]
  • Heussler, H., Chan, P., Price, A., Waters, K., Davey, M., Hiscock, H. (2013). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of sleep disturbance in children: An Australian Paediatric Research Network survey. Sleep Medicine, 14(2), 189-194. [More Information]
  • Afsharpaiman, S., Saburi, A., Waters, K. (2013). Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 14(4), 250-255. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2013). Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Adolescents. In Steibeck, K; Kohn, M. (Eds.), A Clinical Handbook in Adolescent Medicine: A Guide for Health Professionals Who Work with Adolescents and Young Adults, (pp. 0-0). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
  • Waters, K., Suresh, S., Nixon, G. (2013). Sleep Disorders in Children. Medical Journal of Australia, 199(8), S31-S35. [More Information]
  • Bejjani, C., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2013). The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): Pathways leading to apoptosis. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 185(2), 203-210. [More Information]

2012

  • Sillence, D., Waters, K., Donaldson, S., Shaw, P., Ellaway, C. (2012). Combined Enzyme Replacement Therapy and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Mucopolysacharidosis Type VI. In Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Eds.), JIMD Reports - Case and Research Reports, 2011/2, (pp. 103-106). Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2012). Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 180(1), 25-33. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Fitzsimons, D., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2012). The spectrum of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms and respiratory events in infants with cleft lip and/or palate. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(12), 1058-1063. [More Information]

2011

  • Cheng, A., Corke, M., Loughran-Fowlds, A., Birman, C., Hayward, P., Waters, K. (2011). Distraction osteogenesis and glossopexy for Robin sequence with airway obstruction. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 81(5), 320-325. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Say, M., Waters, K. (2011). Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits α7 and β2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 257(3), 396-404. [More Information]
  • Hensley, R., Machaalani, R., Cheng, A., Waters, K. (2011). How effective is adenoidectomy alone for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in a child who presents with adenoid hypertrophy? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 47, 568-571. [More Information]

2010

  • Trivedi, A., Waters, K., Suresh, S., Nair, R. (2010). Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: Four families. Sleep and Breathing, 15(4), 785-789. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Katebi Kashi, P., Waters, K. (2010). Distribution of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha7 and beta2 in the human brainstem and hippocampal formation. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 40(3), 223-231. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Gozal, E., Berger, F., Waters, K., Dematteis, M. (2010). Effects of post-mortem intervals on regional brain protein profiles in rats using SELDI-TOF-MS analysis. Neurochemistry International, 57(6), 655-661. [More Information]
  • Relf, B., Larkin, E., de Torres, C., Baur, L., Christodoulou, J., Waters, K. (2010). Genome-wide linkage of obstructive sleep apnoea and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a Filipino family: bivariate linkage analysis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(2), 349-357. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2010). Immunolocalisation of pro- and mature-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB in the human brainstem and hippocampus. Brain Research, 1354 (doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.051), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2010). Serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome. Drug News and Perspectives: the international drug newsmagazine, 23(9), 537-548. [More Information]
  • Browne, C., Sharma, N., Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2010). The effects of nicotine on the alpha-7 and beta-2 nicotinic acetycholine receptor subunits in the developing piglet brainstem. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 28, 1-7. [More Information]

2009

  • Waters, K., Cheng, A. (2009). Adenotonsillectomy in the context of obstructive sleep apnoea. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 10(1), 25-31. [More Information]
  • Hayward, P., Fitzgerald, D., Waters, K. (2009). Cleft lip and/or palate and breathing during sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13(5), 345-54. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Kashem, M., Matsumoto, I., Waters, K. (2009). Intermittent Hypercapnic Hypoxia Induced Protein Changes in the Piglet Hippocampus Identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Neurochemical Research, 34(12), 2215-2225. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Waters, K., Fitzsimons, D., Hayward, P., Fitzgerald, D. (2009). Screening for obstructive sleep apnea in preschool children with cleft palate. Cleft Palate - Craniofacial Journal: Official Publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association, 46(2), 117-123. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Say, M., Waters, K. (2009). Serotoninergic receptor 1A in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem medulla and associations with clinical risk factors. Acta Neuropathologica, 117(3), 257-265. [More Information]

2008

  • Robinson, P., Waters, K. (2008). Are children just small adults? The differences between paediatric and adult sleep medicine. Internal Medicine Journal, 38(9), 719-731. [More Information]
  • Tang, S., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2008). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB in the piglet brainstem after post-natal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia. Brain Research, 1232, 195-205. [More Information]
  • Aouad, L., Tam, K., Waters, K. (2008). Effects of acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia on insulin sensitivity in piglets using euglycemic clamp. Metabolism: clinical and experimental, 57(8), 1056-1063. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2008). Interventions in the paediatric sleep laboratory: the use and titration of respiratory support therapies. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 9(3), 181-192. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2008). Neuronal cell death in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome brainstem and associations with risk factors. Brain, 131(Pt 1), 218-228. [More Information]
  • MacLean, J., Fitzsimons, D., Hayward, P., Waters, K., Fitzgerald, D. (2008). The identification of children with cleft palate and sleep disordered breathing using a referral system. Pediatric Pulmonology, 43(3), 245-250. [More Information]

2007

  • Machaalani, R., Arlotto, M., Waters, K., Gozal, E., Berger, F., Dematteis, M. (2007). A Novel Method of Tissue Collection and Storage: Validation Using SELDI-TOF MS Analysis. Clinical Chemistry (Washington, DC). [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Rodriguez, M., Waters, K. (2007). Active caspase-3 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem. Acta Neuropathologica. [More Information]
  • Say, M., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2007). Changes in serotoninergic receptors 1A and 2A in the piglet brainstem after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) and nicotine. Brain Research, 1152, 17-26. [More Information]
  • Young, H., Lowe, A., Fitzgerald, D., Seton, C., Waters, K., Kenny, E., Hynan, L., Iannaccone, S., North, K., Ryan, M. (2007). Outcome of noninvasive ventilation in children with neuromuscular disease. Neurology, 68(3), 198-201. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Mast, B., Vella, S., de la Eva, R., O'Brien, L., Bailey, S., Tam, C., Wong, M., Baur, L. (2007). Structural equation modeling of sleep apnea, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in children. Journal of Sleep Research, 16(4), 388-395. [More Information]
  • Tam, C., Wong, M., Tam, K., Aouad, L., Waters, K. (2007). The effect of acute intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia treatment on IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CRP levels in piglets. Sleep, 30(6), 723-727. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Radford, J., Waters, K. (2007). Tissue fixation effects on immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3 in brain tissue. Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology, 15(4), 463-470. [More Information]

2006

  • Waters, K., Sithamparanathan, S., O'Brien, L., Bibby, S., de Torres, C., Vella, S., de la Eva, R. (2006). Follow-up on Metabolic Markers in Children Treated for Obstructive Sleep Aopnea. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 174(4), 455-460. [More Information]
  • Tam, C., Wong, M., McBain, R., Bailey, S., Waters, K. (2006). Inflammatory measures in children with obstructive sleep apnoea. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 42(5), 277-282. [More Information]
  • Fanous, A., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2006). N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 changes in the piglet brainstem after nicotine and/or intermittent hypercapnic-hypoxia. Neuroscience, 142(2), 401-409. [More Information]
  • O'Brien, L., Sithamparanathan, S., Baur, L., Waters, K. (2006). Obesity increases the risk for persisting obstructive sleep apnea after treatment in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 70(9), 1555-1560. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2006). Postnatal nicotine and/or intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brainstem medulla. Neuroscience, 142(1), 107-117. [More Information]

2005

  • Kennedy, J., Waters, K. (2005). 8. Investigation and treatment of upper-airway obstruction: childhood sleep disorders I. Medical Journal of Australia, 182(8), 419-23. [More Information]
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2005). Effects of postnatal nicotine exposure on apoptotic markers in the developing piglet brain. Neuroscience, 132(2), 325-333. [More Information]
  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2005). Habituation of arousal responses after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in piglets. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171(11), 1305-11. [More Information]
  • Kennedy, J., Waters, K. (2005). Investigation and treatment of upper-airway obstruction: childhood sleep disorders I. Medical Journal of Australia, 182(8), 419-423.
  • Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2005). Role of NMDA receptors in development of respiratory control. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 149(1-3). [More Information]

2004

  • Peiris, T., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2004). Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Mrna And Protein In The Piglet Brainstem And Effects Of Intermittent Hypercapnic Hypoxia. Brain Research, 1029 (1), 11-23. [More Information]
  • Waters, K. (2004). Cytokines In Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Lancet Neurology, 3(2), 81-81.
  • Waters, K., Gozal, D. (2004). Developmental And Metabolic Implications Of The Hypoxic Ventilatory Response. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 5(3), 173-181.
  • Waters, K., Machaalani, R. (2004). Nmda Receptors In The Developing Brain And Effects Of Noxious Insults. NeuroSignals, 13(4), 162-174.
  • Yates, K., Festa, M., Gillis, J., Waters, K., North, K. (2004). Outcome Of Children With Neuromuscular Disease Admitted To Paediatric Intensive Care. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89, 170-175.

2003

  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). Correlations between brainstem NMDA receptor changes and active neuronal cell death after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in the developing piglet. Brain Research, 975(1-2), 141-148.
  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2003). Effect of stimulus cycle time on acute respiratory responses to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in unsedated piglets. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(6), 2465-2474.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). Increased neuronal cell death after intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia in the developing piglet brainstem. Brain Research, 985(2), 127-134.
  • Don, G., Waters, K. (2003). Influence of sleep state on frequency of swallowing, apnea, and arousal in human infants. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(6), 2456-2464.
  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2003). NMDA receptor 1 expression in the brainstem of human infants and its relevance to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 62(10), 1076-1085.
  • Waters, K., Gozal, D. (2003). Responses to hypoxia during early development. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 136(2-3), 115-129.

2002

  • Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2002). Distribution and quantification of NMDA R1 and mRNA and protein in the piglet brainstem and effects of intermittent hypercapnic hopoxia (IHH). Brain Research, 951(2), 293-300.
  • Waters, K., McBrien, F., Stewart, P., Hinder, M., Wharton, S. (2002). Effects of OSA, inhalational anesthesia, and fentanyl on the airway and ventilation of children. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(5), 1987-1994.
  • Baur, L., Waters, K., de, L., Donaghue, K. (2002). Metabolic correlates with obstructive sleep apnea in obese subjects. The Journal of Pediatrics, 140(6), 654-659.
  • Reyes, L., Tinworth, K., Li, K., Yau, D., Waters, K. (2002). Observer-blinded comparison of two nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain in piglets. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 73(3), 521-528.
  • Relf, B., Machaalani, R., Waters, K. (2002). Retrieval of mRNA from paraffin-embedded human infant brain tissue for non-radioactive in situ hybridization using oligonucleotides. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 115(2), 129-136.

2001

  • Waters, K., Tinworth, K. (2001). Depression of ventilatory responses after daily, cyclic hypercapnic hypoxia in piglets. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, 1065-1073.

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