Dr Mac Shine

Neuroimaging Research Fellow, Sydney Medical SchoolCJ Martin Postdoctoral Fellow, Stanford University

Telephone 0403267981

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Biographical details

I am an Early Career Researcher currently employed as a Postdoctoral Neuroimaging Fellow with the Parkinson’s Disease Research Clinic at the Brain and Mind Research Institute at the University of Sydney, Australia.

After graduating with a medical degree from the University of Sydney in 2007, I completed my medical residency and obtained medical registration in Australia. I have since successfully finished my PhD, in which I explored the brain network abnormalities associated with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, including freezing of gait and visual hallucinations. Recently, I was awarded a prestigious CJ Martin fellowship by the National Health and Medical Research Council, which will pay my way to work with Professor Russell Poldrack at the Stanford University!

In my work, I use multimodal neuroimaging techniques (most notably functional MRI) to explore both normal and abnormal patterns of neuronal communication in disorders of the ageing brain. I have a particular interest in the use of novel techniques to explore patterns of brain activity that reflect communication between regions of the brain, allowing for the characterization of dynamic patterns of brain activity that reflect both normal function and impairments in neuropsychiatric disease.

Teaching and supervision

I regularly lecture for the students of the Postgraduate Program at the Brain and Mind Research Institute on various topics, including functional neuroimaging, attention, cognition, Parkinson's disease and dementia.

I am also the auxillary supervisor for a Medical Honours student and regularly mentor a number of junior members of Professor Simon Lewis' research laboratory at the Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic within the Ageing Brain Clinic at the Brain and Mind Research Institute.

Current projects

Freezing of gait

Freezing of gait is a devastating movement disorder that affects a high proportion of the people that suffer from Parkinson’s disease. Until recently, the basic mechanisms underlying freezing have remained mysterious, however recent insights from functional brain imaging experiments have fundamentally altered our view of the disorder. Using a unique combination of virtual reality-based gait task and novel functional neuroimaging techniques, I have been able to show that freezing behaviour is related to functional decoupling within corticostriatal circuitry. Furthermore, by combining insights from neuroimaging with concepts from neuropsychology and computational modeling, I have proposed a novel hypothesis which suggests that freezing behaviour is related to over-activity in the subthalamic nucleus, a prediction which we are now directly testing during deep brain stimulation therapy at Westmead Hospital.

Visual Hallucinations

Visual hallucinations are common across a number of disorders but to date, a unifying pathophysiology underlying these phenomena has not been described. Recently, I have worked with colleagues and collaborators to propose a testable neural mechanism for visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease that conceptualizes the disorder as an impairment in the communication within and between large-scale Attentional Control Networks. Since the creation of this hypothetical framework, we have developed an objective marker of visual hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease and published two neuroimaging studies presenting multi-modal evidence in support of the model. We are now focused on an extension of our model that reconceives visual hallucinations by their underlying neurobiological basis, regardless of the neurobiological disease process underlying their manifestation. We hope that this model will rapidly advance our conception of the dynamic neural circuitry underlying perception and consciousness.

Evolutionary Neuroscience

What is special about the human brain? Although humans have large brains relative to body size, recent work has shown that the major differences between humans and our evolutionary relatives are due to the specific expansion of interconnected networks involving the cortex and the cerebellum. Recently, I have worked with my father Professor Rick Shine, who is an Evolutionary Biologist by trade, to propose that these newly evolved systems have vastly improved our ability to delegate control over repetitive tasks from higher to lower neural centres. Furthermore, we propose that the massive neurocomputational challenges associated with the mastery of balance during the evolution of bipedality provided a strong selective advantage to individuals with brains capable of internally transferring tasks in this way. Thus, the challenges associated with walking on two legs may have driven the rapid evolution of the human brain, leading to the rapid automisation of behaviour, freeing up conscious networks to focus on more novel or challenging tasks.

Associations

Organisation for Human Brain Mapping

Australasian Cognitive Neuroscience Society

Movement Disorders Society

Awards and honours

2014 -National Health and Medical Research Council – CJ Martin Fellowship.

2014 - Parkinson's NSW Seed Grant.

2013 - Parkes Rotary Scholarship.

2012 - Parkes Rotary Scholarship.

2011 - Scholarship for Cognitive Neuroscience - The University of Sydney.

In the media

My work has been broadcast across multiple popular media outlets, including ABC's Catalyst television program and popular Science magazines, such as Australasian Science.

Selected grants

2013

  • Identifying the role of dopamine on the neural correlates underlying visual misperception and hallucinations in Parkinson's Disease; Lewis S, Shine J; Parkinson's New South Wales Incorporated/Research Support.

Selected publications

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Journals

  • Shine, J., Handojoseno, A., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Naismith, S., Nguyen, H., Lewis, S. (2014). Abnormal patterns of theta frequency oscillations during the temporal evolution of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(3), 569-576. [More Information]
  • Dunn, C., Duffy, S., Hickie, I., Lagopoulos, J., Lewis, S., Naismith, S., Shine, J. (2014). Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage: Clinical, 4, 473-480. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Shine, R. (2014). Delegation to automaticity: The driving force for cognitive evolution? Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9, 90. [More Information]
  • Hall, J., Shine, J., Walton, C., Gilat, M., Kamsma, Y., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Early phenotypic differences between Parkinson’s disease patients with and without freezing of gait. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(6), 604-607. [More Information]
  • Vercruysse, S., Gilat, M., Shine, J., Heremans, E., Lewis, S., Nieuwboer, A. (2014). Freezing beyond gait in Parkinson's disease: A review of current neurobehavioral evidence. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43C, 213-227.
  • Walton, C., Shine, J., Mowszowski, L., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: Current treatments and the potential role for cognitive training. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 32(3), 411-422. [More Information]
  • O'Callaghan, C., Shine, J., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2014). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease: Fronto-striatal atrophy contributions. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(8), 867-872. [More Information]
  • Yungher, D., Morris, T., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2014). Temporal Characteristics of High-Frequency Lower-Limb Oscillation during Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's Disease, 2014, 606427. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Gilat, M., Matar, E., Bolitho, S., Carlos, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). The role of dysfunctional attentional control networks in visual misperceptions in Parkinson's disease. Human Brain Mapping, 35(5), 2206-2219. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., O'Callaghan, C., Halliday, G., Lewis, S. (2014). Tricks of the mind: Visual hallucinations as disorders of attention. Progress in Neurobiology, 116, 58-65. [More Information]
  • Matar, E., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Virtual reality walking and dopamine: Opening new doorways to understanding freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 344(1-2), 182-185. [More Information]
  • O'Callaghan, C., Naismith, S., Shine, J., Bertoux, M., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2013). A novel bedside task to tap inhibitory dysfunction and fronto-striatal atrophy in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 19(9), 827-830. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Palavra, N., Lewis, S., Moore, S., Dilda, V., Morris, T. (2013). Attentional set-shifting deficits correlate with the severity of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 19(3), 388-390. [More Information]
  • Moore, S., Yungher, D., Morris, T., Dilda, V., MacDougall, H., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Autonomous identification of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from lower-body segmental accelerometry. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 10(1), 1-10. [More Information]
  • Morris, T., Cho, C., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2013). Clinical assessment of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from computer-generated animation. Gait and Posture, 38(2), 326-329. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Bolitho, S., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load. PLoS One, 8(1), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Bolitho, S., Gilat, M., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Exploring the cortical and subcortical functional magnetic resonance imaging changes associated with freezing in Parkinson's disease. Brain: a journal of neurology, 136(Pt 4), 1204-1215. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Frank, M., Moustafa, A., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is associated with functional decoupling between the cognitive control network and the basal ganglia. Brain, 136(12), 3671-3681. [More Information]
  • O'Callaghan, C., Moustafa, A., de Wit, S., Shine, J., Robbins, T., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2013). Fronto-striatal gray matter contributions to discrimination learning in Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 7, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Bolitho, S., Dilda, V., Morris, T., Naismith, S., Moore, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Modeling freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease with a virtual reality paradigm. Gait & Posture, 38(1), 104-108. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). The differential yet concurrent contributions of motor, cognitive and affective disturbance to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 115(5), 542-545. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Ahmed, M., Matar, E., Frank, M., Lewis, S. (2013). The role of frontostriatal impairment in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 7, 1-7. [More Information]
  • Matar, E., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Using virtual reality to explore the role of conflict resolution and environmental salience in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 19(11), 937-942. [More Information]
  • Gilat, M., Shine, J., Bolitho, S., Matar, E., Kamsma, Y., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Variability of Stepping during a Virtual Reality Paradigm in Parkinson's Disease Patients with and without Freezing of Gait. PLoS One, 8(6), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Morris, T., Cho, C., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2012). A comparison of clinical and objective measures of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 18(5), 572-577. [More Information]
  • Lewis, S., Shine, J., Duffy, S., Halliday, G., Naismith, S. (2012). Anterior Cingulate Integrity: Executive and Neuropsychiatric Features in Parkinson's Disease. Movement Disorders, 27(10), 1262-1267. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Moore, S., Bolitho, S., Morris, T., Dilda, V., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2012). Assessing the utility of Freezing of Gait Questionnaires in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18(1), 25-29. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Carlos, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2012). Investigating Visual Misperceptions in Parkinson's Disease: A Novel Behavioral Paradigm. Movement Disorders, 27(4), 500-505. [More Information]
  • Naismith, S., Terpening, Z., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2011). Neuropsychological functioning in Parkinson's disease: Differential relationships with self-reported sleep-wake disturbances. Movement Disorders, 26(8), 1537-1541. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2011). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying freezing of gait in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 18(9), 1154-1157. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Ward, P., Naismith, S., Pearson, M., Lewis, S. (2011). Utilising functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the freezing phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 18(6), 807-810. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2011). Visual misperceptions and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: Dysfunction of attentional control networks? Movement Disorders, 26(12), 2154-2159. [More Information]
  • Naismith, S., Pereira, M., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2010). How Well Do Caregivers Detect Mild Cognitive Change in Parkinson's Disease? Movement Disorders, DOI: 10.1002/mds.23331, 1-4. [More Information]
  • Naismith, S., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2010). The specific contributions of set-shifting to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 25(8), 1000-1004. [More Information]

Conferences

  • Handojoseno, A., Shine, J., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Lewis, S., Nguyen, H. (2013). Using EEG spatial correlation, cross frequency energy, and wavelet coefficients for the prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease patients. 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), Piscataway, NJ, USA: (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [More Information]
  • Handojoseno, A., Shine, J., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Lewis, S., Nguyen, H. (2012). The detection of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's disease patients using EEG signals based on Wavelet Decomposition. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society EMBS 2012, Piscataway: (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [More Information]

2014

  • Shine, J., Handojoseno, A., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Naismith, S., Nguyen, H., Lewis, S. (2014). Abnormal patterns of theta frequency oscillations during the temporal evolution of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurophysiology, 125(3), 569-576. [More Information]
  • Dunn, C., Duffy, S., Hickie, I., Lagopoulos, J., Lewis, S., Naismith, S., Shine, J. (2014). Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. NeuroImage: Clinical, 4, 473-480. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Shine, R. (2014). Delegation to automaticity: The driving force for cognitive evolution? Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9, 90. [More Information]
  • Hall, J., Shine, J., Walton, C., Gilat, M., Kamsma, Y., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Early phenotypic differences between Parkinson’s disease patients with and without freezing of gait. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(6), 604-607. [More Information]
  • Vercruysse, S., Gilat, M., Shine, J., Heremans, E., Lewis, S., Nieuwboer, A. (2014). Freezing beyond gait in Parkinson's disease: A review of current neurobehavioral evidence. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43C, 213-227.
  • Walton, C., Shine, J., Mowszowski, L., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: Current treatments and the potential role for cognitive training. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 32(3), 411-422. [More Information]
  • O'Callaghan, C., Shine, J., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2014). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease: Fronto-striatal atrophy contributions. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 20(8), 867-872. [More Information]
  • Yungher, D., Morris, T., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2014). Temporal Characteristics of High-Frequency Lower-Limb Oscillation during Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinson's Disease, 2014, 606427. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Gilat, M., Matar, E., Bolitho, S., Carlos, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). The role of dysfunctional attentional control networks in visual misperceptions in Parkinson's disease. Human Brain Mapping, 35(5), 2206-2219. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., O'Callaghan, C., Halliday, G., Lewis, S. (2014). Tricks of the mind: Visual hallucinations as disorders of attention. Progress in Neurobiology, 116, 58-65. [More Information]
  • Matar, E., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2014). Virtual reality walking and dopamine: Opening new doorways to understanding freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 344(1-2), 182-185. [More Information]

2013

  • O'Callaghan, C., Naismith, S., Shine, J., Bertoux, M., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2013). A novel bedside task to tap inhibitory dysfunction and fronto-striatal atrophy in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 19(9), 827-830. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Palavra, N., Lewis, S., Moore, S., Dilda, V., Morris, T. (2013). Attentional set-shifting deficits correlate with the severity of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 19(3), 388-390. [More Information]
  • Moore, S., Yungher, D., Morris, T., Dilda, V., MacDougall, H., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Autonomous identification of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from lower-body segmental accelerometry. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 10(1), 1-10. [More Information]
  • Morris, T., Cho, C., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2013). Clinical assessment of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease from computer-generated animation. Gait and Posture, 38(2), 326-329. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Bolitho, S., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Differential Neural Activation Patterns in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Freezing of Gait in Response to Concurrent Cognitive and Motor Load. PLoS One, 8(1), 1-7. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Bolitho, S., Gilat, M., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Exploring the cortical and subcortical functional magnetic resonance imaging changes associated with freezing in Parkinson's disease. Brain: a journal of neurology, 136(Pt 4), 1204-1215. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Ward, P., Frank, M., Moustafa, A., Pearson, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is associated with functional decoupling between the cognitive control network and the basal ganglia. Brain, 136(12), 3671-3681. [More Information]
  • O'Callaghan, C., Moustafa, A., de Wit, S., Shine, J., Robbins, T., Lewis, S., Hornberger, M. (2013). Fronto-striatal gray matter contributions to discrimination learning in Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 7, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Matar, E., Bolitho, S., Dilda, V., Morris, T., Naismith, S., Moore, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Modeling freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease with a virtual reality paradigm. Gait & Posture, 38(1), 104-108. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). The differential yet concurrent contributions of motor, cognitive and affective disturbance to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 115(5), 542-545. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Ahmed, M., Matar, E., Frank, M., Lewis, S. (2013). The role of frontostriatal impairment in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 7, 1-7. [More Information]
  • Handojoseno, A., Shine, J., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Lewis, S., Nguyen, H. (2013). Using EEG spatial correlation, cross frequency energy, and wavelet coefficients for the prediction of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease patients. 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), Piscataway, NJ, USA: (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [More Information]
  • Matar, E., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Using virtual reality to explore the role of conflict resolution and environmental salience in freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 19(11), 937-942. [More Information]
  • Gilat, M., Shine, J., Bolitho, S., Matar, E., Kamsma, Y., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2013). Variability of Stepping during a Virtual Reality Paradigm in Parkinson's Disease Patients with and without Freezing of Gait. PLoS One, 8(6), 1-6. [More Information]

2012

  • Morris, T., Cho, C., Dilda, V., Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S., Moore, S. (2012). A comparison of clinical and objective measures of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 18(5), 572-577. [More Information]
  • Lewis, S., Shine, J., Duffy, S., Halliday, G., Naismith, S. (2012). Anterior Cingulate Integrity: Executive and Neuropsychiatric Features in Parkinson's Disease. Movement Disorders, 27(10), 1262-1267. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Moore, S., Bolitho, S., Morris, T., Dilda, V., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2012). Assessing the utility of Freezing of Gait Questionnaires in Parkinson's Disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 18(1), 25-29. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Carlos, M., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2012). Investigating Visual Misperceptions in Parkinson's Disease: A Novel Behavioral Paradigm. Movement Disorders, 27(4), 500-505. [More Information]
  • Handojoseno, A., Shine, J., Nguyen, T., Tran, Y., Lewis, S., Nguyen, H. (2012). The detection of Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's disease patients using EEG signals based on Wavelet Decomposition. 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society EMBS 2012, Piscataway: (IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. [More Information]

2011

  • Naismith, S., Terpening, Z., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2011). Neuropsychological functioning in Parkinson's disease: Differential relationships with self-reported sleep-wake disturbances. Movement Disorders, 26(8), 1537-1541. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2011). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying freezing of gait in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 18(9), 1154-1157. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Ward, P., Naismith, S., Pearson, M., Lewis, S. (2011). Utilising functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the freezing phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 18(6), 807-810. [More Information]
  • Shine, J., Halliday, G., Naismith, S., Lewis, S. (2011). Visual misperceptions and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: Dysfunction of attentional control networks? Movement Disorders, 26(12), 2154-2159. [More Information]

2010

  • Naismith, S., Pereira, M., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2010). How Well Do Caregivers Detect Mild Cognitive Change in Parkinson's Disease? Movement Disorders, DOI: 10.1002/mds.23331, 1-4. [More Information]
  • Naismith, S., Shine, J., Lewis, S. (2010). The specific contributions of set-shifting to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 25(8), 1000-1004. [More Information]

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