Professor Markus Leweke

Chair in Youth Depression Studies, Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School

Member of the Brain and Mind Centre


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Biographical details

F. Markus Leweke studied medicine at the University of Cologne and the University of New South Wales in Sydney. He received his neurophysiological training and did his MD thesis at the Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne with Uwe Heinemann. Subsequently, he started his residency in neurology at Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen with Johannes Noth and Peter Berlit.

He then moved on to a residency in psychiatry and psychotherapy at the Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry at Hannover Medical School, where he worked with Hinderk Meiners Emrich and started his scientific work on the role of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders. After his successful psychiatric training he continued and completed his residency in neurology at the Dept. of Epileptology at Bonn University with Christian E. Elger.

He was then appointed as senior psychiatrist and deputy head of the Dept. of Psychiatry III – Addiction Disorders of the Rheinische Kliniken in Düsseldorf. Following a research visit at The Neurosciences Institute in San Diego, where he worked with Daniele Piomelli, he was named senior psychiatrist and later-on deputy head of the Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University of Cologne, where he established the research group in experimental and clinical neuropsychopharmacology and continued his research with a focus on schizophrenia and affective disorders engaging clinical, neurochemical and psychopharmacological methods to further the understanding of the endocannabinoid systems in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He qualified for professorship (Habilitation) in psychiatry and psychotherapy in 2004 and was appointed as full professor of psychiatry and psychotherapy and associate medical director of the Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Central Institute of Mental Health and the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University in 2009.

In early 2017 he became a full professor and Chair in Youth Depression Studies at the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney.

Research interests

We use a translational neuroscience approach to investigate neurobiological systems such as the endocannabinoid system in severe mental illness (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or PTSD) using early, conceptual clinical trials and basic research in animal models. This combines the use of tools such as neurochemistry, molecular imaging and genetics with clinical assessment. Thereby, we aim to discover mechanisms to develop new neuromodulatory treatments.

Selected grants

2017

  • Chair of Youth Depression; Leweke F; DVC Research/Start Up Funds.

Selected publications

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Book Chapters

  • Rohleder, C., Leweke, F. (2015). Cannabinoids and schizophrenia. In Fattore, L (Eds.), Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease, (pp. 193-204). London: Elsevier. [More Information]

Journals

  • Leweke, F., Rohleder, C., Muller, J., Hirjak, D., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2018). Enhancing recovery in early schizophrenia by randomized controlled add-on of cannabidiol to an individualized antipsychotic treatment [Cannabidiol zur Verbesserung der Genesung in fr�hen Stadien einer Schizophrenie: Eine randomisierte, kontrollierte klinische Pr�fung der adjuvanten Gabe zur individuellen antipsychotischen Behandlung]. Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fuer interdisziplinaere Fortbildung, 37(5), 319-323. [More Information]
  • van Rees, G., Lago, S., Cox, D., Tomasik, J., Rustogi, N., Weigelt, K., Ozcan, S., Cooper, J., Drexhage, H., Leweke, F., et al (2018). Evidence of microglial activation following exposure to serum from first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 67, 364-373. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Mueller, J., Lange, B., Fritze, S., Topor, C., Koethe, D., Rohleder, C. (2018). Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacological Intervention. CNS Drugs, 32(7), 605-619. [More Information]
  • Kannan, G., Gressitt, K., Yang, S., Stallings, C., Katsafanas, E., Schweinfurth, L., Savage, C., Adamos, M., Sweeney, K., Origoni, A., Leweke, F., et al (2017). Pathogen-mediated NMDA receptor autoimmunity and cellular barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 7(8), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Cooper, J., Ozcan, S., Gardner, R., Rustogi, N., Wicks, S., van Rees, G., Leweke, F., Dalman, C., Karlsson, H., Bahn, S. (2017). Schizophrenia-risk and urban birth are associated with proteomic changes in neonatal dried blood spots. Translational Psychiatry, 7(12), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Mier, D., Noelte, I., Schredl, M., Kirsch, P., Hennig, O., Liebrich, L., Fenske, S., Alm, B., Leweke, F., et al (2016). Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(7), 1119-1126. [More Information]
  • Muller, J., Leweke, F. (2016). Bipolar disorder: Clinical overview [Klinik bipolarer Erkrankungen: Symptomatik, Verlauf und Diferenzialdiagnose]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 39(9), 363-369.
  • Rohleder, C., Muller, J., Lange, B., Leweke, F. (2016). Cannabidiol as a Potential New Type of an Antipsychotic. A Critical Review of the Evidence. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Mueller, J., van der List, T., Rohleder, C., Findeisen, P., Noelte, I., Schwarz, E., Leweke, F. (2016). Differential melatonin alterations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 68, 34-39. [More Information]
  • Tomasik, J., Schwarz, E., Lago, S., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., van Beveren, N., Guest, P., Rahmoune, H., Steiner, J., Bahn, S. (2016). Pretreatment levels of the fatty acid handling proteins H-FABP and CD36 predict response to olanzapine in recent-onset schizophrenia patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 52, 178-186. [More Information]
  • Rohleder, C., Wiedermann, D., Neumaier, B., Drzezga, A., Timmermann, L., Graf, R., Leweke, F., Endepols, H. (2016). The functional networks of prepulse inhibition: Neuronal connectivity analysis based on FDG-PET in awake and unrestrained rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Mueller, J., Lange, B., Rohleder, C. (2016). Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in psychosis. Biological Psychiatry, 79(7), 604-612. [More Information]
  • Muller, J., Leweke, F. (2016). Therapie bipolarer Storungen: Behandlung von akuten Manien, depressiven Episoden und gemischten Zustanden sowie Rezidivprophylaxe. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 39(9), 377-384.
  • Haenisch, F., Cooper, J., Reif, A., Kittel-Schneider, S., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., van Beveren, N., Crespo-Facorro, B., et al (2016). Towards a blood-based diagnostic panel for bipolar disorder. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 52, 49-57. [More Information]
  • Mueller, J., Rohleder, C., Leweke, F. (2016). What is the promise of nicotinergic compounds in schizophrenia treatment? Future Medicinal Chemistry, 8(17), 2009-2012. [More Information]
  • Chan, M., Krebs, M., Cox, D., Guest, P., Yolken, R., Rahmoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset. Translational Psychiatry, 5(7), 1-10. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Leweke, F. (2015). Drug repurposing and emerging adjunctive treatments for schizophrenia. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 16(7), 1049-1067. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Rahmoune, H., Wesseling, H., Leweke, F., Ozcan, S., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2015). Effects of olanzapine on serum protein phosphorylation patterns in patients with schizophrenia. Proteomics - Clinical Applications, 9(43017), 907-916. [More Information]
  • Schneider, M., Kasanetz, F., Lynch, D., Friemel, C., Lassalle, O., Hurst, D., Steindel, F., Monory, K., Schafer, C., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Enhanced functional activity of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor mediates adolescent behavior. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(41), 13975-13988. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Gressitt, K., Alaedini, A., Rohleder, C., Enning, F., Bumb, J., Muller, J., Schwarz, E., Yolken, R., Leweke, F. (2015). IgG dynamics of dietary antigens point to cerebrospinal fluid barrier or flow dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 44, 148-158. [More Information]
  • Drake, R., Nordentoft, M., Haddock, G., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leboyer, M., Leucht, S., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Modeling Determinants of Medication Attitudes and Poor Adherence in Early Nonaffective Psychosis: Implications for Intervention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 584-596. [More Information]
  • Bot, M., Chan, M., Jansen, R., Lamers, F., Vogelzangs, N., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Cooper, J., et al (2015). Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 5(7), 1-9. [More Information]
  • Leucht, S., Rossum, I., Heres, S., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leboyer, M., Leweke, F., Lewis, S., et al (2015). The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial: Rationale for its methodology and a review of the effectiveness of switching antipsychotics. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 549-558. [More Information]
  • Fond, G., d�Albis, M., Jamain, S., Tamouza, R., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leweke, F., Lewis, S., et al (2015). The Promise of Biological Markers for Treatment Response in First-Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 559-573. [More Information]
  • Schaefer, C., Enning, F., Mueller, J., Bumb, J., Rohleder, C., Odorfer, T., Klosterkotter, J., Hellmich, M., Koethe, D., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Fatty acid ethanolamide levels are altered in borderline personality and complex posttraumatic stress disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 264(5), 459-463. [More Information]
  • Deuschle, M., Schilling, C., Leweke, F., Enning, F., Pollmacher, T., Esselmannd, H., Wiltfang, J., Frolich, L., Heuser, I. (2014). Hypocretin in cerebrospinal fluid is positively correlated with Tau and pTau. Neuroscience Letters, 561, 41-45. [More Information]
  • Herberth, M., Rahmoune, H., Schwarz, E., Koethe, D., Harris, L., Kranaster, L., Witt, S., Spain, M., Barnes, A., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Identification of a molecular profile associated with immune status in first-onset schizophrenia patients. Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses, 7(4), 207-215. [More Information]
  • Schwarz, E., van Beveren, N., Ramsey, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2014). Identification of subgroups of Schizophrenia patients with changes in either immune or growth factor and hormonal pathways. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(4), 787-795. [More Information]
  • van Os, J., Rutten, B., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., Viechtbauer, W., van Zelst, C., Bruggeman, R., Reininghaus, U., Morgan, C., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: Contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(4), 729-736. [More Information]
  • Muhl, D., Kathmann, M., Hoyer, C., Kranaster, L., Hellmich, M., Gerth, C., Faulhaber, J., Schlicker, E., Leweke, F. (2014). Increased CB2 mRNA and anandamide in human blood after cessation of cannabis abuse. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 387(7), 691-695. [More Information]
  • Hayes, L., Severance, E., Leek, J., Gressitt, K., Rohleder, C., Coughlin, J., Leweke, F., Yolken, R., Sawa, A. (2014). Inflammatory molecular signature associated with infectious agents in psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(5), 963-972. [More Information]
  • Rohleder, C., Jung, F., Mertgens, H., Wiedermann, D., Sue, M., Neumaier, B., Graf, R., Leweke, F., Endepols, H. (2014). Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Grosshans, M., Schwarz, E., Bumb, J., Schaefer, C., Rohleder, C., Vollmert, C., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Tost, H., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Kiefer, F., et al (2014). Oleoylethanolamide and human neural responses to food stimuli in obesity. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(11), 1254-1261. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Schwarz, E., Enning, F., Rohleder, C., Findeisen, P., Leweke, F., Noelte, I. (2014). Sleep deprivation in humans: Effects on melatonin in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 12(1), 69-72. [More Information]
  • Rivolta, D., Castellanos, N., Stawowsky, C., Helbling, S., Wibral, M., Grutzner, C., Koethe, D., Birkner, K., Kranaster, L., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Source-reconstruction of event-related fields reveals hyperfunction and hypofunction of cortical circuits in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients during mooney face processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(17), 5909-5917. [More Information]
  • Amess, B., Kluge, W., Schwarz, E., Haenisch, F., Alsaif, M., Yolken, R., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2013). Application of meta-analysis methods for identifying proteomic expression level differences. Proteomics, 13(14), 2072-2076. [More Information]
  • Morgan, C., Page, E., Schaefer, C., Chatten, K., Manocha, A., Gulati, S., Curran, H., Brandner, B., Leweke, F. (2013). Cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels, cannabis use and psychotic-like symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(5), 381-382. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Gressitt, K., Stallings, C., Origoni, A., Khushalani, S., Leweke, F., Dickerson, F., Yolken, R. (2013). Discordant patterns of bacterial translocation markers and implications for innate immune imbalances in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 148(42795), 130-137. [More Information]
  • Ramsey, J., Schwarz, E., Guest, P., van Beveren, N., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Bahn, S. (2013). Distinct Molecular Phenotypes in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients. PloS One, 8(11), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Sun, L., Castellanos, N., Grutzner, C., Koethe, D., Rivolta, D., Wibral, M., Kranaster, L., Singer, W., Leweke, F., Uhlhaas, P. (2013). Evidence for dysregulated high-frequency oscillations during sensory processing in medication-na�ve, first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 150(42796), 519-525. [More Information]
  • Ceccarini, J., De Hert, M., Van Winkel, R., Peuskens, J., Bormans, G., Kranaster, L., Enning, F., Koethe, D., Leweke, F., Van Laere, K. (2013). Increased ventral striatal CB1 receptor binding is related to negative symptoms in drug-free patients with schizophrenia. NeuroImage, 79, 304-312. [More Information]
  • Krishnamurthy, D., Harris, L., Levin, Y., Koutroukides, T., Rahmoune, H., Pietsch, S., Vanattou-Saifoudine, N., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2013). Metabolic, hormonal and stress-related molecular changes in post-mortem pituitary glands from schizophrenia subjects. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 14(7), 478-489. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Leweke, F. (2013). Repurposed drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 13(18), 2364-2385. [More Information]
  • Anderson-Schmid, H., Adler, L., Aly, C., Anghelescu, I., Bauer, M., Baumgartner, J., Becker, J., Bianco, R., Becker, T., Leweke, F., et al (2013). The "dGPPN-Cohort": A national collaboration initiative by the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) for establishing a large-scale cohort of psychiatric patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 263(8), 695-701. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F. (2012). Anandamide dysfunction in prodromal and established psychosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 5188-5193.
  • Telford, J., Bones, J., McManus, C., Saldova, R., Manning, G., Doherty, M., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Guest, P., et al (2012). Antipsychotic treatment of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients with olanzapine results in altered glycosylation of serum glycoproteins. Journal of Proteome Research, 11(7), 3743-3752. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C., Hoyer, C., Klosterkotter, J., Hellmich, M., Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 2, 1-7. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Guest, P., Ramoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., Martins-de-Souza, D., Bahn, S. (2012). Clinical use of phosphorylated proteins in blood serum analysed by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteomics, 76, 36-42. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Alaedini, A., Yang, S., Halling, M., Gressitt, K., Stallings, C., Origoni, A., Vaughan, C., Khushalani, S., Leweke, F., et al (2012). Gastrointestinal inflammation and associated immune activation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 138(1), 48-53. [More Information]
  • Schwarz, E., Guest, P., Rahmoune, H., Harris, L., Wang, L., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Koethe, D., et al (2012). Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(5), 494-502. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Odorfer, T., Bumb, J. (2012). Medical needs in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, 212, 165-185. [More Information]
  • Ramsey, J., Schwarz, E., Guest, P., van Beveren, N., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Ruta, L., et al (2012). Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum. PloS One, 7(12), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Martins-de-Souza, D., Rahmoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2012). Protein phosphorylation patterns in serum from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Journal of Proteomics, 76, 43-55. [More Information]
  • Schwarz, E., Whitfield, P., Nahnsen, S., Wang, L., Major, H., Leweke, F., Koethe, D., Lio, P., Bahn, S. (2011). Alterations of primary fatty acid amides in serum of patients with severe mental illness. Frontiers in Bioscience, E3(1), 308-314.
  • Guest, P., Schwarz, E., Krishnamurthy, D., Harris, L., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., van Beveren, N., Spain, M., Barnes, A., et al (2011). Altered levels of circulating insulin and other neuroendocrine hormones associated with the onset of schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(7), 1092-1096. [More Information]
  • Klugmann, M., Klippenstein, V., Leweke, F., Spanagel, R., Schneider, M. (2011). Cannabinoid exposure in pubertal rats increases spontaneous ethanol consumption and NMDA receptor associated protein levels. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(4), 505-517. [More Information]
  • Kranaster, L., Koethe, D., Hoyer, C., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Leweke, F. (2011). Cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics in first-episode schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 261(7), 529-530. [More Information]
  • Koutroukides, T., Guest, P., Leweke, F., Bailey, D., Rahmoune, H., Bahn, S., Martins-de-Souza, D. (2011). Characterization of the human serum depletome by label-free shotgun proteomics. Journal of Separation Science, 34(13), 1621-1626. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Schneider, M. (2011). Chronic pubertal cannabinoid treatment as a behavioural model for aspects of schizophrenia: Effects of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(1), 43-51. [More Information]
  • Herberth, M., Koethe, D., Levin, Y., Schwarz, E., Krzyszton, N., Schoeffmann, S., Ruh, H., Rahmoune, H., Kranaster, L., Leweke, F., et al (2011). Peripheral profiling analysis for bipolar disorder reveals markers associated with reduced cell survival. Proteomics, 11(1), 94-105. [More Information]

2018

  • Leweke, F., Rohleder, C., Muller, J., Hirjak, D., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (2018). Enhancing recovery in early schizophrenia by randomized controlled add-on of cannabidiol to an individualized antipsychotic treatment [Cannabidiol zur Verbesserung der Genesung in fr�hen Stadien einer Schizophrenie: Eine randomisierte, kontrollierte klinische Pr�fung der adjuvanten Gabe zur individuellen antipsychotischen Behandlung]. Nervenheilkunde: Zeitschrift fuer interdisziplinaere Fortbildung, 37(5), 319-323. [More Information]
  • van Rees, G., Lago, S., Cox, D., Tomasik, J., Rustogi, N., Weigelt, K., Ozcan, S., Cooper, J., Drexhage, H., Leweke, F., et al (2018). Evidence of microglial activation following exposure to serum from first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 67, 364-373. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Mueller, J., Lange, B., Fritze, S., Topor, C., Koethe, D., Rohleder, C. (2018). Role of the Endocannabinoid System in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia: Implications for Pharmacological Intervention. CNS Drugs, 32(7), 605-619. [More Information]

2017

  • Kannan, G., Gressitt, K., Yang, S., Stallings, C., Katsafanas, E., Schweinfurth, L., Savage, C., Adamos, M., Sweeney, K., Origoni, A., Leweke, F., et al (2017). Pathogen-mediated NMDA receptor autoimmunity and cellular barrier dysfunction in schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 7(8), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Cooper, J., Ozcan, S., Gardner, R., Rustogi, N., Wicks, S., van Rees, G., Leweke, F., Dalman, C., Karlsson, H., Bahn, S. (2017). Schizophrenia-risk and urban birth are associated with proteomic changes in neonatal dried blood spots. Translational Psychiatry, 7(12), 1-14. [More Information]

2016

  • Bumb, J., Mier, D., Noelte, I., Schredl, M., Kirsch, P., Hennig, O., Liebrich, L., Fenske, S., Alm, B., Leweke, F., et al (2016). Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26(7), 1119-1126. [More Information]
  • Muller, J., Leweke, F. (2016). Bipolar disorder: Clinical overview [Klinik bipolarer Erkrankungen: Symptomatik, Verlauf und Diferenzialdiagnose]. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 39(9), 363-369.
  • Rohleder, C., Muller, J., Lange, B., Leweke, F. (2016). Cannabidiol as a Potential New Type of an Antipsychotic. A Critical Review of the Evidence. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Mueller, J., van der List, T., Rohleder, C., Findeisen, P., Noelte, I., Schwarz, E., Leweke, F. (2016). Differential melatonin alterations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 68, 34-39. [More Information]
  • Tomasik, J., Schwarz, E., Lago, S., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., van Beveren, N., Guest, P., Rahmoune, H., Steiner, J., Bahn, S. (2016). Pretreatment levels of the fatty acid handling proteins H-FABP and CD36 predict response to olanzapine in recent-onset schizophrenia patients. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 52, 178-186. [More Information]
  • Rohleder, C., Wiedermann, D., Neumaier, B., Drzezga, A., Timmermann, L., Graf, R., Leweke, F., Endepols, H. (2016). The functional networks of prepulse inhibition: Neuronal connectivity analysis based on FDG-PET in awake and unrestrained rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Mueller, J., Lange, B., Rohleder, C. (2016). Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in psychosis. Biological Psychiatry, 79(7), 604-612. [More Information]
  • Muller, J., Leweke, F. (2016). Therapie bipolarer Storungen: Behandlung von akuten Manien, depressiven Episoden und gemischten Zustanden sowie Rezidivprophylaxe. Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten, 39(9), 377-384.
  • Haenisch, F., Cooper, J., Reif, A., Kittel-Schneider, S., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., van Beveren, N., Crespo-Facorro, B., et al (2016). Towards a blood-based diagnostic panel for bipolar disorder. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 52, 49-57. [More Information]
  • Mueller, J., Rohleder, C., Leweke, F. (2016). What is the promise of nicotinergic compounds in schizophrenia treatment? Future Medicinal Chemistry, 8(17), 2009-2012. [More Information]

2015

  • Rohleder, C., Leweke, F. (2015). Cannabinoids and schizophrenia. In Fattore, L (Eds.), Cannabinoids in Neurologic and Mental Disease, (pp. 193-204). London: Elsevier. [More Information]
  • Chan, M., Krebs, M., Cox, D., Guest, P., Yolken, R., Rahmoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset. Translational Psychiatry, 5(7), 1-10. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Leweke, F. (2015). Drug repurposing and emerging adjunctive treatments for schizophrenia. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 16(7), 1049-1067. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Rahmoune, H., Wesseling, H., Leweke, F., Ozcan, S., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2015). Effects of olanzapine on serum protein phosphorylation patterns in patients with schizophrenia. Proteomics - Clinical Applications, 9(43017), 907-916. [More Information]
  • Schneider, M., Kasanetz, F., Lynch, D., Friemel, C., Lassalle, O., Hurst, D., Steindel, F., Monory, K., Schafer, C., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Enhanced functional activity of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor mediates adolescent behavior. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(41), 13975-13988. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Gressitt, K., Alaedini, A., Rohleder, C., Enning, F., Bumb, J., Muller, J., Schwarz, E., Yolken, R., Leweke, F. (2015). IgG dynamics of dietary antigens point to cerebrospinal fluid barrier or flow dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 44, 148-158. [More Information]
  • Drake, R., Nordentoft, M., Haddock, G., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leboyer, M., Leucht, S., Leweke, F., et al (2015). Modeling Determinants of Medication Attitudes and Poor Adherence in Early Nonaffective Psychosis: Implications for Intervention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 584-596. [More Information]
  • Bot, M., Chan, M., Jansen, R., Lamers, F., Vogelzangs, N., Steiner, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Cooper, J., et al (2015). Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 5(7), 1-9. [More Information]
  • Leucht, S., Rossum, I., Heres, S., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leboyer, M., Leweke, F., Lewis, S., et al (2015). The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial: Rationale for its methodology and a review of the effectiveness of switching antipsychotics. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 549-558. [More Information]
  • Fond, G., d�Albis, M., Jamain, S., Tamouza, R., Arango, C., Fleischhacker, W., Glenthoj, B., Leweke, F., Lewis, S., et al (2015). The Promise of Biological Markers for Treatment Response in First-Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 41(3), 559-573. [More Information]

2014

  • Schaefer, C., Enning, F., Mueller, J., Bumb, J., Rohleder, C., Odorfer, T., Klosterkotter, J., Hellmich, M., Koethe, D., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Fatty acid ethanolamide levels are altered in borderline personality and complex posttraumatic stress disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 264(5), 459-463. [More Information]
  • Deuschle, M., Schilling, C., Leweke, F., Enning, F., Pollmacher, T., Esselmannd, H., Wiltfang, J., Frolich, L., Heuser, I. (2014). Hypocretin in cerebrospinal fluid is positively correlated with Tau and pTau. Neuroscience Letters, 561, 41-45. [More Information]
  • Herberth, M., Rahmoune, H., Schwarz, E., Koethe, D., Harris, L., Kranaster, L., Witt, S., Spain, M., Barnes, A., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Identification of a molecular profile associated with immune status in first-onset schizophrenia patients. Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses, 7(4), 207-215. [More Information]
  • Schwarz, E., van Beveren, N., Ramsey, J., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2014). Identification of subgroups of Schizophrenia patients with changes in either immune or growth factor and hormonal pathways. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(4), 787-795. [More Information]
  • van Os, J., Rutten, B., Myin-Germeys, I., Delespaul, P., Viechtbauer, W., van Zelst, C., Bruggeman, R., Reininghaus, U., Morgan, C., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: Contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(4), 729-736. [More Information]
  • Muhl, D., Kathmann, M., Hoyer, C., Kranaster, L., Hellmich, M., Gerth, C., Faulhaber, J., Schlicker, E., Leweke, F. (2014). Increased CB2 mRNA and anandamide in human blood after cessation of cannabis abuse. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 387(7), 691-695. [More Information]
  • Hayes, L., Severance, E., Leek, J., Gressitt, K., Rohleder, C., Coughlin, J., Leweke, F., Yolken, R., Sawa, A. (2014). Inflammatory molecular signature associated with infectious agents in psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40(5), 963-972. [More Information]
  • Rohleder, C., Jung, F., Mertgens, H., Wiedermann, D., Sue, M., Neumaier, B., Graf, R., Leweke, F., Endepols, H. (2014). Neural correlates of sensorimotor gating: A metabolic positron emission tomography study in awake rats. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Grosshans, M., Schwarz, E., Bumb, J., Schaefer, C., Rohleder, C., Vollmert, C., Vollstadt-Klein, S., Tost, H., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Kiefer, F., et al (2014). Oleoylethanolamide and human neural responses to food stimuli in obesity. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(11), 1254-1261. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Schwarz, E., Enning, F., Rohleder, C., Findeisen, P., Leweke, F., Noelte, I. (2014). Sleep deprivation in humans: Effects on melatonin in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 12(1), 69-72. [More Information]
  • Rivolta, D., Castellanos, N., Stawowsky, C., Helbling, S., Wibral, M., Grutzner, C., Koethe, D., Birkner, K., Kranaster, L., Leweke, F., et al (2014). Source-reconstruction of event-related fields reveals hyperfunction and hypofunction of cortical circuits in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients during mooney face processing. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(17), 5909-5917. [More Information]

2013

  • Amess, B., Kluge, W., Schwarz, E., Haenisch, F., Alsaif, M., Yolken, R., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2013). Application of meta-analysis methods for identifying proteomic expression level differences. Proteomics, 13(14), 2072-2076. [More Information]
  • Morgan, C., Page, E., Schaefer, C., Chatten, K., Manocha, A., Gulati, S., Curran, H., Brandner, B., Leweke, F. (2013). Cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels, cannabis use and psychotic-like symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(5), 381-382. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Gressitt, K., Stallings, C., Origoni, A., Khushalani, S., Leweke, F., Dickerson, F., Yolken, R. (2013). Discordant patterns of bacterial translocation markers and implications for innate immune imbalances in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 148(42795), 130-137. [More Information]
  • Ramsey, J., Schwarz, E., Guest, P., van Beveren, N., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Bahn, S. (2013). Distinct Molecular Phenotypes in Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients. PloS One, 8(11), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Sun, L., Castellanos, N., Grutzner, C., Koethe, D., Rivolta, D., Wibral, M., Kranaster, L., Singer, W., Leweke, F., Uhlhaas, P. (2013). Evidence for dysregulated high-frequency oscillations during sensory processing in medication-na�ve, first episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 150(42796), 519-525. [More Information]
  • Ceccarini, J., De Hert, M., Van Winkel, R., Peuskens, J., Bormans, G., Kranaster, L., Enning, F., Koethe, D., Leweke, F., Van Laere, K. (2013). Increased ventral striatal CB1 receptor binding is related to negative symptoms in drug-free patients with schizophrenia. NeuroImage, 79, 304-312. [More Information]
  • Krishnamurthy, D., Harris, L., Levin, Y., Koutroukides, T., Rahmoune, H., Pietsch, S., Vanattou-Saifoudine, N., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2013). Metabolic, hormonal and stress-related molecular changes in post-mortem pituitary glands from schizophrenia subjects. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 14(7), 478-489. [More Information]
  • Bumb, J., Enning, F., Leweke, F. (2013). Repurposed drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 13(18), 2364-2385. [More Information]
  • Anderson-Schmid, H., Adler, L., Aly, C., Anghelescu, I., Bauer, M., Baumgartner, J., Becker, J., Bianco, R., Becker, T., Leweke, F., et al (2013). The "dGPPN-Cohort": A national collaboration initiative by the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) for establishing a large-scale cohort of psychiatric patients. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 263(8), 695-701. [More Information]

2012

  • Leweke, F. (2012). Anandamide dysfunction in prodromal and established psychosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18(32), 5188-5193.
  • Telford, J., Bones, J., McManus, C., Saldova, R., Manning, G., Doherty, M., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Guest, P., et al (2012). Antipsychotic treatment of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients with olanzapine results in altered glycosylation of serum glycoproteins. Journal of Proteome Research, 11(7), 3743-3752. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C., Hoyer, C., Klosterkotter, J., Hellmich, M., Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry, 2, 1-7. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Guest, P., Ramoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., Martins-de-Souza, D., Bahn, S. (2012). Clinical use of phosphorylated proteins in blood serum analysed by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Journal of Proteomics, 76, 36-42. [More Information]
  • Severance, E., Alaedini, A., Yang, S., Halling, M., Gressitt, K., Stallings, C., Origoni, A., Vaughan, C., Khushalani, S., Leweke, F., et al (2012). Gastrointestinal inflammation and associated immune activation in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 138(1), 48-53. [More Information]
  • Schwarz, E., Guest, P., Rahmoune, H., Harris, L., Wang, L., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Koethe, D., et al (2012). Identification of a biological signature for schizophrenia in serum. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(5), 494-502. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Odorfer, T., Bumb, J. (2012). Medical needs in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, 212, 165-185. [More Information]
  • Ramsey, J., Schwarz, E., Guest, P., van Beveren, N., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., Bogerts, B., Steiner, J., Ruta, L., et al (2012). Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum. PloS One, 7(12), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Jaros, J., Martins-de-Souza, D., Rahmoune, H., Rothermundt, M., Leweke, F., Guest, P., Bahn, S. (2012). Protein phosphorylation patterns in serum from schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Journal of Proteomics, 76, 43-55. [More Information]

2011

  • Schwarz, E., Whitfield, P., Nahnsen, S., Wang, L., Major, H., Leweke, F., Koethe, D., Lio, P., Bahn, S. (2011). Alterations of primary fatty acid amides in serum of patients with severe mental illness. Frontiers in Bioscience, E3(1), 308-314.
  • Guest, P., Schwarz, E., Krishnamurthy, D., Harris, L., Leweke, F., Rothermundt, M., van Beveren, N., Spain, M., Barnes, A., et al (2011). Altered levels of circulating insulin and other neuroendocrine hormones associated with the onset of schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(7), 1092-1096. [More Information]
  • Klugmann, M., Klippenstein, V., Leweke, F., Spanagel, R., Schneider, M. (2011). Cannabinoid exposure in pubertal rats increases spontaneous ethanol consumption and NMDA receptor associated protein levels. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(4), 505-517. [More Information]
  • Kranaster, L., Koethe, D., Hoyer, C., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Leweke, F. (2011). Cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics in first-episode schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 261(7), 529-530. [More Information]
  • Koutroukides, T., Guest, P., Leweke, F., Bailey, D., Rahmoune, H., Bahn, S., Martins-de-Souza, D. (2011). Characterization of the human serum depletome by label-free shotgun proteomics. Journal of Separation Science, 34(13), 1621-1626. [More Information]
  • Leweke, F., Schneider, M. (2011). Chronic pubertal cannabinoid treatment as a behavioural model for aspects of schizophrenia: Effects of the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 14(1), 43-51. [More Information]
  • Herberth, M., Koethe, D., Levin, Y., Schwarz, E., Krzyszton, N., Schoeffmann, S., Ruh, H., Rahmoune, H., Kranaster, L., Leweke, F., et al (2011). Peripheral profiling analysis for bipolar disorder reveals markers associated with reduced cell survival. Proteomics, 11(1), 94-105. [More Information]

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