The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders

ACADEMIC RESEARCH SEMINARS


16 February 2016 Tuesday 1-2 pm Level 6 Seminar room CPC Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth
Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management


1 March 2016 Tuesday 1-2 pm Level 6 Seminar room CPC Professor Martin R. Yeomans
Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals


22 March 2016 Tuesday 1-2 pm Level 6 Seminar room CPC Professor Andrew Hill
The psychology of food craving


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Participants at a Boden Institute seminar

ACADEMIC RESEARCH SEMINARS

Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management

Tuesday 16 February 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Venue: Level 6 Seminar Room, Charles Perkins Centre - D17, Johns Hopkins Drive (off Missenden Road), The University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2006 View map (PDF file)

Presenter: Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science.

RSVP via online registration

Summary of talk
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a National Research Priority with enormous health and socioeconomic costs. Diabetes related comorbidities are underpinned by poor glucose control that is greatly influenced by diet composition. Current clinical practice guidelines advocate a low fat, high unrefined carbohydrate (HC) diet for T2D management. However, this recommendation has been questioned following advancements in understanding that carbohydrate restriction and higher intakes of protein and unsaturated fat improve blood glucose control and cardiovascular disease risk.

Based on evidence available in nutrition research, we have devised an eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat, and is nutritious with the potential to improve blood glucose control and reduce cardiovascular disease risk to a greater extent than the traditional HC dietary approach. This presentation will discuss the findings of a large, long-term, well-controlled NH&MRC-funded randomised controlled clinical study comparing the effects of consumption of either a traditional HC diet or the very low carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat diet while participating in a structured exercise program on multiple health outcomes. Early findings indicated that independent of any change in weight, the blood glucose profile improves substantially in the very low carbohydrate group. The diet is well tolerated and the need for medication is also reduced to a greater extent. If improvements can be sustained, then this will have implications for dietary guidelines for the management of T2D, with better outcomes and an overall reduction in health care costs.

About the presenter
Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science. He is responsible for leading several large-scale, clinical studies evaluating the effects of dietary patterns, foods, nutritional components and physical exercise on weight loss, metabolic disease risk management, and physical and mental functioning and performance in healthy and clinical populations, including type 2 diabetes.

Grant has acquired greater than $6.5 million of combined nationally competitive health and industry funding to conduct this research and was awarded a $1.3 million research grant from the NH&MRC to conduct a large clinical study to evaluate the role of very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management. He has published over 65 peer reviewed journal papers on the topic of diet and lifestyle management of obesity and related disease.

In 2010, Grant spent the year as a visiting scientist at the Kellogg Company headquarters in Michigan, USA; undertook a 6-month sabbatical at Duke University, North Carolina, USA in 2013 and recently completed an MBA to pursue his interests in connecting research with business and the commercialisation of science outcomes.


Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals

Tuesday 1 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Venue: Level 6 Seminar Room, Charles Perkins Centre - D17, Johns Hopkins Drive (off Missenden Road), The University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2006 View map (PDF file)

Presenter: Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK.

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Summary of talk
Satiety, the suppression of appetite by the effects of ingested nutrients, is critical to the long-term control of body-size: if people over-ingest at one meal, provided that the ingested food suppresses subsequent eating then overall intake can be regulated. But the worldwide increase in obesity clearly suggests that satiety is ineffective in the context of modern lifestyles with abundant access to palatable foods. Understanding the fundamental processes that drive satiety therefore open opportunities to reformulate products to maximise the likelihood that consumers experience appropriate satiety, so aiding weight control.

Although a great deal of focus on satiety has explored physiological effects of ingestion on gut hormones etc, a simple model of satiety based on gut hormone release cannot explain a wide range of behavioural satiety data. There is ample evidence that beliefs about the effects of products and their sensory properties all modify satiety responses, and this talk highlights recent work at Sussex that has elucidated some of these effects.

About the presenter
Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK. He has produced over 90 peer-reviewed publications, has a greater than 2500 lifetime citation, and has been awarded more than £2.5M in research, mainly as research grants funded by BBSRC.

Martin's research explores psychological and physiological aspects of human ingestion, and involves a large number of related projects, linked by the overall aim of elucidating psychological and physiological controls of appetite. Current areas of interest include:
- Understanding appetite and satiety
- Individual differences
- Flavour perception and learning
- Psychopharmacology


The psychology of food craving

Tuesday 22 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Venue: Level 6 Seminar Room, Charles Perkins Centre - D17, Johns Hopkins Drive (off Missenden Road), The University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2006 View map (PDF file)

Presenter: Professor Andrew Hill is Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine, UK.

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Summary of talk
Food cravings continue to both fascinate and divide opinion. Their portrayal juxtaposes quirky food choices (mostly by women) with compulsions that trigger unplanned overeating. Food cravings are central to the representation of food addiction, itself a highly controversial concept. For some authors, food cravings are expressions of need for specific nutrients. Consuming the foods and other substances craved is functional in addressing some biological imbalance. For others, the functionality of cravings lies in emotional regulation. This representation recognises the complex role that food, especially food with high pleasure value, plays in people’s lives. So, what does research tell us about food craving?

Food cravings are characterised by their intensity and their specificity. They are extremely common experiences, reported by the majority, and reflect the food environment of those who crave. Food cravings are closely associated with liking; people crave the foods they like to eat. But cravings are not synonymous with increased food intake. The range of assessments that measure food cravings reflects some of the uncertainty about their nature. Descriptive approaches to food cravings offer most in terms of understanding the nature and psychological functions of these experiences. The focus will be on food cravings during pregnancy, weight management, and after bariatric surgery. This functional view also reveals the potential for psychological approaches in the management of food cravings.

About the presenter
Andrew Hill is Professor of Medical Psychology, Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine. Andrew is also Visiting Professor at Sydney Medical School for 3 years from 2015. He was Chairman of the UK Association for the Study of Obesity from 1999-2002 and is currently a member of the UK Department of Health’s Obesity Review Group. Over the last 25 years or so his research interests have ranged from human appetite control to the development of weight and shape concerns in children, and the variety of psychological issues inherent in obesity and eating disorders.