THIS PAGE LAST MODIFIED Sunday 19 March 2017 17:37


A chronological checklist of Australian colonial musical works 1831-1835

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


THIS PAGE IS ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "A chronological checklist of Australian colonial musical works 1831-1835", Australharmony (an online resource toward the history of music and musicians in colonial and early Federation Australia): http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/checklist1831-1835.php; accessed 29 April 2017


Summary

This chronological checklist page, covering the years 1831-35, is intended to include all original Australia colonial musical works, significant arrangements, and musical editions specifically aimed at colonial audiences, documented or extant from the five years in question.

It tables musical works by Australian resident composers, in print and manuscript, lost and still existing, as well as new songs written by colonial songwriter/lyricists to existing imported tunes, and targetted colonial editions such as, for instance, popular songsters, musical albums, and hymnbooks. Also tabled are a small number of musical works composed specifically for Australian sale and use, by composers who never visited the colonies.

Not included in this page, however, are colonial manuscript copies or printed editions of the general run of imported musical works by composers or arrangers who never visited Australia, for example, local editions of internationally popular songs like Henry Bishop's Home, sweet home, or instrument music like George Osborne's waltz La plui de perles.

Where a digitised copy or electronic bibliographic record of a piece of music exists, it is live-linked to the title.

Like everything in Australharmony, the page is a work-in-progress, made available now for the use and information of interested others, but always subject to updates, corrections, and improvements.


Please contact me if you have, or know of, other relevant information, and which you are willing to share.


Go to:
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835

1831




3 January 1831

North East Coast, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Tyree.lore song and another song

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 3 January 1831 (original lost; contemporary copy only); Plomley 306, 307 (route map 14), 444 notes 89 and 90

[note 89] The journal for part of this day and for 4, 5, 6 and 7 January (part) is available only as a contemporary copy, there being no original in Robinson's hand ...

[note 90] At this point there is a confused entry headed 'TYREE.LORE song', i.e., song of the women held in bondage by the sealers:

PRAY.ER.NE.LET.TE.LE    LUCK.ER.POW.ER
country                              you see it (yourself)
ME.MAR.NET.TE.LE              NAR.NE.NOTHING.ER.NIM.TER
you are going to the country    gone (go away to it)

This song is found in both the original and in the copy of the journal, in both places in Robinson's hand; it is in two lines, as above. In the original MS. Robinson says the song was given him by BULRUB, and in the copy by Jumbo, but these are the same person. The author of the song is given as Mother Brown in the MS. The second word is translatcd in the MS, as'you see it'and in the copy as'yourself'; the last word in the MS. as 'gone' and in the copy as 'go away to it'.

In the MS. this song is followed by five lines of what may be another song, or merely vocabulary; but they are most likely to be a song, because the same words in the same order are also written on one of the end pages of the journal:

MY.COM.KER.MET.TE.POLE.LE come
HAR.NER.LAC.ER.RAKE.KA devil
AR.LAY.CUM.MER.RAY water
KOR.LEC.KER.TER REN.NER.TO.MAR.NET.TER.LAY eye
TUR.RER.RER.NANE.NER.TAR gone

Judging by the second copy, the fourth line comprises two words, as shown, of which only the second is translated by 'eye', and the first is not translated. It is also possible that the second line comprises two words, HAR.NER and LAC.ER.RAKE.KA (devil). Detailed examination of Robinson's vocabularies may clarify this.


Bibliography:

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31 March 1831

North East Coast, VDL (TAS)


PLEENPERRENNER

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Obscene dance

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 31 March 1831; Plomley 1966, 333

31 March [1831] ... PLEEN.PER.REN.NER alias Mother Brown formerly lived with a man of the name of Brown who was lost off Bird Island to the westward at the time Parish lost his boat. Was in the boat with Parish. She then lost two children drowned. All the men in the boat was drowned except Parish. She has two daughters living, adolescents. One is at the establishment, the other is at Launceston. These children she had by Brown. She was rendered up to this establishment by John Smith with whom she has lived and by whom she has had ... children ... are now living. This woman possesses considerable influence over the other black women. She has invented the obscene dance. Has been a hardworking woman.


Bibliography:

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21 April 1831

Encounter Bay, South Australia (SA)


STURT, Charles (reporter)

Chanting their melancholy dirge

Documentation:

Sturt 1833, II, 241-42

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=aT8bAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA241

Evening closed in without any signs of Captain Barker's return, or any circumstance by which Mr. Kent could confirm his fears that he had fallen into the hands of the natives. For, whether it was that the tribe which had shewn such decided hostility to me when on the coast had not observed the party, none made their appearance; and if I except two, who crossed the channel when Mr. Kent was in search of wood, they had neither seen nor heard any; and Captain Barker's enterprising disposition being well known to his men, hopes were still entertained that he was safe. A large fire was kindled, and the party formed a silent and anxious group around it. Soon after night-fall, however, their attention was roused by the sounds of the natives, and it was at length discovered, that they had lighted a chain of small fires between the sandhill Captain Barker had ascended and the opposite side of the channel, around which their women were chanting their melancholy dirge. It struck upon the ears of the listeners with an ominous thrill, and assured them of the certainty of the irreparable loss they had sustained. All night did those dismal sounds echo along that lonely shore, but as morning dawned, they ceased, and Mr. Kent and his companions were again left in anxiety and doubt. They, at length, thought it most adviseable to proceed to the schooner to advise with Doctor Davies. They traversed the beach with hasty steps, but did not get on board till the following day. It was then determined to procure assistance from the sealers on Kangaroo Island, as the only means by which they could ascertain their leader's fate, and they ac-[242 ACCOUNT OF HIS MURDER] -cordingly entered American Harbour ...

Sturt 1834, II, 241-42

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=HlMuAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA241

Wilson 1835, 285-86

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=YcwNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA285


Bibliography:

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30 April 1831

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (songwriter)

Jeu d'espirit dramatique


Documentation:

"JEU D'ESPRIT DRAMATIQUE", The Sydney Monitor (30 April 1831), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32075371 

SCENE. - An auction-room, ornamented with various rent-rolls - groups of citizens, inspecting catalogues of the sale; among whom are conspicuous, Regentville, St. Hilliers, M'Cotton, the Pieman, Jackey Solomons, Sage Solomon, Ripe Berry, Freezely, Don's son, Herringtown, Blowen, Safe Bank; with many others of either party "too numerous for insertion." During the time the company are conning over the lots, Mr. Chink (the auctioneer) commences business with a song ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/jamison-sir-john-2268 

http://www.dulhunty.com/html/Dpc10.htm 

... In [1817] Macquarie described [John Jamieson] as "truly and liberally interested for the Public Benefit", and granted him land adjoining his property on the Nepean. Jamison named this "Regentville", after Prince George. His holdings at Penrith then amounted to 4,220 acres with a frontage of 2 1/2 miles to the Nepean River ... With his outstanding qualifications and personality, and his wealth and title, Jamison soon became a leading figure in the small community. In addition to his Nepean land, he inherited property in Sydney which he augmented by purchase. His town mansion was where what is now the corner of George and Jamison Streets, and here he entertained lavishly. The Governor and Mrs. Macquarie often attended balls and dinner parties as his guests. The mansion was surrounded by a considerable amount of ground, and when he subdivided and sold it in 1831, it was from this subdivision that Jamison Street came into existence ...


Commentary:

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16 June 1831

North East Coast, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Song

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 16 June 1831; Plomley 1966, 362-63, 462-63 note 181

16 June. Wind from the south-west the whole of this day and pleasant weather. Boat arrived from Swan Island-the people have been without store meat this week and have had kangaroo instead, the one cask of pork being reserved for my expedition into the interior. Men employed in getting sticks and poles for the new store. In conversation with the natives. Wrote down one of their songs [note 181] and got them to explain it, which they did with great reluctance. I told them they need not be alarmed at me acquainting the white people, that I was one with themselves. This story consisted of a relation of circumstances relating to [363] the white people, of their seeing a bullock cart going along the Port Dalrymple road heavy loaded with flour, and also of their robbing a hut and taking away muskets, making damper and their concealing the muskets. The song is popular with all the eastern tribes. The songs of the natives consist of expression of circumstances. Joined in with their dances at night ...

[462 note 181] This song is not entered in the text, but the following words scribbled on the end pages of the journal seem to be it: [463]

LUN.NER.RY
TOO.TE.YER
YANG.EN.NER.MARE
PLARN.TEN.NER.TAR.KOPE.PER.YE
TATE.TER.LEM.ME.NER
PLANG.EN.NER    LUER.RAN.NER    LOE.ME.ER
MEM.ER.WO
VE.LE.VE
YAR    horse and bullock carrying wood long way
MARE
MANE
PARE.ER    PAW.WEL.ME.TER
TII.TER.BO    MAR.MA.LAR
KO.TER.PO
NEEN.NER    PLEEN.TUT.TE.YER
NEEN.NER    PLEEN.TUT.TE.YER
raw                damper
HIL.LAR    WOOL.LOUN.NER
musket        heavy musket
MOON.RAY    PLAT.TER.PO
flour                bag
LEEL.LER.PE.YAR.ME heavy load
KO.TER.PO put it down
TM.TE.YER emu
YANG.HE.NAR.MARE hair
PLAM.TAR.KOPE.PER.YE
TATE.TER.LEM.ME.NER
PLANG.EN.NER
LVER.RAN.NER leg bone
LO.MER.ER
MEM.MER.NO
VELEVE &c &c this to precede the song in the beginning.

[There are a number of deletions and corrections in the original.]


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15 July 1831

Little Forester River, North East Coast, VDL (TAS)


WOORRADY

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Story song

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 15 July 1831; Plomley 1966, 378-79, 401 (route map 18)

Tonight WOORRADY entertained us with a relation of the exploits of his nation and neighbouring nations or allies, Said that the NEEDWONNE natives - as also the [379] Brune, PANGHEININGH and TIMEQUONE - went off in catamarans to the De Witt Island and to the different rocks, and speared seal and brought them to the mainland. Also went to the Eddystone and speared seal: this rock is miles distant and is a dangerous enterprise. Many hundred natives have been lost on those occasions. Those nations to the southward of the island was a maritime people. Their catamarans was large, the size of a whaleboat, carrying seven or eight people, their dogs and spears. The men sit in front and the women behind. Said that the BRAYHELUKEQUONNE natives spear plenty of his and neighbouring tribes, that they stop behind trees and when they see a native by himself they go and spear him. When the natives relate those exploits they do it by singing it, accompanying the same with different gestures corresponding with the circumstances of the story - the manner of fighting, the blows given, where inficted and how, whether by spear, waddy or stones, or wrestling, or cutting with sharp stones, pointing to the parts of the wounded. WOORRADY is very animated in his relation of the circumstances of his nation, and having a good voice it is peculiarly interesting to attend to him. Related a story where the PYDAREME at Eaglehawk Neck fought the Brune with stones, i.e. PAGGERLER LOINNE PAR.NYRAE - threw large stones. Said that a big man of this nation stole a female child from his nation. Says that the PY.DAIR.RE.ME men dive for fish like the women. Whilst WOORRADY related his story of the Creation, Tom said he would not believe it, he only believed the white people's story. TRUGERNANNA was angry with him and said: 'Where did you come froml White woman?'


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13 August 1831

Mount Cameron, North East Coast, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Pop.per.rane.ne.er song

See main entry:

Checklist of musical transcriptions of Indigenous songs 9





22 August 1831 (first notice)

3 September 1831 (first public performance)

Governor's Ball, Perth, Swan River Colony (WA)

London, 1833 (first published)


MOORE, George (singer-songwriter)

Western Australia for Me

Words extant, to tune of Ballinamona oro


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE 1 (words, Cross 1833)


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE 2 (words, Moore 1884)


VIEW DIGITISED MUSIC CONCORDANCE (tune)


Source 1:

Cross 1833, 236

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=XM4NAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA236

THE FOLLOWING IS AN EARLY SPECIMEN OF AUSTRALIAN POETRY.
Tune - "Ballenamona Ora." "A good Penny Wedding for me."

From the old western world we have come to explore,
The wilds of this Western Australian shore;
In search of a country we ventured to roam,
And now that we've found it, let's make it our home.
And what though the Colony's new, Sirs,
And inhabitants yet may be few, Sirs,
They'll soon be increasing here too, Sirs,
So the Western Australia for me.

By care and attention I'm sure 'twill be found,
Two crops in the year we may get off the ground;
Good wood and good water, good flesh and good fish,
Good soil and good clime, and what more could you wish.
Let every one earnestly strive, Sir,
Do his best, be alert and alive, Sir,
We'll soon see our Colony thrive, Sir,
So Western Australia for me.

No furious south-easters - no burning simoon -
Our harvests to blight, and our fruits to consume:
No terrible plague, nor no pestilent air
Our "livers" to waste, though our lives they may spar
Our skies are all cloudless and bright, Sir,
And sweet is our lovely moonlight, Sir,
Oh this is the clime of delight, Sir,
So Western Australia for me.

No lions nor tigers we here dread to meet,
Our innocent quadrupeds hop on two feet;
No rent, tithes, nor taxes, we here have to pay,
And our "geese are all swans," as some witty folks say.
Then we live without trouble or stealth, Sirs,
Our currency's all Sterling wealth, Sirs,
So here's to our Governor's health, Sirs,

And the Western Australia for me.


Source 2:

Moore 1884, 65

https://archive.org/stream/diaryoftenyearse00mooriala#page/n79/mode/2up

WESTERN AUSTRALIA FOR ME. Sung by me at the first ball given by the Governor, Sir James Stirling, in Perth. - G. F. M
(Air: "Ballinamona oro")

From the old western world, we have come to explore,
The wilds of this Western Australian shore;
In search of a country we ventured to roam,
And now that we've found it, let's make it our home.
And what though the Colony's new, Sirs,
And inhabitants yet may be few, Sirs,
They'll soon be encreasing here too, Sirs,
So Western Australia for me . . .

. . . I dare not say that I christened the colony, but certainly after the above song the name of Western Australia was adopted.


Documentation:

Moore 1834, 80-81, 87-88

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=UxIOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA80

[Diary/letter, 22 August 1831] [I] have just written [81] for Mrs. Tanner a song about this colony, of which she wishes to send her friends a copy; but I have not time now to transcribe it, but must do so at some other time. I have a song in my mind, suggested by that of a bird's notes; and if I can get my flute mended, shall set it for you.

[87] [Diary/Letter, 3 September 1831] These two days have been very warm ... We shall be roasted to-morrow, if this heat continues, and all the world here is going to the ball. Perth, Sept. 3rd. - I must tell you all about the great doings since the last entry in my logbook. Yesterday I came down here for our market, and meeting of the Agricultural Society, and for the Governor's ball. The brig had just arrived, bringing the first Indian invalid to our shores. Quartermaster-General Colonel Hanson, and also Lord F. Beauclerk. All Perth was alive; upwards of fifty sat down to the Agricultural dinner, at which we had (as honorary members) Lord F. Beauclerk, Col, Hanson, and Capt. Parker, R.N. And at this dinner a memorial to the Home Government was [88] read and approved of. It is now in course of signature, and will soon be sent home. In the evening, at the Governor's house, we had 180 ladies and gentlemen ! ! ! The ball was kept up with the greatest spirit until six in the morning; and the dancing almost without interval - contre-dances, quadrilles, Spanish dances, and gallopades - never before witnessed such gaiety at a ball, nor ever before danced so much in one night ; four rooms and an arcade were all filled, and connected with the verandah; a superb tent was fitted up, decorated and festooned with naval flags, and in this we had supper - an elegant and abundant one. The gentlemen from India were astonished, for they had heard the most gloomy reports; and the invalid confessed that when coming ashore he had been considering with the captain, the expediency of sending some provisions from the ship, as a preventive against starvation; his amazement at seeing ample supplies of butter, eggs, vegetables, poultry and butcher's meat, may be guessed at; he purchased freely and paid liberally; has rented a house for some time, and is now recovering; indeed he was actually frolicksome all the evening.

That these gentlemen should have arrived here at this critical period, when the climate is delici-[89]-ous, is considered a fortunate circumstance for the colony ...

"ST. PATRICK'S DAY", The Perth Gazette (21 March 1840), 30

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article638772

ST. PATRICK'S DAY. An extremely pleasant party was got up on this occasion by the social sons of the Emerald Isle, on Tuesday last. About thirteen gentlemen, surrounded by their friends of the sister isle, amounting in all to thirty individuals, sat down to a liberal repast furnished in the new room of the Victoria Hotel, Perth . . . G. F. Moore, Esq., rose to offer some observations, but he said, as it seemed the order of the night to respond in song, he would adopt the course proposed. This gentleman sang "Western Australia for me," an original song written by himself some years back, which has appeared in one of the early works published on this colony . . .

Moore 1884, 58

https://archive.org/stream/diaryoftenyearse00mooriala#page/n73/mode/2up

[Diary/letter, 22 August 1831] [I] have just written for Mrs. Tanner a song about this colony, of which she wishes to send her friends a copy ; but I have not time now to transcribe it, but must do so at some other time. I have a song in my mind, suggested by that of a bird's notes; and if I can get my flute mended, shall set it for you.

Moore 1884, 63-65

https://archive.org/stream/diaryoftenyearse00mooriala#page/n77/mode/2up

[Diary/Letter, 3 September 1831] These two days have been very warm . . . We shall be roasted to-morrow, if this heat continues, and all the world here is going to the ball. Perth, Sept. 3rd. - I must tell you all about the great doings since the last entry in my logbook. Yesterday I came down here for our market, and meeting of the Agricultural Society, and for the Governor's ball. The brig had just arrived, bringing the first Indian invalid to our shores. Quartermaster-General Colonel Hanson, and also Lord F. Beauclerk. All Perth was alive; upwards of fifty sat down to the Agricultural dinner, at which we had (as honorary members) Lord F. Beauclerk, Col, Hanson, and Capt. Parker, R.N. And at this dinner a memorial to the Home Government was read and approved of. It is now in course of signature, and will soon be sent home. In the evening, at the Governor's house, we had 180 ladies and gentlemen ! ! ! The ball was kept up with the greatest spirit until six in the morning; and the dancing almost without interval - contre-dances, quadrilles, Spanish dances, and gallopades - never before witnessed such gaiety at a ball, nor ever before danced so much in one night ; four rooms and an arcade were all filled, and connected with the verandah; a superb tent was fitted up, decorated and festooned with naval flags, and in this we had supper - an elegant and abundant one. The gentlemen from India were astonished, for they had heard the most gloomy reports; and the invalid confessed that when coming ashore he had been considering with the captain, the expediency of sending some provisions from the ship, as a preventive against starvation; his amazement at seeing ample supplies of butter, eggs, vegetables, poultry and butcher's meat, may be guessed at; he purchased freely and paid liberally; has rented a house for some time, and is now recovering; indeed he was actually frolicksome all the evening. That these gentlemen should have arrived here at this critical period, when the climate is delicious, is considered a fortunate circumstance for the colony . . .


Bibliography:

"Australia and Australasia", The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (9 May 1885), 959

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163278974

"AUSTRALIA AND AUSTRALASIA", The Daily News (11 May 1885), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article76207320

"HERE-AND-THERE", Sunday Times (6 February 1921), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article58040993

"WESTRALIA", The West Australian (2 August 1930), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article33341756

"MUSICAL ECHOES", The West Australian (5 January 1935), 42

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32585235

Kornweibel 1973

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/38923964

James McCusker, "PIANO ON THE BEACH", The Canberra Times (21 April 1973), 11

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136971668


Performance (sound file):

"Western Australia for me", ABC 720 Perth, 13 April 2010 (set to much later variant of original tune)

http://www.abc.net.au/local/audio/2010/04/13/2871828.htm


Music (concordance):

For a setting of the tune, see this early London edition of The Irish Volunteers (Ballynamona Oro)

https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/15511


Commentary:

The "Mrs Tanner" Moore referred to was Hester TANNER (VIVEASH) (1804-1846), who arrived in the colony with her husband William TANNER (1801-1845) as passengers on the Drummore in February 1831. With Francis LOCHEE, William Tanner founded the Perth newspaper The Inquirer in 1840. The Tanners returned to England in 1844.


References:

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22 August 1831 (first notice)

Perth, Swan River Colony (WA)


MOORE, George (composer, songwriter, flute player, singer)

Song . . . suggested by that of a bird's notes

Music and words

? MS, or perhaps never written down


NO COPY IDENTIFIED


Documentation:

Moore 1834, 80-81

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=UxIOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA80

[Diary/letter, 22 August 1831] [I] have just written [81] for Mrs. Tanner a song about this colony, of which she wishes to send her friends a copy; but I have not time now to transcribe it, but must do so at some other time. I have a song in my mind, suggested by that of a bird's notes; and if I can get my flute mended, shall set it for you.

Moore 1884, 58

https://archive.org/stream/diaryoftenyearse00mooriala#page/n73/mode/2up

I have a song in my mind, suggested by that of a bird's notes; and if I can get my flute mended, shall set it for you.


Bibliography:

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Commentary:

Moore was collecting and perhaps even transcribing bird songs around this time.


References:

Moore 1884, 55

https://archive.org/stream/diaryoftenyearse00mooriala#page/n69/mode/2up

[Letter, August 1831] . . . I have been favoured with two new songs from birds like thrushes; the notes are not much varied, but seem rather a repetition of something corresponding with these words, "come with me and let us make a nest, ah! do," to which the other seems to reply, "no indeed I shan't, at least with you" - the last note accented.




19 September 1831

Voyage to Launceston, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Songs on the voyage

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 19 September 1831, 428

19 September [1831] Pleasant weather throughout this day. Proceeded at 2am by the night tide for Launceston, accompanied by a servant, two aborigines of VDL and two Sydney natives. Was informed by a soldier of the 57th at George Town that Captain Logan of the 57th, Commandant at Moreton Bay, had been murdered by his own boat's crew and not by the natives as was supposed. Beagent, the boatman, related a story about his being a bushranger with Michael Howe. The Sydney and VDL natives entertained me with their songs during the voyage up. The day was remarkable pleasant; had a pleasant breeze. Halted about half way up for the return of the tide. Saw a boat pass, supposed Mr. Clark, J.P.; my man cooeed but they did not answer. They appeared anxious to reach George Town by the ebb tide ...


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12 and 13 October 1831

Launceston and Campbell Town, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Sydney natives' dance

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 12 and 13 October 1831, 484

12 October [1831] The Sydney natives with Mr. Batman and Mr. Cottrell arrived. The Sydney natives danced this night with their shields and spears, as also little Paddy, a native of VDL who had once been at my house with his mother i.e. KARNE-BUTCHER. My cloak was stolen from this town: warrants was issued against a man suspected.

13 October. Pleasant weather. At Campbell Town ... The whole of the Sydney natives since their arrival in Campbell Town have exercised themselves in dancing and throwing their spears. The day before yesterday they had a sham fight with my natives. Their manner of dancing with their shields and spears is very imposing and resembles a valse. They are very much addicted to drunkenness. They are nine in number.


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19 October 1831

Vaucluse House, Vaucluse, Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (songwriter) = ? William Charles WENTWORTH

Australia's done her duty!

AIR - The Death of Nelson


Documentation:

"FETE CHAMPETRE AT VAUCLUSE", The Sydney Monitor (22 October 1831), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32076228

On Wednesday last; agreeably to public invitation to the Colonists at large, by the proprietor of that beautiful Estate, Vaucluse, a multitude of Colonists assembled there to commemorate the event of the recall of Lieut. Admiral Darling, by partaking of Mr. Wentworth's old English hospitality, and making merry with divers old English diversions and pastimes ... Dancing, blind man's buff, hurling, wrestling, and two or three bits of boxing bouts, kept between three or four thousand persons busily engaged through the day.

In the evening time front of the house was tastefully illuminated with variegated lamps, disposed as follows:
W (CROWN) IV
GOD RAVE THE KING
DOWN WITH THE TYRANT
Several songs were sung in the course of the evening by one party (chiefly composed of Native Youths, among whom were the sons of some of our substantial country gentle men); the following extempore song was sung, and encored more than once:

AIR - The Death of Nelson.

RECITATIVE.
String, string my harp, Apollo's muse,
Australia's joy into my lays infuse,
To sing the Tyrant's fall; whose subtle crest,
Must long be heralded, Australia's pest!

AIR.
'Twas out of Sydney Bay,
The Houghley sail'd away,
Each heart was bounding then!
The Tyrant wends his way,
On this auspicious day,
To England home again!
No more shall manacles oppress!
Our Sovereign grants us this redress!
Bless William, home, and beauty!
Australia's sons arouse and claim
Your free born rights, nor hear with shame,
Australia flinch'd from duty!

All hail the glorious day,
That crush'd a Tyrant's sway,
Our joyful shouts proclaim!
To each that lent his aid,
Our grateful tribute's paid,
Long may they live in fame!
And when our peaceful land is blest,
Our rights secured, ourselves at rest.
Australia, peace, and beauty;
We'll quaff, as round the goblet glides,
And sing, while joy o'er all presides,
"Australia's done her duty!"

Then join both heart and hand,
To free our adopted land,
From tyrany's dire scourge!
May Bourke propitious prove,
And gain Australia's love,
Nor vengeful feelings urge!
That when he leaves us to return
A parent's care we then may mourn.
For Bourke, and peace, beauty!
Our love shall cheer him on his way;
And William, England, Bourke shall say,
"Australia's done her duty!"

And should fierce war alarm
Or any offer harm,
To England, our lov'd land;
Our Native youth shall shew,
Their loyalty's bright glow,
And first in battle stand.
And when her foes are silent laid,
And lovalty's fair tribute paid,
For Australasia's beauty.
High shall her native banners curl,
On which is stamp'd (when they unfurl)
"AUSTRALIA'S DONE HER DUTY!"

About seven o'clock, two immense bonfires, composed of stacks of wood intermingled with barrels of tar, were lit, whose red glare was seen very distinctly by the inhabitants of Sydney. The surrounding woods were illuminated like a second Vauxhall. This gala continued nearly all night, and some two or three hundred found their way home early on Thursday morning. Some of the company had come purposely from Windsor, Liverpool, and Campbell Town.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Music concordances:

Nelson, the celebrated recitative and air, as performed in the comic opera of the Americans, at the Theatre Royal Lyceum, written by Arnold esq., composed & sung by Mr. Braham (London: Goulding, D'Almaine, Potter & Co., [n.d.]

http://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/20405


Commentary:

-


References:

-




26, 29 October, and 3 November 1831

South of Campbell Town, VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

UMMARRAH

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)


Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 26 and 29 October 1831, 492-93, 495, 499 (route map 19)

[26 October 1831] ... Set off travellings in a south-east direction with a view to procure the spears and guns which the native woman of the Big River tribe had disclosed and which had been concealed by her and the Oyster Bay tribe ... On arrival at a small grass plot enclosed by a green copse, the female guide pointed out the embers of a fire where she said her and her tribe had enjoyed a little hilarity and dancing. This woman had previously said that those weapons would be found near to where they had a fire and had danced. On beholding this spot again the woman evinced much feeling and all the circumstances connected therewith burst on her mind and with which she agreeably entertained her sable friends ... [493] ...I ascertained from this women that these weapons had been placed there in concealment at the time of the Line and that some of the small spears belonged to a young lad that was taken at the time of the Line and the big ones to his father. She said that the embers of the fire I saw was where she and the other women, about eight in number, had KAR.NE.WIN.NE, i.e. danced, and that there was two men with them, that the rest of the men was dancing at another fire down in the bottom ...

[495] [27 October 1831] ... UMARRAH entertains the other natives by telling them stories every night, many of them so long as to take upwards of an hour in reciting, keeping them awake listening to his relation until twelve or one o'clock. The manner of relating these stories is by singing them, each verse ending in a chorus, and consist of long journeys or travels with their various adventures, of amorous adventures, exploits in war &c. The manners of these people in this resemble the Indian storytellers or Arabian Nights storytellers.

[499] 3 November. Heavy rain. Writing journal. In conversation with the natives. There being no appearance of the rain ceasing, I set out on my journey, travelling a NE course, Tom taking the lead as he had ofttimes wandered over this country with his tribe and I was anxious to travel the native track. MANNALARGEBBA and UMARRAH gave me each a spear. Observed that when they straighten their spears in the fire that they invariably sing a song. Whether this is to invoke the spirit? In the evening they scrape and clean the spear, but seldom straighten them before the morning, supposing it an ill omen ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

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7 November 1831 (event)

Woolloomooloo, NSW

14 November 1832 (first notice)


INDIGENOUS

YOUNG BUNGAREE

Image:

Vooloo-Moloo au Port Jackson, after Lauvergne, 1831 (engraving 1835); National Library of Australia

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-144654322

Corrobbora at Wooloomoolloo

Documentation:

"Domestic Intelligence", The Sydney Herald (14 November 1831), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12843714

A "corrobbora" of the aborigines took place at Wooloomoolloo on Monday night. Young Bungaree did the honors of the ceremonies. Before the party broke up, his sable Majesty became done up with bull; and in consequence of some pranks played by him he was floored by a waddie, on which a regular melee ensued, the company espousing different sides of the question; and after a hard fought battle they parted good friends, some of their cobberas having sustained considerable damage.

"Asiatic Intelligence - Australasia", The Asiatic Journal 7 new series (April 1832), 197

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=qCsYAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA197

A corrobbora of the aborigines ... [as above]


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

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1832





7 January 1832

Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


War song ... band of music

Documentation:

[News], The Hobart Town Courier (7 January 1832), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4200428

It is with no small pleasure we announce the gratifying news that the whole of the Oyster bay and Big river tribes, the most sanguinary in the island, have surrendered themselves to Mr. Robinson, by whose conciliatory intervention the desirable event has been mainly brought about. They consist of 16 men, 9 women and 3 children, and may be expected in town to day to join the Aboriginal Establishment at Great island, by the Charlotte, now in the harbour.

[News], Colonial Times (11 January 1832), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8646254

On Saturday last the twenty-six Aborigines captured by Mr. Robinson, marched into town. A more grotesque appearance we have seldom witnessed, than the arrival of these natives. At an early hour the inhabitants were expecting them; but it was 10 o'clock, when we observed a crowd of persons descending the hill, and soon after we discovered our worthy Chairman of the Quarter Sessions in his gig, followed by "the strange band." The number of blacks, including the tame mob, amounted to forty, all of whom, with the exception of trowsers that had been presented to them a short distance from town, were arrayed in battle order, each male carrying three spears of twelve to fifteen feet long in the left hand, and only one in the right. As they continued advancing they shrieked their war song, and if report says true, the view with which they were induced to accompany Mr. Robinson, was, that they should seek reredress from the Governor, whom, next to Mr. Robinson, they had been [led] to consider the greatest man in the Island. These men, it is said, were bent upon spearing His Excellency, provided he did not grant them the redress they were seeking. The whole mob immediately proceeded to Government House, when His Excellency came out to meet them, and after consulting some time with those of the tame mob that could speak English, he gave to each of these savage looking warriors a loaf of bread, after which they retired to the green sward, at another part of the premises, when the band was sent for; on the first sound of the musical instruments the astonishment with which they listened was truly wonderful; there was a degree of fear portrayed on their countenances, but as the music continued they became more calm, and at the conclusion of the air, applauded the musicians with a most hideous yell, after the first few minutes it became very evident that the music was not lost upon them; we noticed one savage chiefs countenance, which appeared the very picture of delight, while at the same time a sterner looking object began to beat time with his head. The slow music was evidently prefered by them. After the band had ceased playing a shutter was placed against a tree, and the warriors were requested to aim with their spears at a mark chalked upon it; the immense force with which these instruments of destruction were darted through the shutter was truly astonishing, but the men did not perform well, the crowd pressing too closely upon them, and the wind being very strong at the time. After having thus amused the company, unfortunately a spear broke in the hand of one of the blacks as he was throwing it, the consequence was that part of the instrument took an oblique direction, and a foolish lad who was, standing within a few feet of the target received the spear (after its having, touched the ground), in his leg; the wound was not very serious, but the natives finding that they had hurt the lad, could not be persuaded to throw any more. Soon after this the natives were persuaded to go on board a vessel in the harbour: they consented, understanding that they were to be sent to a place where there is plenty of kangaroo and no work. It is now some years since the inhabitants of Hobart Town have witnessed a tribe of Aborigines in their native state. The hair of the women was shaved closely, and their covering a blanket; the hair of the men, on the contrary, was clotted with a sort of red ochre and grease, resembling very much little strings of bugles; the upper part of their bodies was also well greased, and reddened with, a portion of the same earth.

On the whole the arrival of these natives in Hobart Town cannot but be highly satisfactory to the Colonists, and although some imagine that Mr. Robinson has been too well paid, still on such meritorious undertakings we are not of that party who would calculate about pounds, shillings, and pence ...

[News], The Hobart Town Courier (14 January 1832), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4200377

On Saturday Mr. Robinson, as we had previously announced, made his triumphant entry into town with his party of blacks, amounting in all to 40, including 14 of his former domesticated companions, with the 26 of which the Oyster bay and Big river mobs were composed. They walked very leisurely along the road, followed by a large pack of dogs, and were received by the inhabitants on their entry into town with the most lively curiosity and delight. Soon after their arrival they walked up to the Government house, and were introduced to His Excellency, and the interview that took place was truly interesting. They are delighted at the idea of proceeding to Great Island, where they will enjoy peace and plenty uninterrupted. The great susceptibility which they one and all evinced of the influence of music when the band struck up, which Colonel Logan had purposely ordered down, clearly shewed the numerous spectators the power which we have all along pointed out of this agent of communication, even in the savage breast. After, in the greatest good humour and with an evident desire to make themselves agreeable, going through various feats of their wonderful dexterity, they, proceeded on hoard the Swan river packet, until the Tamar (The Charlotte being too small for the purpose) is ready to proceed with them to Great island.

Whether the expense of this sable but truly interesting colony will ultimately devolve on Hie mother country or on us, it behoves the authorities to take especial care that the work of education and civilization is duly carried on amongst them ...

[News], Launceston Advertiser (25 January 1832), 29

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84777852


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




21 January 1832 (first notice of MS publication)

Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


REICHENBERG, Joseph (composer)

Tasmanian New Quadrilles and Country Dances for 1832

NO COPY IDENTIFIED


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (21 January 1832), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4200325

TASMANIAN NEW QUADRILLES & COUNTRY DANCES, FOR 1832.
THE above are composed for the Piano, and may be had in manuscript copies, by applying to the undersigned, with a Flute accompaniment. He recommends them as pretty, and not very difficult, and has marked the fingering over them.
J. REICHENBERG.
N.B. A variety of other Music for Flute, Piano Forte, as also Violin Strings for Sale.

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (28 January 1832), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4200295

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (4 February 1832), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4200267


Bibliography:

Skinner 2011a


Resources:

Heather Clarke, "The quadrille arrives", Australian colonial dance (8 February 2013)

http://www.colonialdance.com.au/the-quadrille-arrives-1097.html


Commentary:

This is the last dance set that Reichenberg advertised.


References:

-




9-10 February 1832 (events/performances)

Liverpool Plains, NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingston (reporter)

Corrobory
A female singing ... funeral dirge

Reports only


Documentation:

Mitchell 1838, 1 [unseen]

"New South Wales", Blackwood's Magazine 44/277 (November 1838), (690-716), 711-712

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=f_tFAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA711

[711]... They there assumed the attitudes of the corrobory dance, and pointed to the woods behind them ... [712] ... on the bank, again making signs of dancing the corrobory dance ... and they soon appeared gaily painted white for the corrobory ... I overheard a female voice singing ... [From the above]

Mitchell 1839, 1, 113-16

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA114

Feb. 9. - I was awoke by the shouts of a numerous tribe of natives, and on going out of my tent, I found that they covered the opposite bank to the water's edge. They stood on our empty carts in scores like so many sparrows, and on every old tree or stump likely to afford them a better view of my camp. But I overlooked them completely, and as they became more and more vehement in their language and gestures, the greater was our satisfaction in being on the right side of the river. What they did say, we could not guess; but by their loud clamour and gestures, all the leading men seemed to be in a most violent passion. One word only they knew of the language spoken by our stockmen, and that was "budgery," or good; and this I concluded they had learnt at some interview with Dawkins, who used it ever and anon, in addressing them. They were handling every [114] thing attached to our empty carts, but some of our men went over to prevent any serious injury being done. All the clamour seemed directed at me, and being apparently invited by signs to cross to them, I went to the water's edge, curious to know their meaning. They then assumed the attitudes of the corrobory dance, and pointed to the woods behind them. "Come and be merry with us," was thus plainly enough said, but as their dance is warlike and exciting, being practised by them most, when tribes are about to fight, they must either have thought me very simple; or, as seems most likely, the invitation might be a kind of challenge, which perhaps, even a hostile tribe dared not, in honour, decline, whatever the consequences might be. These natives were the finest looking men of their race which I had seen. The peculiar colour of their bodies, covered with pipe-clay, gave them an appearance of being dressed. They were in number about 100, all men or boys, the strongest carrying spears. None of the words of "the Barber," seemed at all intelligible to them, but on mentioning the Nammoy, they pointed to the south-west, which I knew was the direction in which that river was nearest to the camp ... [115] ... At length, they rather suddenly drew together on the bank, again making signs of the corrobory dance, beckoning to some of the men to go with them, and expressing their intention to depart, but to return again to sleep there, by saying "Nangary," and pointing to the ground. This I understood clearly, and very soon they all disappeared ... [116] ... When the sun was near setting, the voices of our unwelcome visitors were again heard, and they soon appeared gaily painted white for the corrobory; but foreseeing this return I had forbidden the men from looking towards them, and in order to discourage their approaches still more, I directed the Doctor to pace backward and forward, on the bank before our tents, with a firelock on his shoulder, and the calm air of a sentinel, but without noticing the natives opposite. They accordingly also kept back, although one of them crossed to the bullock-driver, who was alone, watching the cattle on our left, and endeavoured to persuade him to go over the river with him. The whole at length disappeared without further parley. Under any other circumstances, I should certainly have been willing to have met their civilities at least half way, but recent events had weakened our confidence in the natives. When night came on, we saw their fires behind the trees, at a little distance from the river, and we also heard their voices - but to complete the effect of our coolness in the evening, which certainly must have puzzled them, considering our kindness in the morning, I sent up a rocket, after which their very fires disappeared, and we heard their voices no more.

Mitchell 1839, 1, 117-18

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA117

[117 "FUNERAL DIRGE"] [February 10] ... At length, however, we recognised the park-like scenery, which we had formerly crossed; and, with no small pleasure, again we fell in with our former track, at a distance of about three miles short of our old camp at Rodrigo Ponds. While I stood near this spot, awaiting the arrival of the party, which was still at some distance, I overheard a female singing. The notes were pleasing, and very different from the monotonous strains of the natives in general. Just then, I had been adluiring the calm repose of the surrounding landscape, gilded by the beams of a splendid setting sun, and anticipating a quiet night for the party. The soft sounds, so expressive of tranquillity and peace, were in perfect unison with the scene around. Nothing could have been more romantic, nevertheless I could most willingly have dispensed with the accompaniment at that time, so associated were all our ideas of the natives, with murder and pillage. When my men came up, I directed them to give a "hurra," in hopes that it would put the party, whoever they might be, to flight. Yet, after a cheer about as rough as English throats could well utter, the sweet strain, to my surprise, continued, [118] least so it sounded to me under the circumstances, and so it really proved to be, as I afterwards ascertained.

Men's voices were also heard, as we proceeded quietly to our old ground, and I could not help regretting that after having given the natives on the Gwydir the slip, and seen no others the whole day, we should again find the very spot, on which we were to pass the night, pre-occupied by natives. Our party set up their tents, and the song ceased, but I proceeded with Mr. White towards the place whence the voices came. We there saw several persons amid smoke, and apparently regardless of our presence; indeed, their apathy, as compared with the active vigilance of the natives in general , was surprising. A young man continued to beat out a skin against a tree without caring to look at us, and as they made no advance, we did not go up to them. Mr. White, on visiting their fires, however, at ten p.m. found that they had decamped.

All this seemed rather mysterious, until the nature of the song, I had heard, was explained to me afterwards at Sydney, by the bushranger, when I visited him in the hulk on my return. He then imitated the notes, and informed me, that they were sung by females when mourning for the dead; and he added, that on such occasions, it was usual for the relatives of the deceased, to seem inattentive or insensible to whatever people might be doing around them ...


Bibliography:

Flanagan 1862, 1, 356-57

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=WicXAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA356


Resources:

Jen Willetts, "George Clarke", in Free settler or felon (website, page undated)

http://www.jenwilletts.com/george_clarke.htm


Commentary:

The bushranger Mitchell was famously associated with was George Clarke (alias "The Barber"). Clarke spent three years or more (? c.1826-30) before his recapture in 1831 living among the Kamilaroi people on the Liverpool Plains. Though during his visit to Clarke in the hulk Phoenix Mitchell was "quite satisifed, that he had never been beyond the Nundawar range", his knowing "the notes" and circumstances of this song corroborated at least part of his story.


References:

"BATHURST", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (8 December 1831), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2203906

George Clarke, the runaway, some weeks since brought in by Sergeant Wilcox from the American River, who having lived upwards of three years with eight or nine of the wild or mial tribes of Aborigines, and whose reports of the country in which he has dwelt have excited great interest, contrived on the night of the 25th ult. to escape from the cells of Bathurst gaol. He was quickly pursued by the constables, one of whom fell in with him at Wyagdon, sixteen miles from Bathurst, rapidly retracing his steps to his old quarters, and conducted him back to durance. The constable on duty at the time has since been dismissed and his ticket of leave cancelled for neglect. The account which this "back woodsman" Clarke gives of his mode of life, and other particulars is highly interesting ... his chief anxiety is to return to his native tribe and he was desirous of piloting the party, which with Major Mitchell, Lieut. Blackburne and Maule, of the mounted Police, is intended to proceed thither on a tour of inspection, and giving all possible assistance and information. His penchant is not, however, likely to be gratified on this occasion as he was despatched to Sydney on Thursday morning under an escort of the light company of the 39th from whose custody he will not easily escape. A charge of horse stealing preferred by his original master Mr. Benjamin Singleton of St. Patrick's Plains occasions his removal from Bathurst ...

Mitchell 1839, 1, 1-2

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=aRQtAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1

"MAJOR MITCHELL AND THE BUSHRANGER", in Ralph and Chandos Temple, The Temple Anecdotes: enterprise and adventure (London: Groombridge and Sons, 1865)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=hEkBAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA119




11 April 1832

Mersey River (near Davenport), VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS (NSW; "Sydney natives")

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

The Sydney natives ... went through their native dances

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 11 April 1832; Plomley 1966, 598

11 April. Remained at the Mersey. The native women returned in the afternoon with the red ochre. Had seen nothing of the natives. This evening the Sydney natives painted themselves in their native style and went through their native dances at my request, and engaged their hilarity to a late hour, saying they must give Mr. R all their songs, all the Broken Bay and Bathurst songs. They had painted themselves with chalk and had a savage appearance. They had boomerangs which they beat to accompany the songs; also their spears, which they alternately stuck into the ground as a challenge which was accepted by the others. The kangaroo dance was the best, and the emu dance a good one and the war dance.


Bibliography:

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Resources:

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Commentary:

-


References:

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26 and 28 May 1832

Highfield, VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

The natives danced and performed feats

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 26 and 28 May 1832; Plomley 1966, 609

26 May. Hazy weather. Rain the latter part of this day. Pm, the whole of the natives visited Highfield and danced and performed feats in throwing rhe spear, boomerang &c. The Sydney natives exhibited. Dined at Mr. Curr's with Mr. Cottrell, Mr. Hellyer and Dr. Hutchinson. Sent to Mr. Curr present of native spears, waddies, baskets, boomerangs &c. The natives caught crawfish: sent them to Mr. Curr as a present.

28 May ... Tonight gave an entertainment at my encampment to Mr. Curr and the officers of the establishment. Present: Mr. Curr, Mr. Hellyer, Dr. Hutchinson, Mr. Henderson, Mr. Swayne, Mr. Schayer and Mr. Connor. The camp had an interesting effect, two bell tents and one open tent, besides the natives' encampment. Had some grog and cigars. There were several fires and the whole had a pleasing effect. The evening was fine, which greatly added to the effect. The Sydney natives as well the VDL natives all painted and in a state of nudity. The whole exhibition was truly interesting and it was near 12 pm ere the party adjourned, highly pleased. The hilarity had a good effect on the minds of the gentlemen. At the conclusion the Sydney natives exhibited their war dance, brandishing about firesticks, which shews they have recourse to pyromancy like the VDL natives. Their music, if so it may be termed, consists in beating their boomerang upon a shield.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




24 June 1832

North West Coast, VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

The evening was spent in singing and dancing

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 24 June 1832; Plomley 1966, 623

[24 June] ... On reaching my encampment a welcome was given to the strangers, and after procuring them a repast they engaged in a little hilarity and the evening was spent in singing and dancing. MANNALARGENNA and WOORRADY endeavoured to disturb my tranqulity by disseminating a vague story that the natives intended to abscond during the night ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




5 July

? Highfield, VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

The natives of West Point and Mount Cameron had learnt several of the Brune Island songs

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 5 July 1832; Plomley 1966, 626

5 July ... So well had all my schemes succeeded that the woman DRAY in company with the Port Davey people had visited several times the whole of the native tribes as far as Mount Cameron, so that on my second visit I found that the natives of West Point and Mount Cameron had learnt several of the Brune Island songs, and on entering into conversation with them I found that they knew all the natives well and all the circumstances connected with them and my visit had formed the chief topic of conversation. Their method of cooking the kangaroo and wallaby is precisely the same as the natives on the other parts of the island ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




14 July 1832 (first published)

Sydney, NSW


[ANONYMOUS] "JUVENAL" (pseudonym, unidentified) (songwriter)

Australian Courtship (The Currency Lasses) (Botany Bay Eclogues No. I)  

An excellent new Song, as it ought to be sung in the Theatre Royal, Sydney, by Mr. [Barnett Levey], in the character of the Ticket-of-Leave Holder

Words only; no tune indicated


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)


Source and documentation:

"The Editor's Miscellany", The Sydney Gazette (10 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207461

... We anticipate much pleasure in sitting down, at least once a week, in the midst of our literary and scientific contributors to The Miscellany, for the purpose of talking over "the news of the day," or discussing the merits of their several contributions, or dictating, ex cathedra, upon topics where, as head of the social party, it shall seem proper to deliver our sentiments editorially. This is the sort of "Life in New "South Wales" which we should like to live. And we invite to join our hebdomadal soirée all who have the leisure and inclination to favour us with ORIGINAL contributions of a literary character, or with speculations, essays, or opinions of their own, upon subjects connected with science or the arts. In particular, we cordially invite the Youth of this Colony, whose birth-place is, no doubt, destined, at no very distant period, to wield an important sway among the nations which are forming around it, to vie with one another in endeavouring to lay the foundations of a literature which, in due time, may be acknowledged as distinctly Australian. The dependence of every Colony upon the Mother Country must eventually cease. It ceases, virtually, when the Colonists feel themselves in a condition to provide permanently for their own government and support, and no longer require to seek aid, either for maintenance or protection, from the treasury of the Parent State ... the weight among other people which an established literature of her own would give to Australia at a future period, the immediate consequences of fostering a spirit of literary and scientific enterprise must be to elevate the character of our colonial youth, and have, of course, a direct tendency to counteract and rectify the evils which are inseparable from the disjointed and diseased bottom on which our present population is reared. To day we present our readers with a "Fragment," as a sample of what they may occasionally expect to find in the literary department of our Miscellany. In a short time we expect from a respected and able contributor a series of "Botany Bay Eclogues." [In fact held over to the next issue.]

"The Editor's Miscellany", The Sydney Gazette (14 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207552

... Few of your readers, I suppose, are aware that Dr. Southey, the Poet Laureate of England, published a series of poems, a great many years ago, under the title of "Botany Bay Eclogues." One may easily imagine what sort of pieces such poems were likely to be-representations, forsooth, of our lifers and fourteen-years-men sitting on the rocks that overhang the blue waters of the Pacific, and mingling their salt tears with the ocean brine, or soliloquizing the kangaroos and the blue gum-trees in the forests of the interior, on the miseries of their exile. The worthy Laureate knew very little of "Life in New South Wales," of which, Doctor, I propose to send you a few specimens in a series of "Genuine Botany Bay Eclogues," which, however inferior in poetical merit, will, nevertheless, I doubt not, be greatly superior, in truth of colouring, to his transmarine effusions.

GENUINE BOTANY BAY ECLOGUES, No. I.
AUSTRALIAN COURTSHIP,
An excellent new Song, as it ought to be sung in the Theatre Royal, Sydney, by Mr. B - t L - y, in the character of the Ticket-of-Leave Holder.

The Currency Lads may fill their glasses,
And drink to the health of the Currency Lasses;
But the lass I adore, the lass for me,
Is a lass in the Female Factory.

O! Molly's her name, and her name is Molly,
Although she was tried by the name of Polly;
She was tried and was cast for death at Newry,
But the Judge was bribed and so were the Jury.

She got "death recorded" in Newry town,
For stealing her mistress's watch and gown;
Her little boy Paddy can tell you the tale,
His father was turnkey of Newry jail.

The first time I saw this comely lass
Was at Parramatta, going to mass;
Says I, "I'll marry you now in an hour,"
Says she, "Well, go and fetch Father P - r."

But I got into trouble that very same night!
Being drunk in the street I got into a fight;
A constable seized me - I gave him a box -
And was put in the watch-house and then in the stocks.

O! it's very unaisy as I may remember,
To sit in the stocks in the month of December;
With the north wind so hot, and the hot sun right over,
0! sure, and it's no place at all for a lover!

"It's worse than the tread-mill," says I, "Mr. Dunn,"
"To sit here all day in the hate of the sun!"
"Either that or a dollar," says he, " for your folly," -
But if I had a dollar I'd drink it with Molly.

But now I am out again, early and late
I sigh and I cry at the Factory gate,
"O! Mrs. R-, late Mrs. F - - n,
"O! Won't you let Molly out very soon?"

"Is it Molly M'Guigan ?" says she to me,
"Is it not?" says I, for she know'd it was she.
"Is it her you mean that was put in the stocks
For beating her mistress, Mrs. Cox ?"

"O ! yes and it is, madam, pray let me in,
"I have brought her a half-pint of Cooper's best gin,
"She likes it as well as she likes her own mother,
"O ! now let me in, madam, I am her brother."

So the Currency Lads may fill their glasses,
And drink to the health of the Currency Lasses;
But the lass I adore, the lass for me,
Is a lass in the Female Factory . . .

"To the Editor", Colonial Times (21 August 1832), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8646662

"The Editor's Miscellany", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (21 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207640

"The Editor Miscellany", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (24 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207678

"The Editor's Miscellany", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (28 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207753


Bibliography:

Wannan 1965, 280-81

Clarke 1968 (II), 177-78

Dutton 1976, 20-21


Resources:

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C718886


Commentary:

English poet Robert Southey's (inauthentic) Botany Bay Eclogues (written 1793; pub. 1797) includes, among other inaccuracies, the unlikely lines:

. . . Welcome ye wild plains
Unbroken by the plough, undelv'd by hand
Of patient rustic; where for lowing herds,
And for the music of the bleating flocks,
Alone is heard the kangaroo's sad note
Deepening in distance . . .


References:

-




17 July 1832 (first published)

Sydney, NSW


[ANONYMOUS] "JUVENAL" (pseudonym; unidentified) (songwriter)

The Happy Family (Botany Bay Eclogues No. II)

I will sing you a song of a settler bold Who lived at Botany Bay

Words only; no tune indicated


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)


Source:

"The Editor's Miscellany. Soirée II", The Sydney Gazette (17 July 1832), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2207594

BOTANY BAY ECLOGUES, No. II.
THE HAPPY FAMILY.

I will sing you a song of a settler bold,
Who lived at Botany Bay,
And who married a lady as I have been told
From the Fleet or the Marshalsea,
And who lived as long and as happy a life,
As a man can do with a ******* wife.

Unhappily I could never discover,
Though I tried it many a day,
Whether this lady had ever a lover
E'er she came to Botany Bay;
But all the Australian Nonpareils
Were proud to bask in her syren smiles.

For the lady was young, and the lady was fair,
And withal so wondrous gay,
That wherever a ball was, she was there
The pride of Botany Bay.
The first of her virtues was beauty you see,
And the Hundred and Second was chastity.

And yet I have sometimes heard it averred,
How truly I cannot say,
While the Forty-eighth and the Seventy-third
Were quartered at Botany Bay,
That this lady so fair had friends that were nearer,
Than even the settler himself - and far dearer.

But why should the settler think it uncommon?
Or why should he storm and curse?
For the man who weds a ******* woman,
He weds her for better for worse.
So if she is good, he's a lucky elf,
But if she is naught, he may thank himself.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C718886


Commentary:

-


References:

-




From August 1832

Wellington Valley, NSW


INDIGENOUS

HANDT, Johann Christian Simon (reporter)

WATSON, William (reporter)

Note:

For immediate convenience' sake at present Handt and Wilson's accounts are given here in two groups, this first covering the years 1832 to 1834, and the second (which is entered below at February-March 1835) for the year 1835.


Documentation:

Watson, Report 1832-33

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-reports/

The Missionaries Revd. William. Watson and Handt with their wives arrived at Wellington Valley 3 October 1832 accompanied by eight Natives who had joined them on the road. A few Days after their arrival they were visited by more than sixty Natives many of whom were Wild, and had come from 50 to 70 miles distant. They were supplied with food, a small quantity of Tobacco and a few pipes. They were then interrogated as to their knowledge of who had made them, the sun and Trees &c of this they appeared to be entirely ignorant; nor had they least idea of a Supreme Being, of the immortality of the soul, or of a future state of existence. They were then informed that the Missionaries had been sent by the King of England to teach them the great truths of religion and to make them acquainted with Arts and Civilization. They answered to these things Budgery Budgery (good, good). They did not remain many days but have since paid several visits to the Mission. The Missionaries very speedily discovered that the Natives had been prejudiced against them by the Stockmen in the neighbourhood who told them that the men would be yoked and made to work as Bullocks and the children would be sent to Sydney and put in prison. A School [2] was established at the commencement of the year and has been continued. Here from twelve to twenty children have been under instruction at one time some have occasionally left and others have their place. These have been taught to read and, spell, and have been regularly instructed in the principles of the Christian religion. It has not been discovered that these children & youths are in any degree inferior in intellect or ability to learn to those of civilized countries they learn their lessons, hymns, Prayers & as readily as children in general in an English School ...

Handt, Journal 1: August-October 1832, page 14; MS C N/O 51/13 [1-058]. modern edition online

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals

[1 October 1832] October, 1. We had on our way to pass a creek several times on account of its crooked course. The last time we crossed it, we were bogged, and it was with great difficulty that we could get out of the mud. We travelled about eight miles. We had scarcely pitched our tent when it began to rain. There is much timber here, but scarcely any underwood. The Blacks had been accompanying us, and received their supper. Two of them painted themselves afterwards with pipe-clay, and showed by the light of the fire their skill in the native dance.

Handt, Journal 4, July-October 1833, pages 6-7; MS C N/O 51/ [1-099]

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/iv-july-oct-1833.html

[24 August 1833] Saturday, 24. A large party of the Blacks came here this morning, both men and women. Their design for visiting us was to get some blankets ... they carry a little bag on their backs in which they have some trifles, perhaps some remaining food and some pipe clay, with which the men paint themselves when they [7] have a "Corobera" (dance).

Handt, Journal 6, page 6; C N/O 51/ [1-118]

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/vi-jan-april-1834.html

[26 March 1834] Wednesday, 26. The sick woman seems to be a very debased character. She thinks she will soon be well, and then she intends to live with the Whites at the stock-stations. I told her that it was very wrong if she did and that God was angry at such conduct. She and the other women daub themselves every morning with pipe-clay. This they do, as I was informed, in honour of their late husband, and they will continue to do so for a season. They smear their faces and their hair all over, also the upper part of the body, and their arms and legs. When the Blacks use the pipe-clay as an ornament, for instance when they have a dance, they make generally lines only on their bodies, and draw them perhaps in various directions, especially on the face ...

Handt, Journal 7, pages 1-2, 12; C N/O 51/ [1-124;125; 135]

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/vii-april-sept-1834.html

[26 April 1834] Saturday, 26. A party of Blacks passed here to day. Some women only stayed for a short time, who, when I asked them, why all the rest had passed, replied that they would have a dance to night. O that they might soon learn to sing the praises of Immanuel, and to be joyful in the Lord! At present we are obliged to harp on the willows, but then we should take them down, and tune the song of Zion.

[1 May 1834] Thursday, May 1. Some Blacks, who came to-day, said that the dance should take place to-night a few miles from here, with others of their associates, and they soon left for that purpose.

[3 May 1834] Saturday, 3. The intended dance took place last night I understand.

[8 September 1834] Monday, 8. Spoke in the morning with king Boby and some other Blacks about God and Jesus Christ: they were attentive but with regard to their personal interest in these things, indifference seemed to pervade their minds. However God is able to open their hearts, and we hope that he will do so at the time appointed. In the meantime we must not despise the days of small things. Many of the Blacks came to us this afternoon in addition to those who were here before, and stayed all night. The young men sang at night with great animation and cheerfulness some of their heathenish songs.

Handt, Journal 8, October-December 1834, pages 6, 11; MS C N/O 51

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/viii-oct-dec-1834.html

[22 November 1834] Saturday, 22. Several Blacks came to us to-day with whom I entered into a conversation. When I asked them, whether they would stay here for a while, they replied in the negative, and said they were going to the river fishing. When I was in the garden to-day with the Boys, who are here under instruction, one of them began of his own accord to repeat part of the morning hymn, "Awake, my soul! and with the sun." But the same Boy, after having received a good mess of potatoes, went away without asking permission or mentioning his intentions.

[22 December 1834] Tuesday, 22. Most of the Blacks left here to-day, to go to Cobolyen, where was to be a dance, as I was informed.

Watson, Journal 1: August-October 1832, p.12, 26-27

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals

[5 September 1832] Wednesday 5th Five Black Natives and three of their wives came up this morning when we were at breakfast. One of them had his face daubed all over with pipe clay, which I am informed is the custom when they have a corrobbera [sic] or native dance.

[30 September 1832] Sunday 30th Sept. ... The married men left us about 7 O'Clock but the young men remained by us. When we knelt down to prayers they appear'd to be at a loss what to think or how to act, however they all sat still cross legged, and their hands clasped. After prayers [27] we sang O'er the gloomy hills of darkness &c (set to the tune "Calcutta") come let us join our cheerful songs &c and There is a land of pure delight &c. The singing of the females seem'd to delight them much. I asked them where Black Fellow would go to when he should die? Sandy answered up there I believe pointing to the skies. I asked him who sits down there? He said Cobohn (great) King. Budjeree (good) fellows go there I believe.

Watson, Journal 2: October-December 1832, p. 5-6, 22-23

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/ii-oct-dec-1832.html

[10 October 1832] Wednesday 10th All the Blacks who were here yesterday have remained and several others come up. I attended a Corrobbera or Indian dance which they have had tonight 2 miles in the Bush, but I cannot describe it [6] so as to do anything like justice to it. They are all naked except a small band of net work 2 inches round the waist and a small tassel suspended to it before and another behind. As a ground work their bodies are rubbed all over with red ochre, on which is also generally laid a colouring with a kind of yellow stone, and then different designs marked out with softened pipe clay. Their faces are generally well daubed; but there are not 2 marked alike. One of them wears a kind of feathery crown made of white cockatoo's feathers. They have a very large fire by the side of which they perform their maneuvers. The women sit on the ground beating their bags (made of oppossum skins) with both hands, and a number of men at one side beating their Womeras (war instruments of a semicircular shape) to a tune to which they also sing. The men then with 2 womeras and a nella nella (a short bludgeon with a large heavy head) in the left hand and one Womera in the right go through a regular course of running, dancing and (apparently) skirmishing with the greatest order and exactness, though sometimes a stranger would fancy they were about to kill each other.

[6 December 1832] Thursday Dec 6th. Having made some provision for teaching on the "Infant School System" I commended this morning ... Our Jimmy Buckley, the Black young man who has been with us since our arrival here, would not go near but stood at a distance for a short time and then went home to bed. Another young man who had been dancing was laid down by the fire. I went to ascertain who it was, but when he saw me approaching he wrapped his head up in his blanket apparently ashamed. I found it was young man Bobby who had been a good deal with us. I thought much about the conduct of Jimmy Buckley in this instance, as the corrobbora is the greatest amusement they have, and even very old men will go a great many miles to one. Moreover, Jimmy's mother and father were both there. I know that persons may say with propriety than an anxious mind is too apt to magnify trifles. But may we not from these circumstances see reason for encouragement. We may be disappointed, but is that a reason that we should let pass unnoticed, at least in our own minds, circumstances of this nature. When we came home Jimmy said corrobborra in house (family prayers) is much better than that. This young man, though naturally of a [23] volatile disposition, is always so solemn and apparently devout when he says his prayers and hymns that Mrs Watson has often remarked to me how much her mind has been affected while witnessing him. It is so different to what he used to be, formerly he never came in to this duty but he laughed and trifled. All the children say their prayers and hymns to Mrs Watson morning and evening, nor do they like to say them to anyone else or when any one else is present. My heart has often been melted while from another room I have heard them repeat their prayers and hymns as with one voice ...

Watson, Journal 4: April-July 1833, p.9

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/iv-april-july-1833.html

[7 May 1833] Tuesday 7th. Was much amused and pleased this evening. They were all sitting in the room where we have family worship, unconscious of being observed. Each of them took a Hymn Book and then one of them asked Dickey Marshal (Native boy 8 yrs old) were the hymn was? Dickey answered "it is here, it begins with a P". He then began to give out Praise God &c and said "but before we begin I must say the first chapter in Psalms". He then repeated the versus before and the rest joined him in singing it. Their practice on such occasions is to make Dickey their clerk, they generally say to him before they begin "now Dickey say it".

Watson, Journal 6: October-December 1833, p.11

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/vi-oct-dec-1833.html

[17 November 1833] Sunday 17th. Eleven Natives at church today. Sometime ago we had a servant whose hair had been lost through disease. The Natives gave him the name of Gunagal Bob. Gunagal is the Native term for a plain. This evening I was surprised at hearing one of the boys tell the other Natives that it was wicked to say "Gunagal Bob". It appeared that he was led to say so from having learnt that hymn of Dr Watts respecting the prophet. "Go up thou bald head" &c. In the afternoon some of the children were missing and we could not find them. At length Mrs Watson discovered them in the church looking at some pictures. They said they wanted to see Jesus. Did they indeed feel a desire to see or become acquainted with the Saviour that would be a most happy circumstance.

Watson, Journal 8: April-June 1834, p.2.

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/viii-april-june-1834.html 

[26 April 1834] Sat 26. Nearly 40 Natives came up today, several of whom are very ill. I could fain have spoken to them on the subject of religion, but their anxieties were only expressed after pipes and tobacco. I told them that they were always ready to ask fro a pipe but they felt no desire to pray to God to make them good, and that he might take them to Heaven when they died. Most of them went away. After only the sick remained. When I was in the garden this evening the following conversation took place between Goongeen and one of my Native youths and myself.

G: The Black fellows are going to fight tomorrow, I shall go.

Mr W: No you must not. Tomorrow is Sunday, it belongs to God. You must go to church and pray to God to take all evil from your heart and to make you good.

G: I will go after prayers I believe.

Mr W: No, the whole day is sacred and it is your duty to remain at home and learn respecting Jesus Christ who died for you.

G: Tomorrow Sunday! Hy! Hy! Great Sunday in Sydney, great church there. Everybody go to church in Sydney. Great music too, Boom! Boom! baa!(organ). What for not make great church here like at Sydney?

Mr W: When the Natives are desirous of coming to church and have become acquainted with religion we shall erect a church for them here, and others in other parts. This young man had been with me to Sydney and he often speaks of the church and organ and of Mr. Hill. At the same time he saw several New Zealanders, very many of whom, I told him, sat down and read Bible and many of them were very good. This also frequently forms a topic of conversation between him and his Native brethren.

Watson, Journal 9: July-October 1834

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/ix-july-oct-1834.html

[16 July 1834] Wed 16. One of our young men asked me this morning to allow him to go cut some bark for a gentleman about 8 miles distant. I did not think it my duty to refuse. 4 or 5 more accompanied him. My boys have been putting a fence round a piece of ground for a garden for themselves. One of them was laid on the ground. He was not aware that I was near. I heard him repeat the words "Our Lord, Jesus Christ". I listened and found that he was repeating part of the church service, after which he began to sing a hymn.

[7 September 1834] Sund 7. All our Natives, fourteen in number, attended church today. After service many of those who went away on Friday returned. About 32 here tonight. I went to the camp and found them busy cooking their opossums of which they had got a large supply. I expressed my regret that they should go about on Sundays. One of them said "Black fellow not got Sunday". I pointed to the moon, which had just risen, and asked "Who made the moon?". One said "I do not Know" and another said "I do not know". I knew this was false and therefore addressing one of them I said "What Neddy, do you not know?" Immediately pointing to the Heavens he said "God". When we address them on the important subject of religion they appear to be as indifferent as stones, but if we show them a pipe, piece of tobacco or a piece of bread they are all life and agility. So profound is the spiritual sleep in which they are sunk. But we cannot allow them to sleep on without making repeated efforts to rouse them, praying that the Holy Spirit may bless our feeble endeavours. It was pleasing to find that Rachal had not forgotten the morning hymn, for she sang at church and urged the other girls to sing.

Watson, Journal 10: October-December 1834

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/x-oct-dec-1834.html

[23 November 1834] Sund 23. Ten Natives at church today. Two of the adult females are learning to read. A message was brought to Poll Buckley today from her husband Jemmy, saying there was going to be a Native dance at a station and she must meet him there. I told her it was very wicked to do so on a Sunday and said she had better not go. However she did not take my advice. One of my girls (?) was reading a lesson which runs thus, a good boy will not lie, swear, steal &c. When she came to the word "lie" she suddenly stopt short and would not proceed. I asked why she had done so. She hesitated answering, but at length acknowledged that she did not like to read it because it condemn'd her conduct. [24 November 1834] Mond 24th. Poll Buckley returned with several others this morning. She says that they had not a Native dance because she told the men that I said it was wrong. (This may be true) ...

[21 December 1834] Sunday 21st This morning about 9 O'Clock we heard some person singing and first we thought it was our men. Shortly afterwards we heard a person speaking as if engaged in delivering a fervent exhortation. As we have lately received two servant men from Sydney we thought the warm address must proceed from one of them. However, on looking towards the Blacksmith shop we saw one of our boys apparently listening. Mrs Watson went over and lo!, there was Goongeen (our Native youth) standing on the hearth delivering some kind of address, apparently with all the energy possible. When he saw Mrs W he immediately ceased and ran to conceal himself. It appears that he had borrowed a Bible of one of the servants and then going into the shop, closed the door. The boy who was listening said that he first sang the morning hymn, then little prayers and great prayers. (I suppose he meant the prayers said by them daily and the Church prayers). Then the Benediction, afterwards he [13] began to preach. What were his reason for this procedure I cannot tell. He shut himself up alone so that while it was an imitation of Divine worship I can scarcely say it was a mockery.

"REPORT OF THE MISSION TO THE ABORIGINES OF NEW HOLLAND, STATION - WELLINGTON VALLEY", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (25 June 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2198827 

In October, 1833, Goongeen, a native youth, accompanied one of the missionaries on a visit to Sydney. In many respects it appears desirable that persons in his situation should have an opportunity of witnessing the comforts and advantages of a civilized life. But it must be confessed, that in a moral and religious point of view the circumstance is replete with danger from that depravity of morals which so generally disgrace our cities and towns. As the youth was anxious to see Sydney, it was deemed more prudent for him to accompany the missionary than others, who would encourage him in the indulgence of his evil propensities, and who would probably introduce him to scenes of vice, to which he had before been a stranger. Of all the strange things he beheld there, nothing seemed to surprise him so much, or to make so deep an impression on his memory, as Saint James' Church full of persons assembled together for divine worship, and the sound of the organ. Many times since his return, he remarked "Sydney, live, live; every body goes to Church at Sydney - great music there. What for not make Church here like Church at Sydney." He seemed much astonished at the fine furniture which he saw in some respectable houses, and asked, "who made all them things." To him this was quite a novel scene, as the seats of the mission house consist principally of benches, boxes, and broken chairs ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

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3 September 1832

[? PLACE], VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

The strange natives corroboreed ... that they would kill all of us and take away the women and dogs

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 3 September 1832; Plomley 1966, 649-50

[3 September] ... A dance was now proposed. The strange natives corroboreed first, and corroboreed that they would kill all of us and take away the women and dogs, and said make haste and dance for we will kill them all by and by. My people danced and sung in their turn the eastern dances, in which the two west coast natives that I had brought with me joined, considering themselves as part of my people, PENDEROIN and PANNUBUKE had during the time that they had been with me learnt the language of the eastern natives, and danced with much zest and glee. Whilst PAGERLY was dancing the old man WYNE took away her blanket. Of the strange natives only a part danced, a sullen reserve being depicted in the countenance of most of them, and a foreboding that something fatal was intended [650] seized my breast. TRUGERNANNA's relative said they would spear us at daylight next morning. My natives was seriously alarmed. I spread my blanket and took off my clothes and retired to rest, and whilst the natives were dancing I slept for a short time. My people blamed me for sleeping and said I ought not, but should take care and watch. However, I considered this the only opportunity and was therefore better prepared to watch the remainder of the night. I affected not to entertain the least suspicion that the strangers meant to harm us and said that it was likely they would abscond during the night, but could not believe they meant anything further. One of my natives told me the strangers meant to spear us: I smiled and said it was all nonsense, to which he replied, "you see by and by". The moon afforded through the trees a glimmer of light, so that we were not wholly in darkness. The chief of the Pieman River aborigines sat at the foot of my bed, at the same fire my people sat by, preparing his spears with which he purposed destroying me, and whilst hardening them in the fire and straightening them between his teeth, at the same time would leer at me with a savage grin thinking that I was asleep, but I was watching his actions and only pretending to sleep ...


Bibliography:

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Resources:

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Commentary:

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References:

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9-10 October 1832

Flinders Island, TAS


INDIGENOUS (mainland Tasmania)

WALKER, George Washington (recorder, reporter)

BACKHOUSE, James (reporter)

A corrobberry, or dance, for joy at the arrival of the cutter
Emu dance
Horse dance
Thunder and lightning dance

Report only


Documentation:

James Backhouse, journal, 9 October 1832; Plomley 1987, 224-25, 227, 280 note 8, 281 note 14

... Though the aborigines here now wear clothing, the men seem to have no idea of indecency in being naked. They strip off all their clothes to dance, or corrobery as they call it: and the instruction which has been extended has prevailed on the women to keep their clothing on when they join in these amusements. They had a grand corrobery after sunset, as a testimony of their joy at the arrival of the cutter with supplies. They continued dancing round a fire which they supplied with fresh fuel to keep it blazing till near midnight. At intervals they stopped to take breath. When they danced they sung. Most of their songs, we understood, were very simple, relating to the object they represented the motions of. They had a horse (barracooter) dance, an emu dance, a thunder and lightning dance, etc. In their [225] horse dance they formed a string moving in a circle, in a half stooping posture, holding by each other's loins, one man going along as if reining in the others and a woman striking them gently as they passed as driver. Sometimes their motions were extremely rapid, but they carefully avoided treading one upon another. In :heir emu dance they placed one hand behind them and alternately put the other to rhe ground or raised it above their heads imitating the motions of the emu's head. In their thunder and lightning dance, they moved their feet rapidly, bringing them to the ground with force and producing considerable noise, and a tremulous motion in the earth perceptible some feet from them. In another dance they all held up their hands, pointing them over the fire and moving rapidly around it. Each dance ended with a loud noise, the shout of the last effort of exhausted breath. They evidently kept themselves very warm by their exertion, and sometimes one or other of them retired and plunged into an adjacent lagoon which bounds the east side of the area of the settlement, and being full of tall teatrees serves for a "breakwind" in that direction. The good temper with which they conduct their amusement is very srriking, as is also the agility they display in not trampling upon each other when so thick, and moving with such rapidity as to render their incommoding one another no easy matter to avoid, and one or other of them in the midst of the moving mass frequently striking the ground with both hands and then jumping to a great height. Though the men are all naked on these occasions, there is not the least appearance of indecency about them. They are said to have had some obscene dances in their natural state but these have been completely suppressed in this settlement. The women now keep each to one man; formerly they were not at all particular in this respect, and the men who have wives keep to them ...

[227] [10 October 1832] ... The natives seemed, as usual, all cheerfulness. Though to Europeans our visit might seem unseasonable, in one of the breakwinds they commenced singing, and we sat down among them, and they kept it up for a considerable time, sometimes the men at others the women. There was much animation in their countenances and gestures, and those who understand music say their singing is musical. To me it was far from unpleasing. It is, we understand, not uncommon for them to begin to sing after they retire in an evening and to keep it up till midnight.

Backhouse and Walker, "The report of a visit to the penal settlement of Port Arthur and to the Aboriginal Establishment on Flinders Island ..."; Plomley 1987, 250

... At night the men had a "corrobbery" or dance (in which the women occasionally joined) in token of their pleasure at the arrival of the cutter. They danced round a fire, singing at the same time, and performing a variety of gestures, and contioued thus to amuse themselves until midnight. Though this afforded them pastime for some hours, nothing but the most uninterrupted good humour seemed to prevail. If one party knocked down or jostled against another, it only furnished occasion for pleasantry, and was invariably succeeded by a laugh, and is the same in all their diversions. Even in throwing the spear, which they do at one another with great dexterity, contriving to bend their bodies and evade the weapon, they display the greatest good temper and cheerfulness. From what we saw of these people, we think they deserve the character of a good tempered race. The amusement of dancing is kept up rwo or three times a week; and on these occasions, as well as on some others, the men dispense with their clothes. But the women, who will now and then join in the dance, have been reclaimed from this habit, and are never seen uncovered. They even studiously avoid indelicacy in this respect at least before strangers; and there is nothing that can with propriety be termed immodest in their general deportment ...

Backhouse 1834, (51) 52

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=dOANAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA52

10th mo. [Oct.] 9th. Though the wind continued to blow from the N. W. the captain determined, with the assistance of an old sealer as Pilot, to beat towards Flinders' Island, having learned that the settlement there was short of provisions. We came safely to anchor under Green Island, the nearest safe place to the settlement for a vessel. When we landed, W. J. Darling welcomed us heartily to Flinders Island and to the accommodation of his hut, for which he apologized, but the cordiality with which we were received, made up for all the defects of the place. A large group of the Aborigines were waiting on the beach, on the bank of which they were sitting; at first they appeared to take no notice of us, but on W. J. Darling's requesting them, they rose up, and on our being introduced to them, they shook hands with us very affably; their appearance was lively and kind, and they seemed in good health. They set up shouts of joy, when informed of the arrival of plenty of beef, pork, biscuit, flour &c. The settlement consists of an oblong area, within which are [52] a number of huts, about twelve feet square, for the officers, stores &c. the hut occupied by the Commandant is twenty feet by ten feet, and has a window of four panes of glass on each side of the door; it is the only one on the premises, with glass windows. There are at the other end of the area, three large huts for the Aborigines, and a rude erection of boughs, used in summer as a chapel. We visited the Aborigines in their dwellings, which are in the form of roofs placed upon the ground. Most of them were sitting on the ground round their fires with their dogs, roasting Mutton birds and Wallabies; the latter are animals of the Kangaroo tribe. The people used many expressions of pleasure; some in their own language, others in English, which a few of them can speak tolerably; and two or three of them can speak a little French, having been taken by a whaling vessel to the Isle of France. They keep their articles of tin very clean, of their own accord: they have left off some of their native habits, and now wear clothing, except at their dances, when the men often strip it all off. The women however, have been persuaded to keep theirs on, when they join in these amusements; which they practise after sunset two or three times a week. The good temper with which the Aborigines conduct their diversions is very striking, as is also their agility ...

Walker's journal, in Backhouse and Tylor 1862, 98-99

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=j3ErAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA98 (DIGITISED)

As soon as it was dark, preparations were made for a "Corrobberry" or dance, for joy at the arrival of the cutter. These are seasons of great excitement, attended with much exertion. The men have not yet been prevailed upon to retain their clothing; this is uniformly dispensed with; but the women, who occasionally join in the dance, make no alteration in their adopted dress. A fire of sticks, or boughs that make a lively blaze, was made, around which the men formed a circle, and began a kind of song, consisting of expressions frequently repeated, and uttered in a drawling monotone. The subjects of these songs are various; sometimes the pursuits of hunting and the enumeration of the [99] animals that become a prey to their dexterity and prowess; at other times the feats of war, and their sanguinary conflicts with adverse tribes. A very common description, relates to the habits of animals, such as the Emu and Kangaroo; and since they have become acquainted with Europeans, to the Horse, the Cow, &c. They accompany the words with significant gestures and actions. Thus in the emu-dance, by bending forward an arm over the fire and making a movement with their hands, like the motion of a bird's head, they imitate that animal in its peculiar habits. In the Horse-dance they lay hold of each other's loins, one following another, and imitate the prancing motions of the animal, whilst a woman stands by and imitates the driver, by gently tapping them with a stick, as they pass before her. They have also the Thunder-and-lightning-dance, in which they stamp with their feet and whirl round the fire, to represent the noise and swiftness of these dread phenomena. A very frequent manoeuvre during most of their "corrobberries" is, to leap from the ground whilst running in a circle round the fire, and in descending, to turn their faces to it, crouching at the same time to the ground on their haunches, and striking the earth with their hands. The exercise attendant on these diversions is often very violent, occasioning individuals to drop out of the ring, bathed in perspiration, until they have recovered. The good-humour they exhibit throughout the amusement, which generally lasts for some hours, often till midnight, is remarkable, considering the excitement that prevails. Sometimes one will jostle against another, and perhaps occasion a fall to both, which is sure to be succeeded by a general laugh. Though their exhibition in a state of nudity must necessarily offend the eye of a European, there is not the slightest action or gesture that would offend the modesty of the most scrupulous.

Walker, journal, 9 October 1836; MS, State Library of New South Wales; Plomley 1987, 281 notes 11 and 14

[note 11 ... of their "corroberies" [Walker] said] Amidst these varied movements which are made under the influence of strong excitement a sort of chanting, or monotonous souod, with occasional shouts, are made; and at intervals a sort of deep sigh, or explosion of the breath, on a signal for a momentary rest to give time to breathe, is simultaneously made; generally succeeded by a kind of howl, or squalling shout, expressive of joy.

[14 Walker says of a middle-aged man, apparently a senior person in the company, who began singing, that] his song was of a simple, and very inartificial kind - being little more than chanting, occasionally changing the note or making slight variations in his voice, with more or less elevation, and accompanied throuhgout with many significant signs and gestures, and a very animated expression. At intervals he gave some sort of sigh, or signal for a momentary pause, that is common in their dances, which is immediately answered by an universal and simultaneous shout, in both instances. This kind of applause is also frequent during the course of the song.

Walker 1897, 146-47

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/146/mode/2up (DIGITISED)

(146) For 15 years Flinders was the home of the miserable remnant of the native tribes of Tasmania, and for the greater part of them it was destined to become their grave. Messrs. Backhouse and Walker visited the settlement in the spring of 1832 (October), a few months after the (147) blacks had been transported thither, and it is from a report made by them to Governor Arthur at his request, and from the MS. journal of Mr. Walker, that I have gleaned a few particulars respecting the aborigines as they appeared when undergoing the process of civilisation on Flinders Island. It was in September, 1832, that the friends sailed from Hobart in the Government cutter Charlotte, placed at their disposal by Governor Arthur . . .

Walker 1897, 158-59

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/158/mode/2up (DIGITISED)

(158) As soon as it was dark on the evening of our arrival [9 September 1832], preparations were made for a corrobberry, or dance, for joy at the arrival of the cutter. The men strip off their clothes, but the women, who occasionally join in the dance, make no alteration in their adopted dress. A fire of sticks, or boughs that make a lively blaze, was made, around which the men formed a circle, and began a kind of song or chant, consisting of expressions frequently repeated, and uttered in a drawling monotone.

The subjects of these songs are various; sometimes the pursuits of hunting, and the enumeration of the animals that become a prey to their dexterity ; at other times the feats of war, and their sanguinary conflicts with adverse tribes. A very common description relates to the habits of animals, such as the emu and kangaroo; and, since they have become acquainted with Europeans, to the horse, the cow, &c. They accompany the words with significant gestures and actions. Thus in the emu-dance, by bending forward an arm over the fire, and making a movement with the hand, like the motion of a bird's head, they imitate the bird in its peculiar habits. In the horse-dance, which they call barracoota, [Jorgenson gives as the equivalent for "horse," baircoutaua; Norman gives parcbutenar] they lay hold of each other's loins, one following another, and imitate the prancing of the animal, while a woman stands by and imitates the driver, gently tapping them with (159) a stick as they pass before her. They have also the thunder-and-lightning dance, in which they stamp with their feet and whirl round the fire. A frequent manoeuvre during their corrobberrys is to leap from the ground while running in a circle round the fire, and, in descending, to turn their faces to it, crouching at the same time to the ground on their haunches, and striking the earth with their hands.

The exertion during these performances is often very violent, occasioning individuals to drop out of the ring, bathed in perspiration, until they have recovered. The good humour they exhibit throughout the amusement, which generally lasts for some hours, often till midnight, is remarkable, considering the excitement that prevails. Sometimes one will jostle against another, and perhaps occasion a fall to both, which is sure to be succeeded by a general laugh. Though the nudity of the men must necessarily offend the eye of a European, there is not the slightest action or gesture that would offend the modesty of the most scrupulous.


Bibliography:

Plomley 1976, 196

Plomley 1987, 280 note 8

The "horse dance" barracooter: this is another spelling of Robinson's pare.kute.ten.ne.


Resources:

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Commentary:

-


References:

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15 October 1832 (performance)

Flinders Island, VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS (head man, Port Dalrymple tribe

INDIGENOUS (women, mainland Tasmania)

INDIGENOUS (mainland Tasmania)

WALKER, George Washington (recorder)


Song sung by the Chief of the Port Dalrymple Tribe

Report only; ? not transcribed


Documentation:

Walker 1897, 159

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/159/mode/2up

On another evening we visited their shelters or "breakwinds." From twenty to thirty sleep in each shelter. Here they generally cook their food and eat their meals, and here in the evening they sit round the fire and talk, or one sings, while the rest listen with deep interest and attention, frequently applauding by a general shout. At the suggestion of Mr. Archibald Maclachlan, the surgeon, they sang two of their songs for our benefit. The first was sung by the chief of the Port Dalrymple tribe. The same words were repeated many times in succession, accompanied by many impassioned gestures, and an exertion of breath almost painful to witness. Occasionally the singer gave a short sigh, as if his breath was spent, in which the rest united with one accord. The shout that succeeded allowed the performer a moment's pause, when he resumed the song with great animation. During the course of the song the chief often became highly excited, pointing significantly with his finger, and showing remarkable expression in his countenance, as if the subject was most important, the people listening meanwhile with profound attention.

Nickkeh niugeh tibreh (Aboriginal Song sung by the Women in chorus)

Words only extant


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (Walker 1897, 171-72)


Source and documentation:

Walker, journal, in Backhouse and Tylor 1862, 100-01

In the course of the evening we visited the Break-winds. The inmates were reclining around the fires, which are made along the centres of these huts. We felt some reluctance to disturb them, but they readily roused up on our entrance, as soon as they saw that it was the stranger white men, who had come to see them. The bare earth serves them for a bed; each couple, as well as the single persons, is allowed a blanket. At the suggestion of Archibald Maclachlan, the surgeon, they sung two of their songs. The first was sung by the chief of the Port Dalrymple tribe. I observed that the same words were repeated many times in succession, accompanied by many impassioned gestures, and so much exertion of breath as was almost painful to witness. Occasionally he [101] gave a short sigh, as if his breath was spent, in which the rest united with one accord. The shout that succeeded allowed the performer a moment's pause, when he resumed the song with great animation. A great deal of character was displayed in the course of this exhibition, the chief often becoming highly excited, pointing significantly with his finger, and shewing remarkable expression in his countenance, as if the subject of the song was one of a most important nature, the people meanwhile listening with profound attention. A short time after the chief had concluded, the women began a song in chorus, which showed a greater knowledge of music; and I was very much surprised to hear some sing tenor, while others sang treble, which to those who know anything of music will appear strange, because the power of doing so denotes some advancement in the art. It was a hunting song, enumerating the animals that the young married woman is wont to chase.

Walker 1897, 159-60

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/159/mode/2up

After the chief had concluded, the women began a song in chorus, which showed a greater knowledge of music. I was very much surprised to hear some sing tenor, while others sang treble. It was a hunting song, enumerating the animals the young married women are wont to chase. I afterwards took down the words of the song from the lips of some of the women.

Walker 1897, 169

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/169/mode/2up

[15 October 1832] When I read to them in their own language one of their native songs, they were beyond measure astonished and gratified, following the words with their voices, and frequently interrupting me with shouts of approbation. Their language appears to me to be far from inharmonious, and, when accompanied by a chanting tune, as in the songs of the women, is pleasing to the ear.

Walker 1897, 171-72; also Plomley 1987, 289

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/171/mode/2up

Nikkeh niugeh tibreh nickeh mollyga pollyla ...
The married woman hunts the kangaroo and wallaby ...

Namu rykenneh trehgana ...
The emu runs in the forest ...

Nabeh thinninneh trehgana.
The boomer (kangaroo) runs in the forest.

Nehnaneh kehgreuna nynabythinneh ...
The young emu the little kangaroo ...

tringeh guggerra ... pyathinneh ...
the little joey (sucking kangaroo) ... the bandicoot ...

nynabythinneh-koobryneh ... mareh terrenneh ...
the little kangaroo-rat ... the white kangaroo-rat ...

pyathinneh pungoothinneh ... lookoothinneh ...
the little opossum ... the ringtailed opossum ...

mytoppyneh ... trynooneh ...
the big opossum ... the tiger-cat ...

watherrunginna ... mareh bunna ...
the dog-faced opossum ... the black cat.

Poppyla (a popular song among all the aboriginal tribes)

(of which I have not obtained the meaning, it being involved by them in some mystery)

Words extant; tune exists in concordant source


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (Walker 1897, 172)


Source and documentation:

Walker 1897, 172

https://archive.org/stream/papersproceeding1897roya#page/172/mode/2up

A popular song among all the aboriginal tribes, of which I have not obtained the meaning, it being involved by them in some mystery -

Poppyla-renung - onnyna - Poppyla, &c., Poppyla, &c., Poppyla, &c.,
lemingannya - lemingannya - leming, &c.
Nyna tepe rena ponnyna - Nyna, &c., Nyna, &c.,
Nyna nara pewilly para. Nyna nara, &c., Nyna nara, &c.,
Nara pewilly pallawoo! pallawoo!
Nyna nara pewilly para pewilly pallawoo! pallawoo!
Nyna nara, &c., Nyna nara, &c., &c.

[editorial note, 1897] In Milligan's Vocabulary this song, with certain differences, is given. It is there entitled "Aboriginal Verses in honour of a Great Chief," sung as an accompaniment to a native dance or Biawe. - Papers of the Royal Society of Tasmania, Vol. III., p. 273. Also by Davies, with other variations - Tasmanian Journal, II, p. 411.

Plomley 1987, 289

Plomley gives the above extract from Walker's journal, but, ? following the MS, precedes it with the following:

A favourite song chiefly of the men - stated to be learned from the Sydney blacks, but known by most of the aborigines of V.D. Land.

poppyla renungonnyna poppyla, &c., poppyla, &c.
leminganya leminganya lemingganya, &c.
taukumminganya taukumminganya, &c.
nyna tepe rena ponnyna nyna tepe rena, &c.
nyna nara pewilly para nyna nara pewilly
pallawoo pallawoo nyna nara, &c., nyna nara, &c.

Davies 1846, 411

"ON THE ABORIGINES OF VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. BY R. H. DAVIES, Esq.", The Courier (7 March 1846), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2946174

The following is a song of the Ben Lomond tribe; I cannot translate it, nor, could I do so, is the subject very select:

Ne popila raina pogana,
Ne popila raina pogana,
Ne popila raina pogana.
Thu me gunnea,
Thu me gunnea,
Thu me gunnea.

Thoga me gunnea,
Thoga me gunnea,
Thoga me gunnea.

Naina thaipa raina pogana,
Naina thaipa raina pogana,
Naina thaipa raina pogana.
Kiara paara powella paara,
Naara paara powella paara,
Naara paara powella paara.

Ballahoo, Ballahoo,

Hoo, hoo !

(Their war-whoop, very gutteral.)

Milligan 1866, 273

http://eprints.utas.edu.au/19369

ABORIGINAL VERSES in honour of a Great Chief, sung as an accompaniment to a Native Dance or Riawé.

Pappela Rayna 'ngonyna, Pappela Rayna 'ngonyna,
Pappela Rayna 'ngonyna!
Toka mengha leah, Toka mengha leah,
Toka mengha leah!
Lugha mengha leah, Lugha mengha leah,
Lugha mengha leah!

Nena taypa Rayna poonyna, Nena taypa Rayna poonyna,
Nena taypa Rayna poonyna!
Nena nawra pewyllah, Pallah nawra pewyllah,
Pellawah, Pellawah!
Nena nawra pewyllah, pallah nawra pewyllah,
Pellawah, Pellawah!


Bibliography:

Longman 1960

Plomley 1987, 289


Resources:

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Music concordances:

See A Song of the Aborigines of Van Diemen's Land, arranged by Mrs. Logan (1836) below

See Fanny Cochrane Smith


Commentary:

This 1832 transcription Poppyla is the earliest record of a song later documented many times, including as taken down with music by Maria Logan (see 22 October 1836 below), and recorded in 1899-1903 by Fanny Cochrane Smith.


References:

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16 and 17 October 1832

[? PLACE], VDL (TAS)


INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Their frantic revels or orgies

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 16 and 17 October 1832; Plomley 1966, 669

16 October ... Natives away hunting. Since the boat's arrival have been unable to leave the island. Purpose visiting the East Hunter and thence proceed to Launceston and Hobart Town. Black Joe away without leave this afternoon. Tonight the natives amused themselves with their frantic revels or orgies.

17 October ... Natives away hunting and self writing. This evening the natives amused themselves with their frantic revels.


Bibliography:

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Resources:

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Commentary:

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References:

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1832 (first notice)

VDL (TAS)


GLOVER, John (artist, reporter)


A Corrobery of Natives in Mills Plains

Source:

John Glover, A Corrobery of Natives in Mills Plains, painted 1832, exhibited London 1835; Art Gallery of South Australia

http://www.artgallery.sa.gov.au/agsa/home/Collection/detail.jsp?ecatKey=4123

http://nga.gov.au/Exhibition/Turnertomonet/Detail.cfm?IRN=128979&BioArtistIRN=18324&MnuID=3


Copy: (pictured above)

Corroboree, ? c.1840; copy; National Library of Australia

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-134105068

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/31368415


Documentation:

-


Bibliography:

Ron Radford and Jane Hylton, Australian colonial art: 1800-1900 (Adelaide: Art Gallery of South Australia, 1995), 68-70

Lawson 2014, 139-45


Resources:

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Commentary:

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References:

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1832

Lake George, Southern NSW


GOVETT, William (reporter, artist)

Corrobory - or a particular dance of the natives

Documentation:

William Govett, notes and sketches, 1830-1835 [Govett was at Berrima and in the southern region in 1832], State Library of New Sotuh Wales, MS A330 (Safe 1 / 404), images 15-17

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=874379&suppress=N&imgindex=15 (DIGITISED)

Corrobory - or a particular dance of the natives.

I was once present and witnessed this most extraordinary dance of the Blacks which took place near Lake George called by the natives "Weriwa"- I understand this ceremony only takes place upon the friendly meeting of two tribes after a fight or dispute, to celebrate the cessation of hostilities. On this occasion there were a hundred and eighty collected together, men, women and children, and the place chosen very suited to the purpose being a small open spot, clear of timber, but surrounded on all sides by the darkness of the forest. The Men only of the visiting tribe were the spectators, and they seated themselves wrapt in their opossum cloaks round in a semicircular form. The oldest of them being nearest each end of the semicircle - Immediately before them bright fires of dried bark were kept burning by boys who constantly supplied the fuel and again behind the fires was the stage or place of action. The whole ceremony indeed in the arrangement very much resembled a Theatre. The women however were altogether concealed from view, but so situated, that their yells, and horrid noises made by the clashing of sticks, and whirling in the air pieces of wood fastened to a string, could not only be distinctly heard, but added much to the wild effect and savage strangeness of this nocturnal revel.

The men or actors besmear themselves with white paint and appear like skeletons, and they caper in various forms and attitudes round the fire, grinning, roaring hissing [page] hooting, and making the most hideous faces imaginable to describe particulars - as soon as they the men fall exhausted. they vanish on an instant - a different yell commences, and a dozen or more boys appear skipping, and capering in imitation of the old - So on for several hours. They vanished and reappeared exhibiting each time different manuvers, uttering different yells and during the whole ceremony the utmost silence and order prevailed among the spectators who looked on wh. apparent wonder and amazement and wh. as much anxiety and interest as I did myself. Upon the whole it appeared to me as a scene which one c.d imagine the Devil to preside over in the infernal region WRG -

Govett 1836, 241-43

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=SG5JAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA241

I was once present at one of these dances, and a more extraordinary spectacle was never beheld by Europeans. The accompanying sketch is a very fair representation of the commencement of the scene; and as it may tend to exhibit some of the most striking features of the character of these savages, I will endeavour to give as detailed and concise a description of what I witnessed, as my memory will allow.

There were more than a hundred blacks collected together on this occasion, and the place chosen seemed very suited to the purpose, being a small open spot, clear of timber, and clothed with rich verdure, but surrounded on all sides by the darkness of the forest. Having been known to several of them at the expense of a little tobacco, I was permitted, together with two or three of my men, to be a looker-on at the ceremony. But I have reason to believe that the intrusion of the white man on these occasions is far from being liked or allowed, and that there are ceremonies of a superstitious nature amongst them, which no European has ever witnessed. The blacks selected for these purposes sequestered places, where they were the least likely to be disturbed. - And now, that the interior of that country is becoming so well known, and inhabited by settlers, it is most probable that all their old customs and usages will be relinquished and forgotten, and that they themselves, in a few years, will vanish, like the kangaroo, before the track of their more polished invaders.

The men of the once hostile tribe were the spectators; and these seated themselves, wrapped in their opossum-cloaks, around, in a semicircular form. The oldest of them, I observed, appeared to take their places nearest each end of the semicircle. Immediately before them, bright fires of dried bark were kept burning, by boys who constantly supplied the fuel; and behind the fires was the stage, or place of action. The whole scene, indeed, in the arrangement, very much resembled a theatre; the brilliant reflection of the fire upon the trees and foliage, and figures of the men, contrasted with the darkness which reigned all around, gave a strong, beautiful, and strange effect. The women, however, who form the orchestra, were placed on one side, and almost concealed from view, but so situated, nevertheless, that the yells of their shrill voices, and the horrid noises which they made by the clashing of sticks, and whirling in the air pieces of wood fastened to a string, could not only be distinctly heard, but added considerably to the wild effect and savage strangeness of this [242] nocturnal revel. The men who take part in the acting, besmear themselves with a kind of white chalk or pigment, and seemingly endeavour to make themselves as frightful and as hideous as possible, by their mode of painting.

We waited some time in patient anxiety for the commencement of the performance, while some of the seated spectators were looking very serious and attentive, others enjoying a smoke, and some chattering and laughing as if much pleased. Presently, however, a dead silence on the part of the company caused all eyes to be directed towards the stage, when at the instant, eight of the actors made their appearance, - and so suddenly did they rush from darkness into the blaze of the fire, that one could almost fancy they had all risen out of the ground. As they stood before the fires, all placing themselves in similar attitudes, the effect was striking and really wonderful. They appeared like living skeletons! The noises of the women commenced, and the spectre-looking actors, with their arms and legs extended, and making a sort of tremulous muscular motion of their bodies (especially at their knees and elbows), began to wheel in regular order round the fires, crying Whroo! whroo! whroo! (or whirrow, a noise bearing some resemblance to the sound of a spinning-wheel), and keeping time with the barbarous yells and clashing of the invisible orchestra.

They continued capering in various forms and attitudes from one side to the other of the fire for the space of ten or fifteen minutes, grinning, roaring, hissing, hooting, and showing the most terrible countenances imaginable; when, I suppose from exhaustion, or for the sake of a change, they vanished as suddenly as they had before appeared. All was again silent for a few minutes; the women then commenced a different yell, or tune; and a dozen or more of boys appeared on the stage, skipping and capering in imitation of the men. They appeared ambitious to excel in the exercise, and the old blacks were delighted at their performance, which caused a sort of giggle among the spectators, and ended in a general loud laughing a use. The men reappeared, but exhibited a different manceuvre or scene. They each carried a little leafy bush, and made their entrance one after another, hopping like kangaroos; and it appeared to me as if it was a special part of their actions to imitate that animal. They continued hopping about, crossing one another, and shaking the bushes in each other's faces for some time, when the scene again changed and, dropping the little branches, they all stood in a row, with their right hands held up above their heads. They then commenced stalking, with measured paces, to and fro before the fires; now bending, now raising their right hands, in imitation, as I thought, of the emu (a bird similar to the ostrich, but not so large, and common to New South Wales*). The actions of the blacks in this scene were very good, and their positions and attitudes were a capital resemblance of the emu, - sometimes feeding, and again raising the head and neck perfectly erect, as if to observe if any intruder was approaching, then stalking a few paces as if to consider, and bend and feed again.

So on, for several hours, they alternately vanished and reappeared, exhibiting each time different manoeuvres, and uttering different noises; and during the whole ceremony and performance, the utmost silence and order prevailed amongst the black spectators, who looked on with apparent anxiety and satisfaction.

Upon the whole, this scene struck me with wonder and amazement, and as more like what a person could imagine to take place in the infernal regions, than to have been represented in reality upon the face of the globe. W. R. G.

The following account of a somewhat similar scene, communicated by a settler in NEW HOLLAND, and which has lately appeared in a London Journal, shows that the Corroboree, and the superstitious rites connected with it, is common to the natives of those regions, situated at a vast distance from the place where it was witnessed by the writer of the foregoing paper.

IT is the custom of the respectable settlers in the interior to encourage a family of natives belonging to the nearest tribe to remain about the grounds or premises as much as their wandering habits will admit of, to keep off strange blacks who might otherwise make dangerous incursions, and to be a check upon every sort of roguery they may observe, for they are so jealous of the convict servants in general, that no intimacy takes place between them. The head of this family is called a constable, and often goes by the name of his protector, and to tickle his vanity, and give him importance amongst his fellows, is allowed to have his name inscribed upon a large brass crescent, a hole in the circle of which enables him to sling it round his neck, and wear it like a breast-plate. Mr. Winder's black constable was no less a personage than a king, and his plate gave us to understand that he was "King Cobra Maitland." This was worn, contrary to the general custom, over a blue jacket; duck trowsers, and a straw hat completed his dress. Mr. Winder told the king that he wished the strangers to see a corroboree, and desired him upon an appointed evening to bring a sufficient number of young men with him to make a good dance. About an hour after sunset we were given to understand that all was in readiness to commence, and we moved to the gravelroad before the house, where a cart-load of fire-wood had been placed in readiness. Here we found King Cobra, and thirty-five fine young men for the dance, and five ladies to make music; as I conjecture, or to excite by their presence increased exertions. The ladies were covered with mantles of skins.

The dancers had only a slight covering round the waist, but they were splendidly painted with red ochre and chalk in all sorts of devices; the ribs of some were white, and very extraordinary devices were painted on the skins of the others. Stripes of white chalk were drawn up their limbs, and their heads were dressed in every variety of taste. That of many of them was with the help of tall grass tucked up to the size and shape of a large sugar-loaf, with a tuft on the top; but one who was called the chief-justice had long hair, and had so contrived to friz it, that his head was nearly twice as large as a bushel measure. Several wore white feathers, and a few had reeds stuck across the cartilage of the nostrils.

When the fire got warm, King Cobra, began to excite them by music, which, with a waddie, or small club, he drew out of a shield made of bark, by quick blows. They presently passed their word and fell regularly into their places, and commenced the most violent exercise of their muscles imaginable; keeping time and observing the same attitude with the most wonderful precision, notwithstanding the frequent change of the figures. After a boundless variety of evolutions, each man grunting in unison, this act closed with a simultaneous cry and clap of hands. The principal attitude in this dance was that of the hands clasping the top of the thigh by the hip, the legs spread wide open, the knees a little bent, the whole frame rigid; in this shape they sprung from [243] the ground with wonderful rapidity, their feet beating the ground in exact time with the whacks of the master of the ceremonies; though close together, they glided about without touching each other, and fell into innumerable figures, their faces always turned to the fire.

After rest and refreshment, they began another dance, in which a portion of them, taking tufts of grass in their mouths, imitated the actions of the kangaroo. After quietly feeding and hopping about for a while, like kangaroos, they were followed by the rest of the party, who, in their real character, began to creep after the kangaroos to surprise them. The 1udicrous bounds and manoeuvres of pursuit and escape were quite astonishing, and the act ended by the pretence of putting one of the representatives of the captured kangaroos on the fire to be roasted. This they called the Kangaroo Dance. They then gave us the Emu Dance, in which, with one arm raised to form the neck of the bird, the hand twisted to represent the head, with the body stooped, they went through all the actions of this bird, and with the most amazing effect.

The most interesting of all the amusements came last, and it is no doubt one of their religious ceremonies. They stood in a semi-circle round the fire, when the king approached one end of it, and with a wailing voice repeated a word in distinct syllables, beating a stroke upon the shield to each, namely, "Yal-lul-la-by." The word was repeated with him by the man he addressed, who at each syllable used a different action, with body and arms, so that at the fourth syllable he was down upon the knee. The king addressed the next, who performed as the first, who still kept the song and inflexion of the body, so that when the king got to the further end, every man was giving the same note and action, and the whole looked like one vast machine performing its operations with unerring accuracy. It was an incantation of the most diabolical appearance imaginable. One of the gins, or ladies, was so excited, that she took up a tin dish upon which they had had some food, and with a large stick stationed herself next to the first man the king had rought to his knee, and supported the harmony, yelling out "Yal-lul-la-by" in a truly frightful manner., When all had been engaged in this manner for some time they started up with a scream, and danced round the fire in a circle, until every man of them smoked as if he formed an essential part of a great steam apparatus.

I asked the king what this dance meant, and he pointed to the moon then full above our head, and said, "Good to black fellow." No doubt he would have proceeded to acknowledge that the ceremony was in honour of the moon, had not one of the others, who had stood his grog better than King Cobra, stepped up and said, "New Zealand man's dance." He meant the mapme to mislead, for they are very secret in all their religious ceremonies.

Picton 1843, 238-41

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=9noVAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA238

We had heard much of the Corroboree, a wild forest dance, and Brian's proposal to witness it was readily accepted. With some difficulty we scraped an acquaintance with two natives, by presents of colored beads, with which they seemed wonderfully taken; these, with a little tobacco, made them very friendly, so that a party of half a dozen from the ship, with Brian, myself, and a native from near Sydney, who accompanied us, and acted as interpreter, ventured to be led many a weary mile, into the forest gloom.

It was in the dead of night that we approached the spot where the Corroboree was to take place ...

[240] ... How long these strange antics continued I cannot tell, but it was for the principal part of the night. We had the emu dance, in which they imitated the actions of the emu to the life, and the kangaroo dance, which was wonderfully amusing.

Brian and I sat down with a group of spectators nearest the circle, now and then moving back into the gloom that we might see all that we could of their strange manners.

In the kangaroo dance, they held tufts of grass in their mouths, and hopped about so naturally, that had they been covered with kangaroo skins, they might have been taken for kangaroos in reality ...

[241] ... On the whole, taking into consideration the glaring fire and the forest gloom, the horrible figures of the dancers and their sudden exits and entrances, their bending, kneeling, hopping, twisting, and twirling, together with the whirring, clattering, granting, laughing, and screaming of the whole multitude, the Corroboree dance of New South Wales, is one of the most imposing spectacles in the world.


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1833





10-12 February 1833

Guildford, Perth, Swan River Colony (WA)


MOORE, George Fletcher (reporter)

Kangaroo dance to the music of Mrs. Leake's piano

Documentation:

Moore 1834, 224-25

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=UxIOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA224

On the 10th I rode to Guildford; walked thence to Perth, which I did not leave until the 12th; at Mr. Leake's, and enjoyed the grand piano which Mrs. Leake, who had recently arrived, had brought with her.

The two natives of King George's Sound (who are on their return) were greatly delighted with the music; they danced the kangaroo dance, and did every thing in their power to show that they were pleased and grateful - "tank you mem, very pretty." Their dance appeared to be in imitation of the chace of the kangaroo, the motions of the animal, and the panting and gestures of the person in chase. This dance was divided into different scenes or parts; the movements differing a little in each part: sometimes the dancers [225] approached each other, then receded, traversed and changed sides, with a corresponding variation in gesture and exclamation. At intervals, they called out "get away, get away," and at each pause, "beraway, beraway," which latter word, one of them explained in this way: - white man say "hip, hip, hurra," black man say, "beraway, beraway." During the entire dance, they make a violent panting noise, hegh, hegh, hegh, hogha, hogha, hogha; these sounds guttural. Afterwards they seated themselves in arm-chairs, with the greatest self-complacency, and drank tea.

[Extract], The Hobart Town Courier (26 December 1834), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4182369 


Bibliography:

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References:

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20 April 1833 (first notice)

Parramatta, NSW


CAVENDISH, William Joseph (composer)

Five quadrilles and two waltzes

For pianoforte

[Quadrille 1] Pantalon. Radama
[Quadrille 2] L'Été. Betanimena
[Quadrille 3] [La] Poule. Kurry Jong
[Quadrille 4] Pastourelle. Woo-loo-moo-loo
[Quadrille 5] Finale. Matitanana
Waltz No. 1
Waltz No. 2

Composer's MS, fair copy


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (SL-NSW)


Source:

SL-NSW, Castell family papers, 1786-1993 (MLMSS 7989): MS score, 3 pages, and covering letter ("Parramatta, Notasia [i.e. Australasia], April 20, [18]33")

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=909647


Documentation:

Letter, Susannah Castell, London, 2 June 1832, to William Joseph [Cavendish] Castell, Mauritius; MS, State Archive, NSW, Cavendish probate papers (1839); transcribed Beedell 1990, 666; also Beedell 1992, 236-37

... I have just learn'd that a ship sails tomorrow for the Isle of France and I will take this opportunity of making the following request - and which I think it is in your power to comply with. Can you supply us with original and choice national airs, and adapt them for quadrilles, Waltzes &c. - as the rage of novelty in that line is in such request, that the compositions of some of our finest authors are pulled to pieces bit by bit to furnish passages - endeavour to collect Indian, Russian or any other whether outlandish or otherways and endeavour to compose some yourself, adapted to the figures ...

Letter, Cavendish to Susannah Castell, Parramatta, Notasia [i.e. Oceania-Australasia], 20 April 1833 [by the ship Edward Lambe, departed Sydney that day]

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=909647

Paramatta Notasia, April 20, '33.

I wrote by the ship Sovereign which sailed from Port Jackson on the 2d of March last, but as this Dutch hubbubboo may prevent your receiving it, I send you this duplicate, to which I have added two waltzes. The ["first" struckout] 2d and ["third: struckout] 5th Quadrilles I obtained from a Manilla Guittarist also the waltzes. No 1 is Bourbonnaise, No 3 is original and the second part was added by a creole of the Cape de Verde Islands. I have given them names characteristic of their origin. You may call them Australian, Notasian, Arabian or Mad[a]gascke quadrilles. Below I have given you a title page. Publish only one waltz at a time, bit to spin out the page, instead of marking the repeats, let them be printed at full length, 2nd time an octave higher. I gave you a short description of this paradise of places, Oranges, grapes, figs, apples, pears, flowers & fruits all the year round, the pigs fed upon peaches, & dogs upon rumpsteaks, & the sheep's heads thrown into the ditches, wh[ic]h the household cur will scarcely condescend to smell. In this land of plenty none need to starve or beg; but I must reserve my full description for a separate letter, which perhaps may accompany this. Yours W. J. Cavendish.

The Fairy Quadrilles
as danced
On a Sunbeam
by the
Elves of the Ocean
in the
Hall of Beauty
at the
Coral Palace
of the
Queen of the Sea.
Composed by the
Peri of the Purple Wing.

Do not sell these outright, you should bargain for a certain number Of copies for yourself. The agent here to Ellards music warehouse of Dublin [Francis Ellard] offered to purchase them, & I have offered him a set when I can collect them. I think this letter should not be kept [with] the Printer, but let him have a copy to engrave from. I should like ... [breaks off here]

Letter, Susannah Castell, London, to Cavendish, 28 May 1834 [postmarked Sydney 27 October 1834], Beedell 1990, 671:

Your last letter was receiv'd Feb[ruar]y 7. I regret to observe that the Quadrilles you sent is a total failure both in style and quality for the finest compositions from foreign masters [?we] have explored for subjects so that we have never been able to benefit by them ...


Bibliography:

Beedell 1990, 666, 671

Beedell 1992, 236-37

Skinner 2011a


Resources:

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Modern edition:

Richard Divall (5 November 2014)

http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/music-archive/w-j-cavendish-five-quadrilles-and-two-waltzes


Commentary:

Quadrilles Nos 3 and 4 have Sydney titles: Woo-loo-moo-loo [sic] and Kurry Jong.


References:

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June 1833 (first published)

Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


ANONYMOUS (songwriter)

A Tasmanian Song (The moon in the Heavens is beaming)

Words only; no tune indicated


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)


Source:

"A TASMANIAN SONG", The Hobart Town Magazine 1 (1833), 186

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=fLwCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA186

https://archive.org/stream/hobarttownmagaz00unkngoog#page/n204/mode/2up

A TASMANIAN SONG.

The moon in the Heavens is beaming.
The kangaroo hunter's prepared,
His uprisen hounds' eyes are gleaming,
With courage that may not be scared:
Away! then away to the bush,
On! forward my Felix! away; -
Hark! listen! there's yonder a rush!
The gallant dog's started his prey.

My Carlo! partake of the conquest,
Speed is Felix's - power's your own:
Off, off, clasp the fugitives brown breast -
That breast you may pick to the bone!
Away! then away to the bush,
On Carlo! my brave one, away;
In yonder wild coppice a rush,
Tells your comrade has started his prey.


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5 July 1833 (first notice)

8 July 1833 (first performance)

Deane's Room, Argyle Street, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


PECK, George (arranger/composer, soloist)

A Medley Solo

In which will be introduced a variety of peculiarities, after the manner of the celebrated Paganini.


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (5 July 1833), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4191807

CONCERT. MR. PECK most respectfully announces to the gentry and inhabitants of Hobart town, that he will hold a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music supported by Mr Deane and and family and others, at Mr. Deane's room, on Monday evening next the 8th inst. Among other performances will be the following:-

 An Air with variations to be performed entirely on the fourth or G string, composed by Paganini, and performed by him at his principal Concerts in England, and on the Continent.

A Concerto in E - C. De Beriot.

A Medley Solo, in which will be introduced a variety of peculiarities, after the manner of the celebrated Paganini.

The Doors to be opened at 7 o'clock, the Concert to commence at 8 o'clock precisely, Tickets 5s. each, to be had of Mr. J. P Deane.

[News], Colonial Times (9 July 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647092

Mr. Peck's Concert last night, went off uncommonly well. The room was crowded, and the audience highly entertained. As a violin player, Mr. Peck is certainly the very best that ever set foot on this shore; and, in addition to his splendid knowledge of music, he is roaster of the eccentricities of the celebrated Paganini. Those who were unable to attend the concert yesterday evening, lost a treat. We have, however, no doubt but that another concert will shortly he set on foot.

[News], The Hobart Town Courier (12 July 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4191622


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

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Commentary:

Lake reasonably suggests that Peck attended Paganini's concert at Hull in February 1832. It was only much later, in the 1850s, that Peck billed himself as "the Australian Paganini".


References:

-




13 July 1833

Macquarie Harbour, VDL (TAS


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

They chanted their native songs which has a pleasing effect upon the water

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal; Plomley 1966, 755, 761 (route map)

[13 July 1833] ... On arriving at the boat I embarked all the strange natives likewise some of the friendly ones in the large boat, amounting in all to twenty blacks and five whites, and proceeded on my way to the settlement. This day was fine, scarce any wind, and the men had to row. There was some old red bunting in the boat which the natives made flags by tying pieces to the ends of their spears and stuck them up in the boat. They chanted their native songs which had a pleasing effect upon the water. The strangers were delighted ...

On approaching the settlement the song of the natives attracted the people at the settlement ... A crowd of people soon collected on the wharf and the astonishment of the people was great when they found that I had brought a tribe of natives. Some said I had a charm, some said that I was an astonishing man. Indeed, the people were all in amaze. The officers said they was sure the Governor would be in raptures when he heard of it, &c. It was just dusk when I arrived and it was only four and a half days since I left the settlement to my return ...


Bibliography:

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Resources:

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Commentary:

-


References:

Robert Hughes, Fatal Shore, 423:

Thus, by 1834, the last Aborigines of Van Diemen's Land had followed their evangelical Pied Piper into a benign concentration camp, set up on Flinders Island …




26 July 1833 (first notice)

29 July 1833 (first performance)

Court House, Hobart Town, VDL (1833)


PECK, George (arranger/composer, soloist)

Robin Adair

[? introduced in a cadenza to De Beriot's "concerto" in E]

My lodging is on the cold ground

Air with the pizzicato accompaniment after the manner of Paganini


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (26 July1833), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4191159

MR. DEANE AND MRS. DAVIS'S FOURTH CONCERT, Assisted by MESSRS. REICHENBRRG, RUSSELL, PECK , AND FULHAM, (Late of the Theatre Royal Dublin), WILL take place on Monday evening next, July the 29th, at the Court house, Hobart town.

Part First.
Overture, 'Tancredi,' - Rossini.
Glee, 'Chorus of Huntsmen in Der Freischutz,' Weber.
Cavatina, 'Una Voce poco fa,' - Mrs. Davis - Rossini.
Solo - piano forte, 'Fall of Paris, with variations,' - Miss Deane - Moschelles.
Song, 'He was famed for deeds of arms,' - Mr. Fulham - Corri.
Solo. - Violin, in which will be introduced some of the peculiaritie of that Celebrated performer Paganini - Mr. Peck - C. De Beriot.
Duett, 'My pretty page,' - Mrs Henson and Master Deane - R. H. Bishop [sic].
Song, 'Alice Gray,' - Miss Barron, a pupil of Mrs. Davis's, only 10 years of age - Hodson.
Glee, 'Hark! Apollo strikes the Lyre,' - H. R. Bishop.
Part Second.
Overture, 'La Villanella Rapita.' - Mozart.
Song, 'No joy without my Love,' - Mrs. Davis - T. Cooke.
Solo, flute, C. Nicholson.
Song, 'Au'd Robin Gray,' - Mrs. Henson - A. R. O. Smith.
Concerto, clarionet, orchestra accompaniment, Mr. Reichenberg - Bochsa.
Song, 'Death of Nelson,' - An Amateur - Braham.
Song, 'Waters of Elle,' - Miss Barron - arranged by T. T. Magrath.
Song, 'Dashing White Serjeant,' - Mrs. Davis - H. R. Bishop.
Finale, verse and chorus, 'God save the King,' arranged by Stevenson.

Leader Mr. Russell, Violin Obligato Mr. Peck, Conductor Mr. J. P. Deane. Tickets 5s. each, to be had of Mr. J. P. Deane, Elizabeth street, and of Mrs. Davis and Mr. Wood, Liverpool street. The doors to be opened at half past 7 o'clock - the performance to commence at a quarter past 8 o'clock.

[News], The Hobart Town Courier (2 August 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4190895

A grand concert of all our professional musical talent was given in the Court house on Monday evening. The house was crammed throughout and the performance especially the instrumental was of the first order ... Mr. Peck performed a concerto on the violin, composed by the husband of Madame Malibran. We recollect De Beriot's performance, and Mr. Peck does not discredit the style of the master. The arpeggio movement on the four strings, was brilliantly executed. After the concerto he played the air of "My lodgings on the cold ground," with the pizzicato accompaniment after the manner of Paganini; likewise the "Carnival of Venice," the conversation in this air in imitation of the voice was peculiarly curious.

[Reprints review from The Tasmanian], Launceston Independent (23 August 1833), 3; quoted in Lake 2003, 127

A Mr. Peck recently arrived from England, performed a Concerto on the Violin, in which he laboured through the double stops; produced a few aerial sounds, (technically called Harmonics;) ran over a long range of difficult harpsichord movements with great ease, and introduced the air of "Robin Adair," the sweet tones he drew from the instrument in the air, appeared to suspend every breath; and the effect of the appogiature in the second part was delightful. After the Concerto, Mr. Peck performed the air of "My Lodging is on the cold ground," in which he introduced a most extraordinary staccato passage running through nearly four octaves likewise an accompaniment called, pinching tones this acquirement from Paganini. In the "Carnival of Venice," he attempted another curiosity in imitation of the human voice; the effect is produced by one finger only. Mr. Peck displayed a great mastery over the technicalities of the instrument.

[Advertisement], Independent (24 August 1833), 3, quoted in Lake 2003, 127

UNDER VERY DISTINGUISHED PATRONAGE. MR. PECK begs leave to inform his numerous Friends and the Public in general, that he intends to give A CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music in Mr. Davis's new large Rooms, British Hotel, on Tuesday evening, August 27th.

PART I Introduction, instrumental. Haydon [? Haydn]
Song - The Rose
Concerto Violin in E, in which will be introduced the familiar Air, Robin Adair - Mr. Peck. De Beriot ...


Bibliography:

Lake 2003, 126-27


Resources:

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Commentary:

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References:

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24 August 1833 (first notice)

27 August 1833 (first performance)

British Hotel, Charles Street, Launceston, VDL (TAS)


PECK, George (arranger/composer, soloist)

ANONYMOUS (songwriter [Albion's Fleet])


Albion's Fleet

New song, adapted to a popular air

Words only survive; tune not indicated


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)

Scotch Medley

Violin and Violoncello, in which will be introduced an imitation of the Bagpipe


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Medley

Solo Violin, exhibiting a variety of peculairities of the celebrated PAGANINI, comprising imitations of the human voice, youth, age, violin and guitar, hurdygurdy, &c.


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Source and documentation:

"A SONG", The Hobart Town Magazine 1 (1833), 247:

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=fLwCAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA247

https://archive.org/stream/hobarttownmagaz00unkngoog#page/n262/mode/2up

Let the minions of Mahomet gravely descant,
In rapturous lays of devotion;
Let the warrior's bosom, for victory pant
In his wing'd wooden walls on the ocean;
But, tho' conquest is precious in liberty's cause,
And the Turk's dream of beauty is sweet;
O, give me to live under equity's laws:-
My protector be Albion's fleet!
Huzza!
My protector be Albion's fleet.

Let damsel's delight in the silk-worm's bequest,
And the jewel's that spangle their tresses;
Let misers be proud of their gold laden chest,
Which ne'er yields relief to distresses!
I care not for jewels, for gauds, or for gold,
But I honor, and gratefully greet
The birth-place of Hampden, (blest patriot bold!)
The nursery of Albion's fleet!
Huzza!
The nursery of Albion's fleet.

[Advertisement], Launceston Independent (24 August 1833), 3, quoted in Lake 2003, 127

UNDER VERY DISTINGUISHED PATRONAGE. MR. PECK begs leave to inform his numerous Friends and the Public in general, that he intends to give A CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music in Mr. Davis's new large Rooms, British Hotel, on Tuesday evening, August 27th.

PART I Introduction, instrumental. Haydon [? Haydn]
Song - The Rose
Concerto Violin in E, in which will be introduced the familiar Air, Robin Adair - Mr. Peck. De Beriot
New Song - Albion's Fleet, adapted to a popular air.
Scotch Medley, Violin and Violoncello, in which will be introduced an imitation of the Bagpipe - Mr. Peck.
Song - Comic.
PART II
Adagio & Rondo. Pleyel.
Song - Our King is a true British Sailor
Medley, Solo Violin, exhibiting a variety of peculairities of the celebrated PAGANINI, comprising imitations of the human voice, youth, age, violin and guitar, hurdygurdy, &c. - Mr. Peck.
Song - Comic.
Concerto, Violin, To be performed entirely on the fourth string, composed by Paganini, and performed by him at various concerts in England and on the Continent - Mr. Peck.
Finale - God save the King!

Doors to be opened at 7 o'clock; performance to commence at 8 precisely. Front seats 7s 6d; back ditto, 5s. Tickets to be had of Mr. Peck, at the British Hotel; Mr. Cameron, Brisbane st. and Mr. Brigg, Charles street.


Bibliography:

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Resources:

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Commentary:

If there is a review of this concert, I have not found it yet; however, see a brief notice of another given by Peck in the same venue a few days earlier below.


References:

[News], Launceston Advertiser (22 August 1833), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84778152

Last night, a Concert was held in Mr. Davis's New Rooms, at which Mr. Peck, assisted by several gentlemen of the town, gave much entertainment to a numerous audience. Mr. Peck's performance on the violin excited general admiration.




25 October 1833 (first notice)

30 October 1833 (first performance)

Court House, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


PECK, George (arranger/composer, soloist)

Solo (violin)

Collected and diversified from various works of Mayseder, De Beriot, Paganini, &c.


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (25 October 1833), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4189158

CONCERT. Mr. PECK respectfully informs the inhabitants of Hobart Town and its vicinity, that he intends giving a Concert of vocal and instrumental music, at the Court House, on Wednesday evening, Oct 30th, assisted by Messrs. Deane, (and family), Richenberg, Russell, Mrs. Henson, and Mrs. Taylor (daughter of the late Mr. Hill of Convent Garden).

Part 1st

Overture, Der Freischutz - Weber.
Glee, Welcome Merry May - Blewitt.
Song, Mrs. Henson - Away to the Mountain's brow - A Lee.
Concerto Piano Forte, Miss Deane, Grand variations on the Greek march in Rossini's opera '"The Siege of Corinth" introducing Hertz's new style of fingering - Hertz [Herz]
Song, Mrs. Taylor, Come where the aspens quiver - A. Lee.
Scotch air in harmonics, to be performed on the violin by a gentleman amateur.
Glee and chorus, The Red Cross, Knight - Callcott.

Part 2nd.

Overture, Preciosa or the Gypsy Girl - Weber.
Glee, O by rivers by whose falls - Bishop.
Solo, violin, Mr. Peck, collected and diversified from various works of Mayseder, De Beriot, Paganini, &c.
Song, Mrs. Henson, Tell me my heart - Bishop.
Variations on Oh no we never mention her, Clarionet, Mr. Richenberg - Richenberg.
Song, Mrs Taylor, O merry now the bonnie bark - Parry
Melange, The beauties of Der Freischutz, Flute and Piano Forte - Lindsay
Finale, Glee and Chorus, with orchestral accompaniments, To welcome mirth and harmless glee - Shaw.

The doors to be opened at 7 o'clock, and performance to commence precisely at 8 o'clock. Tickets 5s.. each to be had at Mr. J. P. Deane's Elizabeth street.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (29 October 1833), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647251

... Solo, violin, Mr. Peck, collected and diversified from various works of Mayseder, De Beriot, Paganini, &c.

"At Mr. Peck's concert . . . ", The Hobart Town Courier (1 November 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4189100

Of the performances, if we except Mr. Peck's inimitable collections and diversifications from Paganini and others, Mr. Reichenberg's beautiful variations in the popular air of "Oh no, we never mention her," . . . was the only original production of the evening.

"Mr. Peck's concert . . . ", Colonial Times (5 November 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647262

Mr. Peck attempted a solo on the violin; but, although we considered that gentleman's performance quite equalled to any we ever heard by Spagnolleti [Paolo Spagnoletti], still, after Mr. Smith's brilliant harmonics, it would not go down - he was rapturously applauded, but not encored.


Bibliography:

Skinner 2011a


Resources:

-


Commentary:

Lake reasonably suggests that Peck attended Paganini's concert at Hull in February 1832. It was only much later, in the 1850s, that Peck billed himself as "the Australian Paganini".


References:

-




25 October 1833 (first notice)

30 October 1833 (first performance)

Court House, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


REICHENBERG, Joseph (composer, soloist)

Variations on Oh no we never mention her

For clarinet, with violin (? string band) accompaniment; on a theme [French melody] as arranged by Henry Bishop (c.1823)


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (25 October 1833), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4189158

Variations on Oh no we never mention her, Clarionet, Mr. Richenberg ... Richenberg.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (29 October 1833), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647251

Variations on "Oh! no we never mention her," clarionet, Mr. Reichenberg ... Reichenberg.

"At Mr. Peck's concert ... ", The Hobart Town Courier (1 November 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4189100

Of the performances, if we except Mr. Peck's inimitable collections and diversifications from Paganini and others, Mr. Reichenberg's beautiful variations in the popular air of "Oh no, we never mention her," performed with such exquisite taste and spirit with violin accompaniments on the clarionet, was the only original production of the evening. Though if we may augur from the manner in which the concert was got up there were several others present, who could if they pleased turn their hand with some effect to the art of composition.

"Mr. Peck's concert ...", Colonial Times (5 November 1833), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647262

Mr. Reichenberg's variations on "Oh! no we never mention her" were excellent . . .


Bibliography:

Skinner 2011a


Resources:

-


Music concordances (theme):

Oh! no we never mention her. Sung by Mr. H. Phillips and Miss Stephens, also by Mr. Millar, and Miss Love, at the Concerts, Festivals &c. The Poetry by T. H. Bayly Esq., the symphonies and accompaniments by Henry R. Bishop. Fifth edition (London: Published by Goulding & D'Almaine, [c.1820s])

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=pPRgAAAAcAAJ [in G]

Oh! no we never mention her. Sung by Mr. H. Phillips and Miss Stephens; the poetry by T. H. Bayly, Esq. and accompaniments by Henry R. Bishop (New York: A. Imbert, [n.d.])

http://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/21463 [in E, original key]

Oh! no we never mention her. As Sung by Mr. Pearman; Written by T. H. Bayly, Esq.; Arranged by Henry R. Bishop (New York: Dubois & Stodart, [n.d.])

http://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/24466


Commentary:

-


References:

"Worcester Music Meeting", The Harmonicon (1827), 205

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=7uYqAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA205

 




4-5 December 1833

Flinders Island, VDL (TAS)


BACKHOUSE, James (reporter)

Dances of the tiger and the musk drake

Documentation:

James Backhouse, journal, 4-5 December 1833; Plomley 1987, 261-62

-

4 December Wed. ... The aborigines had a corrobery this [262] evening; they danced till a late hour, the men in a state of nudity, though they are but little seen in this state in the daytime. On the week days they wear coarse woollen frock coats, gathered below the waist and reaching to the knees, so as to cover them decently. They not infrequently sit in a state of nudity in their huts. The women wear coarse woollen gowns with belts. In one of their dances the men represented the attack of a VDL tiger wounded, after being supposed to have destroyed some of their children. This was done with much spirit. Another dance represented the movements of the musk drake; another the making of sPears; etc. Several were new since we were here last year. They amuse themselves less in this way than formerly, and for some time past have avoided it altogether on account of taking dangerous colds after the excitement in wet cold weather, which proved fatal to many. They formerly attributed all their ailments to an evil spirit; now they have begun to understand that they arise from natural causes.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-



1834





22 February 1834

West Point, VDL (TAS)


ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)

Horse song - Nic.er plo.kar.ner

Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, journal; Plomley 1966, 847-48, 915 note 51

[846] 21 February Pleasant weather. This morning wrote my journal and proceeded on my journey and encamped at West Point where the shepherd's hut is, called by the natives LAY.BER.LOW.WER.IC and by the whites Southdown hut ...

[847] 22 February ... Remaining at LAY.BER.LOW.WER.IC ... Wrote one of the native songs, belonging to one of the eastern tribes. It is an account of a black man being chased by a white man on horseback, a red horse, and how the white man left his gun and bundle behind to facilitate his speed; how the black man outrun the horse and escaped into the woods - PLOKARNER red horse, PUNE.NE.ME.MEM.MEN.LEE PLARE.LER.PE put down musket and bundle.

Song -

NIC.ER PLO.KAR.NER
PUNE.NE.ME MEM.MER.LE
NIC.ER & &

LARE.KO.YER
KOEY.HEN.NER.WAR.ER.ME
LARE.TONE.NE
LARE.KO.YAR & &

KOLE.LE.BE
BE.KONE.NAR
TAR.LAR.NE MAY
MAR (rest)
MAR POR.REN.NE
TOO.MAT.TER
TAR
PAY.YAR
MAR.ER.WOE
The whole of these lines repeated three or four times over.

MAR.YER
MARGN.ER.NER
NARE.NER.ME
PARE.WUR.HE
MAR.YER & &
The whole of these lines repeated three or four times over.

PLARE.LER.PE
PEENG.EM.MER
ILL.LER.NER.ME
MAY.MAR.PAR
MAY.MAR.PAR
PLARE.LAR & &
The whole of these lines repeated three or four times over.

NAY.MAR.KAR
PAR.NA.ME
LARE.RAR
NAME.MEN.NAR
Not repeated. Finis.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

For the dance associated with this song, see 3, 15 and 24 November 1830.


References:

-




12 April 1834

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS ("D.")

An Australian song

Documentation:

"ORIGINAL POETRY", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (12 April 1834), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2215864

Fair as the flowers by yon murmuring stream,
And bright as its face neath the sun's sparkling-beam;
As the morning dews chaste, as its sparkles no gay,
Are thy daughters - my country - Australia - huzza!

As the Ocean's waves free, and as mild as thy rills,
Warm like thy climate, and firm as thy hills;
Only callous to meanness, too tough for dismay,
Are the hearts of thy tall sons - Australia - huzza!

Tho' the red car of war we have never yet seen,
Still oft an Australian has conqueror been;
His country's his idol - his life down he'd lay,
To let those that live shout - Australia - huzza!

Tho' fierce as the tiger, while struggles the foe,
His heart half relents with the conquering blow;
And the meed he looks most for when over the fray,
Is a shout for his country - Australia - huzza!

The day is approaching, that day sure will be,
When Australia! thy sons shall be happy and free;
And shall tell to their children of days pass'd away,
Of the heroes that once sang - Australia - huzza!

Then the cots of content shall arise by thy rills,
And the God of bold Freedom shall reign on thy hills;
Then each age shall but add to thy glory a ray,
And the world shall respond to - Australia - huzza!

D.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




29 May 1834 (first performance)

Theatre, Argyle Rooms, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


ANONYMOUS (? PENPHRASE, or PEMPHRASE) (? improvised by actor in role of Murrahwa)

ANONYMOUS (? DEANE, John Philip) (composer, arranger, manager)

MELVILLE, Henry (songwriter, playwright)

Native sings and dances the corroberee

Incidental song and dance in The Bushrangers, or Norwood Vale

Stage directions only (no music or words)

'Tis said to beauty's dwelling

Song in The bushrangers, or Norwood Vale

Words only extant


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (Hobart, 1834)

 


http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?l-publictag=The+bushrangers+(Melville) (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


Source:

[Henry Melville], "The Bushrangers, or Norwood Vale", Hobart Town Magazine 3 (1834), 84

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=DrICAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA84

https://archive.org/stream/hobarttownmagaz01unkngoog#page/n108/mode/2up

Scene 2. Skilling, or out-house - a male Native standing at the door way - servant girl, Ellen.

Native. - Lady, bit baccy and bredly.

Ellen. - Come in old Murrahwa, and let me know your wishes - you would make a charming suitor for a pretty girl, with your long matted, red-ochred hair all hung round your pole like a bundle of carrots; fancy him kissing one! oh! but come in, blackey, tell me what you want?

Native. - Me want baccy and bredly - me had none long time - me got very old blanket.

Ellen. - Well, blackey, you shall have both, if you will dance a corroboree!

Native. - He, he! corroboree? Ellen. - Yes! corroberee. No baccy without corroboree.

(Native sings and dances the corroberee.)

Ellen. - Well now, blackey, I'll sing you a song.

Song.

'Tis said to Beauty's dwelling
Will lovers oft repair,
To win with sighs and tearful eyes,
Th' affections of the fair.
If this be true, - altho' as yet
The truth I cannot see,
'Tis very strange my state to change -
No lovers come to me.

'Tis said where'er we wander
They gather round about;
And vows, and oaths, and such like things,
Are plentiful no doubt.
But here I've been for twelve long months,
And here I'm like to be,
For very strange my state to change -
No lover come to me.


Documentation:

"Domestic Intelligence", Colonial Times (22 April 1834), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647537

We understand Mr. Deane is rehearsing a Colonial piece, written in the Colony, called the "Bushrangers." The piece will be ready for performance in about a fortnight, and as the plot is founded in the Colony, it is likely to have a run.

"Domestic Intelligence", Colonial Times (27 May 1834), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647611

On Thursday next, the Colonial melodrama of the "Bushrangers," will be performed at the Argyle Rooms. This is the first attempt at getting up a Colonial piece; and as every person present will be a critic, the author risks not a little. Public opinion, however, as yet, speaks much in its favor. The plot is laid in the interior of the Colony, and during the time the natives were on friendly terms with the settlers. One native chief (Mr. Pemphrase) is introduced, as are also three most notorious bushrangers, who are the veriest ruffians we ever read of. There is plenty of stage effect in the piece.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (27 May 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647606

Theatre, Argyle Rooms. ON Thursday Evening next, a selection of Vocal and Instrumental Music, with a variety of amusements. To conclude with a new Melo-Drama, written expressly for this Theatre, to be called THE BUSHRANGERS. Mr. Norwood ... Mr. Mackay Frederick ... Mr. Campbell. Murrahwa ... Mr. Pemphraze Marian... Mrs. Mackay Ellen ... Mrs. Henson Bushrangers. Bill Fellows ... Mr. Townshend Harry Fawkes ... Mr. Lee Charles Hoodwink ... Mr. Henson May 27, 1834.

"THE THEATRE", Trumpeter General (3 June 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article172895593

We attended Mr Deane's elegant little Theatre on Thursday last, to witness the Colonial piece of the "Bushrangers." From the misunderstanding which has arisen between Mr. Mackay and Mr. Deane, some of the characters were taken at a short notice by other members of the Company, who exerted themselves to give effect to their different parts . . .

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (6 June 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4184916

THEATRE-ARGYLE ROOMS. ON Saturday evening (to-morrow) will be given, a selection of Vocal and Instrumental Music; after which, will be performed, a new melodrama, called The Bushrangers, or Norwood Vale. Tickets (not transferable) to be had at Mr. Deane's library, 3s and 2s each.

[Full text of play] "The Bushrangers, or Norwood Vale", Hobart Town Magazine (1834), 82

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=DrICAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA82;

https://archive.org/stream/hobarttownmagaz01unkngoog#page/n106/mode/2up

These musical items, 84

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=DrICAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA84

https://archive.org/stream/hobarttownmagaz01unkngoog#page/n108/mode/2up


Bibliography:

Fotheringham 2006


Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bushrangers

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C399049

http://www.ausstage.edu.au/pages/event/64464

http://www.ausstage.edu.au/pages/event/64465


Commentary:

-


References:

-




26 August 1834 (reported "first performance")

On board the Sydney-Parramatta steamer, Parramatta River, NSW

10 September 1834 (first published)


ANONYMOUS (words)

From towns great and small, and from country we come

New Song to the air of Home, Sweet Home; Said to have been sung by the fair frail ones who arrived by the Steamer from Sydney ... on their way from the wharf to the Female Factory ...)


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)


VIEW DIGITISED MUSIC CONCORDANCE (tune)


Source:

"NEW SONG", The Sydney Monitor (10 September 1834), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32147134

NEW SONG. To the air of "Home, Sweet Home!"

Said to have been sung by the fair frail ones who arrived by the Steamer from Sydney, at nine o'clock on the night of the 26th of August, and who being in full spirit for a concert, chaunted in a style superior to Catalini's [Catalani's], on their way from the wharf to the Female Factory - to the edification of the musical folks of Parramatta, who were then about hastening to bed.

From towns great and small, and from country we come,
From all sorts of "places" we thus hasten home,
For the kind Captain graciously smiles on us there,
And lists our complaints, which they ne'er do elsewhere.
Home, home, sweet sweet sweet home,
In spite of the SHAVING, there 's no place like home.

When out, if we make but a trifling faux pas,
They threaten with watch-house, while we cry out " baa !"
For watch-house, police, Windeyer, nor THIRD CLASS we fear,
We but rest ourselves there, while we we have to work here.
Home, home, sweet, sweet home,
The watch-house is only the first stage to home.

We like to come out, now and then, for a "lark,"
To see our old street-hearts, or gain a new spark;
A gown, ribbon, dress-cape, a bonnet, or shawl,
As we happen to need, then were off- bag and all!
Home etc
In spite of the shaving, there's no place like home.

'Tis said, in the third class, like pigs we are fed
On hominy salted - and filthy brown bread;
That from sun-rise to sun-set, we work till we groan,
All dragging huge barrows and loaded with stone!!
Home, home, sweet sweet home
We laugh at those slanders, and love well our home.

'Tis there we enjoy life - for over the wall
Which they built to seclude us, the sweetest things fall!
Rum, tea, and tobacco, bread, sugar, and gin,
Letters, bundles and money - come tumbling in!
Home, home, sweet sweet home.
We sing for the brave "boys" who make glad our home!

Oft times were but shabby, the present we land -
Should our luck be discovered - (some guardians are good)
If we be but generous enough to DIVIDE -
The rest, we have then leave to use, or to hide!
Home, home, sweet sweet home.
Where e'er we may wander, there's no place like home.

And even the lads fail us-our needles stand true,
Some light works of fashion, if we can but do -
As caps, dresses, bonnets, frills, tippets, and stays,
Our mentors get payment - and give us much praise.
Home etc.
Not all o'er the land is a spot like our home!

Praise is smart, but 'twere useless without something more
We've sundry indulgences - nic nacks a score!
At Christmas, or Easter, or set day we DINE
In full state, with plumb pudding and wine!
Home etc.
And if we get merry, we're only "at home".

'Tis true, that sometimes, by way of a blind,
In our castle's deep cells-a-night's lodging we find;
Hard fare and hard lying we |need, to pull down
All superfluous flesh, 'ere we back to town.
Home etc.
Cells, bracelets, and all - there's no place like home!

The fault-finding MONITOR never can rest!
He now plagues this Governor - 'cause he's the best
That hath yet ruled - to us, and the BRAVE IRON'D MEN
Who spurn at their masters, but smile on the chain!
Home etc.
In spite of Hall's growling-it still is our home!


Bibliography:

Stewart and Keesing 1957


Resources:

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C719394


Music concordances:

Home! sweet home! Sung by Miss M. Tree in Clari, or The Maid of Milan, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. Composed & partly founded on a Sicilian Air by Henry R. Bishop, Composer & Director of the Music to the Theatre Royal Covent Garden ... fifth edition (London: Printed by Goulding, D'Almaine & Co., [c.1823])

http://imslp.org/wiki/Home,_Sweet_Home_(Bishop,_Henry_Rowley

Home! sweet home! Sung by Miss M. Tree in Clari, or The Maid of Milan, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden. Composed & partly founded on a Sicilian Air by Henry R. Bishop, Composer & Director of the Music to the Theatre Royal Covent Garden ... thirteenth edition (Sydney: Published by F. Ellard, [? c.1840])

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/44702361


Commentary:

Bishops's Home! Sweet Home! was introduced to the public at the first performance of his Clari, or The Maid of Milan, at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, London, on 8 May 1823. Bochsa in 1824 was one of the first to publish variations upon the instantly popular song. In Australia, the earliest published contrafactum upon it appeared in The Australian in Sydney (15 December 1825), and the song itself was sung by amateur soprano vocalist Tempest Paul at her private concert in Sydney in June 1826, and again in public during the Sydney Amateur Concerts in August. In due course, it was heard in its original context in professional local productions of Clari in Hobart in January 1834 (sung by Cordelia Cameron) and in Sydney in January, May, and October 1835 (sung by Anne Winstanley and Marian Chester).


References:

Clari, or the Maid of Milan, an opera in three acts first performed at the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, London, on Thursday, May 8th, 1823 by John Howard Payne, overture and music (with the exception of the national airs) by Henry R. Bishop, Esq. (London: John Miller, 1823)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=h1VgAAAAcAAJ

[Music review], "Clari, or the Maid of Milan, an opera in three acts, composed by Henry R. Bishop (London: Goulding, D'Almaine, Potter and Co.)", The Quarterly Musical Review 5 (1833), 545-48

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=LbcPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA545

Duo brillant pour harpe et piano sur les thêmes favoris de Clari avec variations sur l'air favori Home! Sweet home! par N. Ch. Bochsa, fils, op. 208 (Paris: Dufaut et Dubois, [1824])

https://archive.org/stream/duobrillantpourh00boch#page/n1/mode/2up

"NEW MUSIC", The London Magazine 9 (January-June 1824), 99

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=t-wRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA99




3 September 1834 (first performance)

Albion Tavern, Aldersgate Street, London, England


CALVERT, C. A. (composer, music)

GOUGER, Robert (songwriter, lyricist, words)

The Emigrant's Farewell

Song for voice and piano

Words and music extant (manuscript copy)


VIEW DIGITISED COPY (NLA, first page only)


Source (words and music):

Frances Amelia Thomas' scrapbook of artworks, poems and music, 1835-1840, manuscript, NLA (NLA 03/1285)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/44598065

http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/4650893


Sources (words only):

"THE EMIGRANT'S FAREWELL. Sung at the Dinner of the South Australian Colonists, September 3 [1834]", The Spectator 323 (6 September 1834), 846

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=mzI_AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA846

"THE EMIGRANT'S FAREWELL. Sung at the Dinner of the South Australian Colonists, September 3 [1834]", The Australian (6 February 1835), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42007903

THE EMIGRANTS' FAREWELL.

Sung at the Dinner of the South Australian Colonists, September 3.

Although we leave thee, Fatherland,
And seek a foreign shore,
And the delightful scenes of youth,
Relinquish evermore;
Think not that we insensibly
Forsake thee, Fatherland,
Without a sigh, without a tear,
A sullen, heartless band.

No, no; our hearts are warm, and high
They beat with love for thee;
Thy mountains, cities, vales, and streams,
Long shall remember'd be;
But chief thy children, Fatherland,
Shall live in memory dear;
For them we oft shall heave a sigh,
And drop affection's tear.

Yet blame us not, though, truants, we
Leave thy loved hearth to roam
W'ere solitude sublimely reigns,
And build therein a home:
The infant that we rear to thee
Shall, cradled by success,
Grow to a giant empire soon,
From a crude wilderness.

"The Emigrants' Farewell. Sung at the Dinner of the South Australian Colonists, September 3rd. [1834]", The Sydney Monitor (7 March 1835), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32148410


Documentation:

"The Metropolis", The Spectator 323 (6 September 1834), 838

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=mzI_AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA838

A public dinner was given on Wednesday, at the Albion in Aldersgate Street, to Mr. Wolryche Whitmore, M. P. by about eighty gentlemen interested in the success of the New South Australian Colony. Mr. Childers, Member for Cambridgeshire, was in the chair; and among the other gentlemen present were Mr. J. Montefiore, Captain Gower, Mr. Daniel Wakefield, and Mr. J. W. Buckle. Colonel Torrens was unable to attend, from indisposition; and the party was much reduced in number owing to the absence from town of so many persons of distinction, interested in the undertaking. Mr. Whitmore addressed the company at some length. He mentioned that the principal obstacle to the undertaking, which, however, it was believed would soon be removed, - arose from the difficulty of procuring men of capital to become Commissioners under the act. The season was unfortunate in this respect, that so many friends of the Colony, among whom Mr. Grote was conspicuous, were not in town. The Commissioners were to be responsible for the Colony's not becoming a charge on the Mother Country, as well as for the general superintendence of the scheme. It was therefore considered right that they should be men of opulence. Mr. Whitmore dwelt upon the fertility of the land in the new colony; upon the bright prospects the project opened up; and expressed his gratitude, and that of the Committee generally, to the Duke of Wellington, for the powerful aid he had given; without which, the bill would not probably have passed the Lords. The Duke of Wellington's health was drunk with applause, along with those of the Marquis of Clanricarde, Mr. Spring Rice, Mr. Lefevre, Mr. Gouger, Mr. D. Wakefield, and others. Mr. Wakefield discussed the principles on which the Colony was founded; repudiated the notion that petty obstacles would be allowed to prevent its success; and declared his resolution to settle in it himself. [With Mr. Wakefield, we cannot believe that petty obstacles will be allowed to impede the progress of the undertaking, after all the large ones have been removed. Upon reference to the Act, we cannot see that men of opulence, so much as men of intelligence and high character, are required for Commissioners: they arc not to be personally responsible in a pecuniary way.]


Bibliography:

Skinner 2011a


Resources:

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C804352

http://www.austlit.edu.au/austlit/page/C804356


Commentary:

There is no evidence that the composer Calvert, presumably a Londoner of Gouger's acquaintance, ever came to Australia. The words and music did, however, in the scrapbook Frances Amelia Thomas brought with her on the ship Africaine, which arrived in Holdfast Bay, SA, on 6 November 1836. The elder daughter of Robert and Mary Thomas, she met her future husband John Michael Skipper on the voyage out. They married in 1839.


References:

Gouger, Robert (1802-1846)

http://nla.gov.au/nla.party-477981

Skipper, Frances Amelia (1815-1855)

http://nla.gov.au/nla.party-1484981




21 October 1834 (first advertised)

22 October 1834 (first performance)

Theatre Royal, Sydney, NSW


SIPPE, George (composer, arranger)

New and appropriate music in The Fatal Snow Storm

NO COPY IDENTIFIED (? unpublished MS)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (15 October 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32147379

[Advertisement], The Australian (17 October 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42005133

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (21 October 1834), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2217359

THEATRE ROYAL, SYDNEY. (For this Night only.) FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. B. A. PHILLIPS, MACHINIST, ON WEDNESDAY NEXT, 23rd [recte 22] OCTOBER, 1834,
ON which occasion will be produced the favourite and interesting Russian Drama, which has been received with unbounded applause at the Royal Theatre at home, and which is illustrative of an anecdote that occurred in the Court of the Emperor Alexander, viz.: THE FATAL SNOW STORM, in which will be introduced some new and appropriate Music by Mr. Sippe; the scenery by Mr. Winstanley and Sons; the machinery by Mr. Phillips. Principal Characters by Messrs. Simmons, Knowles, Meredith, Master Jones, and Mesdames Taylor and Meredith. In Act 2nd, will be exhibited a splendid new Scene showing the effects of a Snow Storm, copied from the celebrated scene by Stanfield, of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, in the Historical Drama of "THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO, OF NAPOLEON CROSSING THE ALPS" . . .


Bibliography:

Skinner 2011a


Commentary:

The play was William Barrymore's The fatal snow-storm, datable to 1817 or earlier. That it was chosen for Phillips's benefit was perhaps prompted by reports of recent snow storms on the southern Alps.

Theatre bills and newspaper advertisements during Conrad Knowles's term of management typically credited Sippe as "Director and Composer of the Music", in most cases indicating that he selected, arranged, and probably orchestrated the music rather than actually composed it. However, in a few instances, advertisements suggest he might also have composed some new music.


References:

William Barrymore, The fatal snow-storm: a romantic drama, in two acts (London: T. Richardson, [1830])

http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/17774549

"Storm of Snow at Maneroo Plains, beyond Argyle", The Sydney Monitor (17 September 1834), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32147173

"MANARO PLAINS", The Sydney Herald (23 October 1834), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12850775

SL-NSW, Theatre Royal, Sydney (1834-36): fourteen printed broadside programs (DIGITISED)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?itemID=1037285&acmsid=0




21 October 1834 (first advertised, with the above)

22 October 1834 (first performance)

Theatre Royal, Sydney, NSW


SIPPE, George (composer, arranger)

WILSON, Mr. (composer, arranger)

The Demon, or The Magic Rose

The Music by Messrs. Sippe and Wilson


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (? unpublished MS)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (21 October 1834), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2217359

THEATRE ROYAL, SYDNEY. (For this Night only.) FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. B. A. PHILLIPS, MACHINIST, ON WEDNESDAY NEXT, 23rd [recte 22] OCTOBER, 1834,
ON which occasion will he produced ... After which will be presented, for the first and only time on this Stage, and got up expressly for this occasion, an entire new Comic PANTOMIME CALLED THE DEMON! OR, THE MAGIC ROSE. The Music by Messrs. Sippe and Wilson; the new Scenery by Mr. Winstanley and Son; the Machinery, Tricks, and Changes, by Mr. B. A. PHILLIPS ... [with cast and scene lists]


Bibliography:

Irvin 1971, 238

Skinner 2011a


Commentary:

John Philip Deane had presented a pantomime, Beauty and the Beast; or, The Magic Rose, at his theatre in Hobart Town earlier that year.


References:

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (29 April 1834), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647547

Argyle Rooms. MR. DEANE begs to inform the Public, that Beauty and the Beast, or the Magic Rose, will be performed on Thursday evening next, (by particular desire) for the last time this season. April 29, 1834.




7 November 1834 (first advertised)

Collected Monaro, NSW, 1834


INDIGENOUS (unidenfied female informants, singers, 1834)

LHOTSKY, John (reporter, transcriber, words and music, 1834)

JOSEPHSON, Joshua Frey (arranger, 1834)

PEARSON, James (arranger, 1834)

SIPPE, George (arranger, 1834)


? INDIGENOUS (unidentified female informants, singers)

? TINGCOMBE, Henry (recorder, reporter, c.1836-38)

NATHAN, Isaac (arranger, 1842)

Kongi kawelgo

A song of the women of the Menero tribe

Words and music (? translation)

Probably transcribed by John Lhotsky, from Ngarigu informants, Monaro area, south east NSW, 1834

First published Sydney, 1834




For main entry, go to

Checklist of musical transcriptions of Indigenous songs 8





15 November 1834 (notice of publication)

Perth, Swan River Colony (WA)


ANONYMOUS (songwriter)

The Jackets of Green

A NEW SONG, GIVING a brief account of the late encounter with the Natives at Pinjärra

[Perth, ?, 1834]


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (words or music)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Perth Gazette (15 November 1834), 390

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article641185:  

JUST PUBLISHED,
"THE JACKETS OF GREEN:"
A NEW SONG,
GIVING a brief account of the late encounter with the Natives at Pinjärra. - Copies to be had at the Freemason's Arms, and Wheat-sheaf Tavern, Perth, also at the Cleikum Inn, Guildford.


Bibliography:

"WESTERN AUSTRALIA EIGHTY YEARS AGO. AS SEEN IN LOCAL NEWSPAPERS ... JUST PUBLISHED", Western Mail (13 September 1918), 34

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37454792

"BARRIERS OF SPEARS. The Ousting Of The Bibbulmum", The West Australian (5 January 1833), 29

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32585326

"NEWS AND NOTES. Jackets of Green", The West Australian (20 December 1937), 20

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article41600343

"Jackets of Green." If anyone has a sheet of paper, with the words of a song entitled "The Jackets of Green" printed on it, they have a relic which would be of great interest to students of local history in Western Australia, Speaking at the unveiling of Cooper's Mill at Yunderup, West Murray, on Saturday, Dr. Cyril Bryan, a member of the council of the Western Australian Historical Society, said that five policemen were present at the Battle of Pinjarra in October, 1834. They wore green jackets, and after the affair a local poet wrote "The Jackets of Green" and had it set to music. It was printed, sold and later sung at some of Perth's early concerts. "If some of you go home and look through old papers you may come across a copy of the song," Dr. Bryan said. "There must be some copies still in existence, if we could only get hold of them." A paper read at Saturday's ceremony said that the battle of Pinjarra, or the "Pinjarrup affair" as it was called in a contemporary reference, occurred at the river crossing above Pinjarra. The natives had given a good deal of trouble on the Murray River and, following the killing of a youth named Nesbit and the wounding of a man named Barron, an expedition was sent out from Perth to catch the murderers. With the Governor and other officials, the force numbered 25, including ten soldiers and five police. The natives were trapped at a ford south of Pinjarra and a number of them, including three women and a child, were shot. Following this encounter, there was apparently no further serious trouble with the blacks on the Murray.

Australian Encyclopaedia 1958, 1, 100


Commentary:

Probably words only were printed or otherwise circulated; apparently a pro-settler account of the battle of Pinjarra, on 28 October 1834


References:

Chauncy 1878, 225

https://archive.org/stream/aboriginesofvict02smyt#page/224/mode/2up 

-




18 November 1834 (first notice)

20 November 1834 (first performance)

Theatre, Argyle Rooms, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


PECK, George (composer, arranger, improvisor)

Air with variations, in the style of the celebrated Paganini, on one string (the fourth) only

NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Documentation:

"Domestic Intelligence", Colonial Times (18 November 1834), 6

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647923

The example, set by Mr. Levy, has stimulated our Theatrical Corps, and has induced Mr. Peck to get up something like an evening's entertainment for Thursday next ... Mr. Peck will give variations, in the style of the celebrated Paganini, on one string only. When Mr. Peck first arrived in this Colony, these imitations drew crowded houses; and as so much is to be had for the money, we dare say, a respectable and a crowded house may be expected on Thursday.

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (18 November 1834), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8647925

THEATRE ARGYLE ROOMS Will be opened for one Evening only, under the Superintendence of MR. PECK, On which occasion MR. JACOBS Will make his first appearance on this Stage in two of his most favorite Characters, and MR. & MRS. MACKEY, With other established Favorites, forming a strong and effective dramatic Corps. Thursday Evening, November 20th, 1834 ... The Orchestra will perform the celebrated Overture, to Anacreon, by Cherubini. SONG - Gaily still my moments roll - MR. JACOBS. MR. PECK Will perform an AIR, WITH VARIATIONS on One (the fourth) String on the Violin as performed by Paganini.


Bibliography:


Commentary:


References:




? 1834

Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


GLOVER, John (artist, reporter)


Source:

John Glover, Mount Wellington and Hobart Town from Kangaroo Point, 1834 [detail]; National Gallery of Australia, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery (jointly)

http://cs.nga.gov.au/Detail.cfm?IRN=141634

http://nga.gov.au/Conservation/paintings/Glover.cfm


Documentation:

A catalogue of sixty-eight pictures descriptive of the scenery & customs of the inhabitants of Van Diemen's Land ... painted by John Glover Esq., now exhibiting, at 106, New Bond Street, London (London: A. Snell, 1835), no. 46

Mount Wellington and Hobart Town from Kangaroo Point; these Natives Danced and Bathed at the request of the Artist.The Females are very expert in the Water, the Heels of one Woman are perceptible above the Water


Bibliography:

Lawson 2014, 139, 141-42


Resources:

Christies's, Melbourne, sale 1026, lot 46, November 2001 (shows work before recent conservation)

http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/lot/john-glover-mount-wellington-and-hobart-town-3840381-details.aspx?intObjectID=3840381


Commentary:

The dating of 1834 proposed by the NGA is not universally accepted; it was earlier thought to date from 1832 or c.1832


References:

-



1835





1835

Wollondilly, NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingston (recorder)

Song of Wollondilly natives

Words only extant (transliterated, translated)


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (Mitchell 1839, 306)


Source:

Mitchell 1839, 1, 306

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA306

"Morrudà, yerrabà, tundy kin arra,
Morrudà, yerrabà, min yin guiny wite mà là."

Song of Wollondilly natives; meaning

"On road the white man walks with creaking shoes;
He cannot walk up trees, nor his feet-fingers use."


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




10 February 1835 (first notice)

11 February 1835 (first performance)

Theatre Royal, Sydney, NSW


SIPPE, George (composer, arranger)

? LEVEY, Barnett (scenario)

The Indian Maid

A New Ballet ... with entire New Music, by Mr. Sippe


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (? unpublished MS)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Australian (10 February 1835), 3: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42007481

Theatre Royal, Sydney. ON THIS EVENING, WEDNESDAY February 11 [sic], will be performed the tragic Play of PIZZARO ... after which, (for the second, time,) A NEW BALLET, CALLED THE INDIAN MAID IN WHICH THREE COMBATS WILL TAKE PLACE BY Messrs. Meredith, Oxberry, Buckingham, Mackay, Simmons and Palmer, Dancers, Indians, Sailors, Slaves, &c. &c. WITH ENTIRE NEW MUSIC, BY MR. SIPPE, AND IN WHICH MRS. JONES WILL SING THE FAVOURITE SONG of the INDIAN MAID ...


"Theatricals", The Australian (13 February 1835), 2: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42006628

THEATRICALS. Wednesday evening was repeated Sheridan's tragic play of Pizarro, and it is by far the best played piece that has been played this season. Knowles' Alonzo was a very judicious performance; Simmons Holla was received with repeated cheers. Miss Winstanley, at a short notice, undertook the character of Cora; in consequence of the sudden indisposition (query) of Mrs. Mackie, and her absence was not in the least regretted, for Miss W.'s performance was far beyond Mrs. M., and her indisposition afforded an opportunity of bringing forth latent talent, which, we hope, will not be overlooked by the proprietor. A Ballet, entitled the Indian Maid followed - report attributes it to the prolific brain of Mr. Levey, but he, from a pure sense of modesty, withholds his name as the author; a greater piece of trash and absurdity was never thrust on the public; Mrs. Jones introduced the Indian Maid, which she sang very prettily, but as for the dance, whether they were the war dances of the Caribbees, Otaheitian, &c., or not, we cannot presume to state, but Mrs. Gibbons, the would be Taglioni of the Sydney Stage, looked more like an Indian Chief that an Indian Maid. Simmons came running in as an English Sailor, made love to an indian girl and to please her jumped and capered about, and to please the audience he danced a hornpipe, which saved this talented production from going to the "Tomb of the Capulets." ... (Correspondent.)


Commentary:

The song of The Indian Maid was perhaps that by Knight, and maybe the whole performance inspired the local poet below.


References:

"The Indian Maid, written by Mr. Knight, and sung by Miss Matthews in [the musical farce of A Chip of the Old Block, at the Haymarket Theatre]", The Vocal magazine 9 (1 September 1815), 70

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=mYkvAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA70

"ORIGINAL POETRY", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (2 April 1835), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2197740

MY home is in another land afar across the sea,
A land of island beauty, of vine and olive tree;
Where the free blue waves of ocean roll around her island shore,
And the note of brilliant plumed birds by spicy zephyrs bore ...

The sky was cloudless there, studded o'er with many a star,
And the white Pagodas gleamed in the moonbeam from afar;
And the cittern's silvery sound upon the breeze was bore
With the song of many an Indian maid from off the silent shore ...




February-March 1835

Wellington Valley, NSW


HANDT, Johann Christian Simon (reporter)

WATSON, William

Waggana, or native dance, accompanied by singing to Baiama

Documentation:

William Watson, Journal 11: January-March 1835

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/xi-jan-march-1835.html

[20 March 1835] Friday 20th. The Natives have all gone, even Gungin could not be persuaded to remain.

[22 March 1835] Sund 22th. Only Six Natives at Church to day.

[28 March 1835] Sat 28th. This has been a trying week to us. Nelly the mother of our girl Eliza wanted to take her away and we would not allow her. The Mother wept aloud and scolded on the outside of the kitchen, and the girl wept in the kitchen. [11] Being anxious to go I gave the old woman as much Wheat and Beef as she could carry, as also Tobacco and Pipes but all would not do. My feelings almost overcame my Judgment in this affecting scene, and indeed nothing but the licentiousness to which I knew the girl would be exposed prevented me from letting her go. However Old Bobagul having come up she is quite satisfied to leave her, having received a Cake, a Blanket, and a Neck handkerchief she has gone with the old man part of the way, and in the morning they are to prosecute their journey. From the impression on the woman's mind, her anxiety to take away her girl is not to be wondered at. The Natives have received information that Byamy will kill all the girls and women who live with white men, so that there is not a female native to be found at any station for many miles around. Moreover the Natives have a large Meeting at a place called Bahbyjal[?], to hold a feast or have a Corrobbora to Byamy, and all the natives who are not present will be killed. Several months ago we had a report prevalent among the natives, that Byamy had been insulted in some way by some white men, and that he was going to kill all white persons every where. Our Natives here planned among themselves how they would act when the event took place. They would dress us in new Clothes put us in boxes and bury us. Gungin would put the window blinds down, and pack up all the articles to take into the Bush. Mrs Handt's boys were to do the same with Mr and Mrs Handt and their clothes &c. I supposed that report had died away as I have not now for sometime heard any thing of it [12] in the present proceedings. The Song to be chaunted at the Corrobarra is made by Byamy, has been sent by a Lizard from which it was communicated to some Natives. There are certainly circumstances here that involve some interest. And it is probable these Natives will be found a far more interesting race than they have been generally esteemed. In reference to the Aboriginal language this Quarter. I have attended to Translating. In the Prayer Book several of the Prefatory Sentences, the address, Confession the Lord's Prayers &c Venite Exultemus - Te Deum - Jubilate Deo - Apostles Creed &c. In the Grammar I have made several alterations and corrections and enlarged it, having collated nearly 400 verbs having the same termination.

William Watson, Journal 12: April-June 1835

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-journals/xii-april-june-1835.html

[1 April 1835] Apl 10th [sic] Intelligence has reached us that Gentleman Jackey is dead. This is a circumstance that may affect the minds of some of the Natives. They have been collected from a distance of many miles in every direction to celebrate Waganna (a dance) to Baiami a being of considerable note amongst them. The place at which they assembled is Babidyal; literally the land of nettles from Babina nettle. It was said a short time ago that Baiami was about to kill all the Europeans in this country because some of them had seduced his wife. The prophecy passed away without being fulfilled, now it is reported that he will destroy all Natives who either live with Europeans; lend their females or children to them; or, do not celebrate this "Wagganna". Gentleman Jackey had six wives, if that honourable name be allowable here, of whom not more than one was generally with him. The others were living with Europeans, from whom he received the wages of iniquity. Jackey had united with his brethren in the Waganna; but that same night was taken with, according to the representations of the natives, violent pain at the heart and died two days afterwards. He was probably not more than 25 years of age; and was more free from disease than any other I have known of his age. Baiami is said to live in the East, and Tharrariwingal his father, in the west. Both live near the sea. The natives say that when Baiami gave the "Gudthi" (song) which they now chaunt to him, he gave them also wooden gods which after the first celebration of the "Waganna" they burnt. He also commanded them to use small Twigs about 9 inches in length which they were to beat against each other in the "Waganna' and then to burn them. These Twigs are named "Mudthir" from Mudthirra which signifies repeated beating or, thrashing. It is said that the road taken by Baiami and his wife when they left the house of Tharrarwirgal is marked by deep pits in the earth where they slept. In one place is a small mountain of stone of a superior quality; One night when Baiami was on his way, he was bitten by an ant, and from the wound immediately proceeded this mountain. The natives say Baiami is not to be lightly spoke of, nor his song taken in vain. His father Tharrariwingal is said to be the author of "Thanna thanna" (small pock). He has his name from a large tree growing out of his thigh, Tharra thigh, and wirigal a cutter of wood. Burranbin "The uncreated one" is [2] is said to be the greatest of all beings; but the natives say little about him. The circumstance of their having apprehensions of such superior being is more than was at first anticipated. They have a name for angels which they say live on a high mountain, whose food is only honey, and whose employment is like Parson's. They are said to be white. I have now no doubt that there is among these natives a settled belief in the existence of a "First cause." Pride has led many of them to deify one another; and to consider in many instances each other as the author of what indeed can only be wrought an Almighty arm. These simple circumstances are related in order that those who many peruse the journals may look upon our charge as not being so destitute of knowledge of the Divine Being as we in our ignorance and haste represented them to be. Doubtless the attainment of the language will open to our minds a deeper insight into their real views. Kannaimirra signifies to know every thing, not in the sense of wisdom or skill; but in that of all seeing. As this cannot be applicable to any finite creature, it must have its origin in a knowledge (at some period however) of the omniscient Deity. Again Ma with many of it compounds signifies to make; But "Wallungmarra" (or) "Wallungma" signifies to make out of nothing - to create. One day in a year is celebrated by them in giving presents to each other of such things as they possess. This they say has long been a custom with them. Its origin is unknown to us at present. I hope I may be excused for thus digressing from the generally adopted plan of recording in our Journals, only our labours &c among the Natives.

[24 April 1835] Thursd 24. Preached to different parties of natives this morning; many laughed where they ought to have wept: viz. at the recital of some of their improper and unholy proceedings. Some nodded at the close of every sentence as if they understood what was said. One female the wife of a professed native Doctor was very ill this morning: I wished to let her blood; but she was unwilling till I had fetched her husband from the Camp. She is much easier this evening. Spent most of this day at the camp conversing with the natives, that some understood me is evident from their asking some questions respecting thier future state. I was asked by some of them if I should ever return to England, I answered that it was not my intention to return; that I had come to live and die among the natives to teach them the way to heaven. They exclaimed Gunning dyang! An expression of admiration; but which literally signifies motherless. When asking several questions, I was pleased to find that one who had once lived with us; but had now been absent for sometime answered readily, which shews as far as knowledge is considered our labour is not altogether in vain. They have had a "Waganna" or Nature dance to night in which they sang to Baiami. When they were ready they sent messages with fire sticks to summon us and direct our path. They beat small sticks as mentioned above. The song is very short, and all that I could learn from it or of it was something respecting angels; carrying on the back; playing to him; and throwing into the fire. Their Poets enjoy like all others the liberty of using language different from what is used in general conversation. As we were returning home, our ears were assailed with loud Shrieks; on going to ascertain the cause, I found that it proceeded from several females, relatives to Gentleman Jackey, lately dead, whose absence from this festivity reminded them of the painful circumstance. A shooting star expended itself at a short distance from our house this evening. The natives were much alarmed, always viewing such a phenomena as an omen of death.

Handt, Journal 10, April-June 1835, pages 5-6, 9, 10; MS C N/O 51

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/x-april-june-1835.html

[23 April 1835] Thursday, 23. The Natives had a dance this evening. As they appeared to be highly gratified with this amusement, and were anxious for us to be there, we went to witness it. On approaching the spot, we saw a number of young men jumping and dancing before a fire, sometimes bending down towards the fire, shaking their limbs and heads, and all the while screaming as loud and as long as their lungs would allow them. They did not stand in regular order, however their motions agreed with the song. Their bodies were painted in red and white stripes, and their hair in spots of white, so as to resemble white feathers. [6] A number of women stood in a group at one side, and sang in a soft and plaintive voice their parts of the song. I could not help pitying them, because they will not taste the better pleasures of religion, and of communion with God. There was a Boy looking at the dance, whom I had not seen before; I went therefore and asked him, whether he would stay with us, he replied in the affirmative, but would not come till the morning.

[30 April 1835] Thursday, 30. Find the Blacks averse to religious conversation. O that the Lord would send a hunger and thirst among them for hearing his word. When the women were singing to-day a song; a little Boy belonging to them was dancing in the native style. He had a few days ago received a small article of clothing, but was now quite naked, though it is very cold. When I saw it yesterday, it was as black and dirty as the little fellow himself.

[5 May 1835] Tuesday, 5. Two of the Boys behave in a provoking manner; they steal anything eatable, they can meet with; though they receive their regular [10] meals. When they are reproved for their conduct, they perhaps make a song of us, or go to the river or into the bush. There they stay the whole day, and come back in the evening, only with a hope to receive their suppers ...

Handt, Journal 12, page 25

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/handt/handt-journals/xii-oct-dec-1835.html

[29 December 1835] Tuesday, 29. Read part of the 15th Ch. of Saint Luke in their language to the Blacks, but did not with the attention, I had wished for. Some of the women had afterwards a shamfight with their sticks, and then danced. [30 December 1835] Wednesday, 30. Most of the Blacks left again to-day: two of the Boys also went with them. I learnt afterwards that they had gone away, in order to make young men, as they term it. Probably they will make these two Boys young men also, as they are of about the right age, when they perform the ceremony on them. If this should be the case, they will not stay with us afterwards to be regularly instructed.

Watson, report 1835

https://downloads.newcastle.edu.au/library/cultural%20collections/the-wellington-valley-project/watson/watson-reports/ii-1835.html

... It has been found extremely difficult to form an accurate idea of the opinion of the Natives in reference to the Creator of the World, the Creator, the immortality of the soul and a future state of existence, as the accounts given by different Natives, are frequently at variance with each other. It appears, however, that there is among them a general idea of a Creator, who is himself uncreated. They believe in the immortality of the soul, but what is their idea of its state and employment after death, has not been learnt. They attribute all their afflictions and troubles to an evil being (Wandong,) who is said to be visible only to their doctors. They have an idea of an order of beings (Guinyar) inferior to the Creator, but superior to man. The only kind of Worship known among them is the (Wagganna) or native Dance, accompanied by singing to Baiami who, annually, about February or March, reveals to some one Native, at a very great distance from Wellington, the song, in which all are bound to join under penalty of death. This song is esteemed sacred by the Natives, who apprehend that if they should not be present at the singing of it they would die.

"MISSION TO THE ABORIGINES", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (7 July 1836), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2205292

Annual Report of the Mission to the Aborigines of New South Wales, at Wellington Valley, for the year 1835, compiled from the statements of the Rev. W. Watson, and the Rev. J. C. S. Handt, Missionaries ... It has been found extremely difficult to form an accurate idea of the opinions of the natives in reference to the Creation of the World, the Creator, the immortality of Soul, and a future state of existence, as the accounts given by different natives are frequently at variance with each other. It appears, however, that there is among them a general idea of Creator, who is himself uncreated. They believe in the immortality of the Soul, but what is their idea of its state or employment after death has not been learnt. They attribute all their afflictions and troubles to an evil being, (Wandong), who is said to be visible only to their doctors. They have an idea of an order of being (Guinyar,) inferior to the Creator, but superior to man. The only kind of worship known among them is the "Waggana," or Native Dance, accompanied by singing to Beiami, who, annually, about February or March, reveals to some one native, at a very great distance from Wellington, the song in which all are bound to join under penalty of death. This song is esteemed sacred by the natives, who apprehend if they should not be present at the singing of it, they would surely die.


Bibliography:

Flanagan 1862, 1, 515

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=WicXAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA515


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




19 March 1835 (first notice)

24 March 1835 (first Australian performance)

Assembly Room, Pulteney Hotel, George Street, Sydney, NSW, 24 March 1835 (first Australian performance)


CHILD, Mrs. (attributed; ? but probably by Welsh composer John Parry)

Farewell to Love

 

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (19 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12851713

CONCERT. MRS. TAYLOR RESPECTFULLY announces to her Friends and the Public generally, that her CONCERT will take place at the Pulteney Hotel, on TUESDAY next, the 24th instant, assisted (with permission of Colonel Despard) by the Band of the 17th Regiment. PART I ... 3. Song, Mrs. Child, Wilt thou say Farewell. Stevenson ... PART II ... 5. Song, Mrs. Child, Farewell to Love, Mrs. Child.

[Advertisement], The Australian (20 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42009741

[Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (21 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32148542

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (21 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2197644

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (23 March 1835), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12851740

[Advertisement], The Australian (24 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42007749

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (24 March 1835), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2197665

"MATTER FURNISHED BY OUR Reporters and Correspondents ... CONCERT", The Sydney Monitor (28 March 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32148587

CONCERT - On Tuesday evening, Mrs. Taylor's Concert took place in the assembly-room of the Pulteney Hotel, which was very respectably but thinly attended; and we are sorry to observe a lady who has come forward, on all occasions with her vocal abilities, so deserted by the musical profession; but such is the apathy that is evinced in Sydney. The performance consisted of some splendid overtures by the band of the 17th regt. which were played with their well-known talent and reputation. Two solos were played by Mr. Lewis and Mr. Stubbs, which elicited great applause. Mr. Cavendish presided at the piano and metalaphone, with his usual taste; - now, for the singers and the songs: - The two glees were much below mediocrity; and it is evident that, as yet, we have no glee singers that have appeared in public. Mrs. Child attempted two songs, her style is very simple ...


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

A song "Farewell to Love sung by Miss Childe", copies selling for 1s. 6d., was among new publications from Bland and Waller in London in 1817. But this appears to have been a composition of London-based composer John Parry (1776-1851), and so what might appears to be an attribution to the singer in her (? Much later) Sydney performance is probably in error.


References:

"REVIEW OF NEW MUSICAL", New Monthly Magazine (1 September 1817), 150

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=5_gRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA150

[Review], The Theatrical Inquisitor (September 1817) 211

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=EicIAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA211

Songs sung at Vauxhall this season, composed by J. Parry, 1s. 6d, each - Bland and Waller. This enchanting spot has been better frequented this summer than the last, and although the royal birth-days were wet, the proprietor has had no reason to complain on the whole ... "Farewell to Love," a ballad, sung by Mrs. Childe, is much admired for the sweetness of its melody ...




20 March 1835 (date of first publication)

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (lyricist, songwriter) = STEWART, Robert


Echo's Song

Source:

"Original Poetry: ECHO'S SONG", The Australian (20 March 1835), 4: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42009740

ECHO'S SONG.

Oh! I'm the fairy Queen of sound,
Mid rocks and caves I roam;
Unseen I float the wide world round,
And make the sea my home.

Upon the distant shore I sleep,
'Till waked by magic song;
Then climbing up the mountain steep,
I bear the notes along.

I hide me in the leafy glade,
And rule the trembling air,
The winds in whispers woo the shade,
While I repeat them there.

When darkness clothes the lovely lake
And gently flows the wave,
Upon its brow my bed I make
And answer every lave.

But in your Heaven I rest my wing,
Tho' music fill the skies,
No sounds from thence to earth I bring,
I love alone to -- rise.


Documentation:

As for Wallace's Echo's Song (Sydney, 1837), below


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-


Commentary:

For a later setting of this lyric, see William Vincent Wallace's Echo's Song (Sydney, 1837), below


References:

-




28 April 1835 (first notice)

1 May 1835 (first performance)

Peck's Theatre of Arts, Russell's Large Room, Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


PECK, George (composer, arranger, improvisor)

Imitations of the celebrated Paganini on the violin

NO COPY IDENTIFIED (unpublished MS, or perhaps never written down)


Documentation:

[Advertisement], Colonial Times (28 April 1835), 3: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8648174:

Theatre of Arts, Under the Patronage of His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor and Family, and several Persons of distinction. ON FRIDAY EVENING NEXT, MAY 1st, the following Entertainments will be presented: PART I. THE PASSAGE OF THE GREAT ST. BERNARD By NAPOLEON, and his Grand Army of Reserve, consisting of Thirty Thousand Men; THE MONK OF ST. BERNARD'S And his Dog, &c. GRAND CONCERTO, PIANO-FORTE, By Miss Pettingell, A Young Lady only 12 years of Age, Pupil of the celebrated " Panorma." [Panormo] PART II. NSW LONDON BRIDGE, WITH ST. PAUL'S, And Part of London in the Distance. A Variety of Pleasing and Ingenious Mechanical Figures will enliven the Scene. After which, MR. PECK will perform his admired Imitations of the celebrated "PAGANINI" on the Violin. PART III. MOUNT WELLINGTON, As seen from Sandy Bay, with the upper part of Davey-street. In this Scene, in addition to a variety of Local Figures, "The Death of the Kangaroo." A splendid effect of Cloud and Sunshine will be presented. BRUCE'S ADDRESS, With Variations on the Piano-forte by MISS PETTINGELL. The whole to Conclude with THE STORM AT SEA. Doors Open at Six o'Clock, and the Performance to Commence at Seven. April 28,1835.


Bibliography:

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28 May 1835 (first published)

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (songwriter)

The Revenue Cutter

A New Song by a member of the New South Wales Temperance Society (I knew by the smoke that incessantly curl'd)


Words only extant; no tune indicated


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE


Source:

"Original Poetry", The Colonist (28 May 1835), 6: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31716555

THE REVENUE CUTTER; A NEW SONG, BY A MEMBER OF THE NEW SOUTH WALES TEMPERANCE SOCIETY.

I KNEW, by the smoke that incessantly curl'd
From doorways and windows, a grog-shop was near;
And I said to myself, "I would bet half the world,
Some Ticket-of-leave men are guzzling it here."
Every sot had his pipe; and I heard not a sound,
But cursing and swearing incessant and fierce.

By the Customs' Return for the year thirty-four,
That public-house smoke, I could clearly divine,
Had blinded the eyes of the Government Corps
To the woes that surround Inebriety's shrine.
Every sot had his pipe; and I heard not a sound
But cursing and swearing incessant and fierce.

"And here, in a place for reform," I exclaim'd,
"While the Government looks with so careless an eye
At this foul source of crime, can the wretches be blamed
Vile drunkards who live, and vile drunkards who die?"
Every sot had his pipe; and I heard not a sound
But cursing and swearing incessant and fierce.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

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Commentary:

The song's title perhaps refers to the local "revenue cutter" (customs boat), in 1835 the Prince George, captained by John Roach, and its role in policing shipping, the movement of immigrants and convicts, as well as imports of tobacco and alcohol.


References:

-




27 June 1835 (date of event/performance)

NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingstone (reporter)

War songs ... dance at a pistol shot

REPORT ONLY


Documentation:

Mitchell 1839, 1, 246-48

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA247

[June 27] ... (246) ... At length, however, he retired slowly along the river bank, making it evident, by his gestures, that he was going for his tribe; and singing a war-song as he went ... (247 "DANCE AT A PISTOL SHOT") ... Two other stout fellows, (our morning visitor being one of them) then rudely demanded my pistols from my belt; where upon I drew one, and, curious to see the effect, I fired it at a tree. The scene which followed, I cannot satisfactorily describe, or represent, although I shall never forget it. As if they had previously suspected we were evil demons, and had at length a clear proof of it, they repeated their gesticulations of defiance with tenfold fury, and accompanied the action with demoniac looks, hideous shouts and a war-song - crouching, jumping, spitting, springing with the spear, and throwing dust at us, as they slowly retired. In short, their hideous crouching postures, measured gestures, and low jumps, all to (248) the tune of a wild song, with the fiendish glare of their countenances, at times all black, but now all eyes and teeth, seemed a fitter spectacle for Pandemonium, than the light of the bounteous sun.


Bibliography:

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-


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28 June 1835 (date of event/performance)

NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingstone (reporter)

Professional Chaunt

REPORT ONLY


Documentation:

Mitchell 1839, 1, 249

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA249

(249, "STRANGE CEREMONIAL") June 28. The natives did not appear in the morning, as we had expected, but at three in the afternoon, their voices were again heard in the woods. I ordered all the men to be on the look out, and when the natives came near, I sent Burnett towards them, once more with a branch, but with orders to retire upon any indication of defiance. It turned out, as I had supposed, that their curiosity and desire to get something more, had brought them forward again. An old man was at length prevailed on to join Burnett, and to sit down by him. This was effected, however, but very slowly, the others standing at a great distance, and some who remained in the rear, still making signs of defiance. Others of the tribe at length joined the old man, but they prepared to return on my approach, recognising me perhaps as the owner of the pistol. On seeing this, I directed Burnett to give a clasp-knife to the old man, who seemed much pleased with the present. They next made a move towards the spot where the blacksmith was at work, commencing at the same time a kind of professional chaunt, and slowly waving their green boughs. The appearance of one of these men, in particular, was very odd. There was evidently some superstition in the ceremony, this personage being probably a coradje or priest. He was an old man with a large beard and bushy hair, and the lower part of his nose was wanting, so that the apex of that feature formed more than a right angle, giving him an extraordinary appearance. None, except himself and other ancients, wore any kind of dress; and this consisted of a small cloak of skins fastened over the left shoulder. While the man from the woods waved his bough aloft, and chaunted that monotonous hymn, an idea of the ancient druids arose in my mind. It was obvious the ceremony belonged to some strange superstition. He occasionally turned his back towards each of us ...


Bibliography:

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-


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6 July 1835 (date of event/performance)

NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingstone (reporter)

Dance of the Natives

REPORT ONLY


Documentation:

Mitchell 1839, 1, 260

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA260

(258) July 6 ... (260 "DANCE OF NATIVES") ... While we halted, I perceived, through my glass, a party of about seventeen on a small eminence near the river bank, and nine others, whom I supposed to be those who had been with us, joined them; upon which a large fire was made under some trees. Around this fire, I distinctly saw them dance for nearly half an hour, their bodies being hideously painted white, so as to resemble skeletons. The weather was very cold, and it seemed as if this dance amongst the burning grass was partly for the purpose of warming themselves. I am rather inclined to suppose, however, considering the circumstances under which the tribe higher up danced, that it was connected with some dark superstition, resorted to perhaps, in the present instance, either to allay fear, or to inspire courage. I saw several gins carrying children in cloaks on their backs, some of whom and several of the children also danced. Our watering party was directed towards another portion of the river, to avoid collision, if possible; and these natives at last decamped along its bank, in an opposite direction, or downwards ...


Bibliography:

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-


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After 7 July 1835

Near Brighton, VDL (TAS)


GLOVER, John (artist, reporter)

Natives at a corrobory

Image:

Natives at a corrobory [River Jordan below Brighton, Tasmania] (detail); John Glover, c.1835; State Library of New South Wales

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=404665


Documentation:

George Augustus Robinson, letter to John Glover, 7 July 1835; State Library of New South Wales, Mitchell Library MSS A7043

John Glover, letter to George Augustus Robinson, [DETAILS TO COME]


Bibliography:

Lawson 2014, 135-145, especially 136


Resources:

-


Commentary:

George Augustus Robinson commissioned this painting from Glover in a letter dated 7 July 1835 (Mitchell Library MSS A7043: letter dated 7 July 1835); Glover replied that he wanted the picture to depict "the Natives at a corrobory, under the wild Woods of the Country - to give an idea of the manner they enjoyed themselves before being disturbed by the White People"


References:

-





22 July 1835 (date of event/performance)

NSW


INDIGENOUS

MITCHELL, Thomas Livingstone (reporter)

Chaunt and Demonic Dance ... Cooey

REPORT ONLY


Documenation:

Mitchell 1839, 1, 283

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=NoIrAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA283

(282) July 22 ... (283 "THE SPITTING TRIBE AGAIN") ... At four P. M. the alarm was given, that the natives were close to the camp, and we no sooner saw them, than the whole of the scrub proved to be on fire, to the imminent danger of our equipment. I sent five men with muskets to them (au pas de charge); and in five minutes, they had retired across the river, two shots having been fired over their heads, as they ascended the opposite bank. It appeared, that this party consisted of eight men, each carrying a spear and a waddy, besides the same boy, who had been seen higher up, and who was observed on this occasion very busy lighting branches in the scrub; the vile old fellow "sans nose" was one, and also the sullen man, who was the first we had ever seen throw dust. These latter stood on our side, covering the passage of the others, and crossing last, which manly conduct was the best trait I had seen in their character. On reaching the top of the opposite bank, they commenced their usual chaunt and demoniac dance, waving burning branches over their heads, brandishing their spears, and throwing their waddies high in the air, even above the lofty trees, all the time retreating in leaping and singing order. It was evident, that our dogs had frightened them ; and at the report of the guns, the tall fellow fell flat on the earth, as he was ascending the opposite bank. Later in the evening, some natives were seen driving the bullocks about on the opposite side, but as they desisted when called (284) to, and afterwards cooyed to the others, before they joined them, it was supposed, that these had just arrived from a distance.


Bibliography:

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15 September 1835 (words first published)

21 September 1835 (first performance)

Theatre Royal, Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (? Irish) (lyrics)

LEWIS, Thomas (composer)

Why don't the Girls propose

A new song ... the music composed expressly for Mrs. Taylor by Mr. Lewis, Band Master of His Majesty's 17th Regiment


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (music) (unpublished MS)


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (words)


Source (words):

"Original Poetry", The Australian (15 September 1835), 4: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42005941

WHY DON'T THE GIRLS PROPOSE

THE MEN are shy - the ladies cry,
Their minds they won't disclose:
If it be so, I'd like to know,
Why don't the Girl propose?

At splendid Balls, in dazzling halls.
Amid a host of beaux,
With speaking eyes, and well tim'd sighs,
The Ladies might propose.

Ye maidens fair, now laughing there,
So coyly with your beaux,
Take my advice, don't be o'er nice,
They'll wed - do you propose.

When stern Papas, and cross Mammas
All marriage schemes oppose,
And beaux are shy, there's no cause why
The belles should not propose.

Then pity take, for Hymen's sake,
On those unhappy beaux,
Who are, poor elves, too shy themselves,
A marriage to propose.

Pray Ladies, do propose - Correspondent.


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Australian (18 September 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42004566

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette (24 September 1835), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2200343

Theatre Royal, SYDNEY. Mrs. Taylors Benefit. IN ADDITION to the numerous Entertainments on Monday Evening next, will be Sung an entirely New Song, the words of which appeared in the "Australian" Newspaper, entitled - "Why don't the Girls Propose." The music composed expressly for MRS. TAYLOR BY MR. LEWIS, BAND MASTER OF HIS MAJESTY'S 17th REGIMENT

"THE THEATRE", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (24 September 1835), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2200343

THE THEATRE. Mrs. Taylor's benefit took place on Monday, on which occasion she deservedly obtained an overflowing bumper. The comic operatic piece John of Paris commenced the evening's amusement, in which Mrs. Taylor's Olivia and Mr. Simmons's Pedrigo Potts were the chief attractions. The rest of the performance was very mediocre. The songs and other entertainments introduced between the pieces were very well executed, and appeared to give general satisfaction. Mr. Simmons was loudly encored in Bannister's favorite comic song of "Beggars and Ballad singers," and Mrs. Taylor sang with much effect, a new song, the words of which appeared in the Australian newspaper a short time since, entitled "Why don't the Girls Propose," to music arranged by Mr. Lewis, the bandmaster of the 17th regiment. The first act of Giovanni in London followed, and it gained, as it has always done here, the manifest satisfaction of the audience. A dance by Mr. Fitzgerald, and an amusing comic farce, called High Ways and Bye Ways concluded the evening's entertainment. Mr. Simmons, as Mr. Narcissus Stubble, Mr. Mackay as Charles Stapleton, and Mrs. Taylor as Mrs Susan Platt alike contributed to the success of the piece. The band of the 17th regiment attended by the kind permission of Col. Despard, and the whole of the amusements, being assisted by the introduction of some well played enlivening airs, went off with eclat. Captain Piper was to have attended, having signified his intention of patronizing Mrs.Taylor, but the gallant gentleman did not arrive in town.

[News]: "Mrs. Taylor's benefit ...", The Australian (25 September 1835), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42007034

Mrs. Taylor's benefit took place at the Theatre on Monday last, and evinced much judgment in her selection of the entertainment, and we never remember having seen pieces produced at the Theatre on benefit nights, go off with so much eclat and satisfaction, the audience was kept in one continual roar of laughter - Simmons played Pedrigo Potts, Leperello, and Stubble, the latter character for broad comic humour, surpassed his Bowbell - he sang "Beggars and Ballad Singers" in capital style ... but the great attraction of the evening on this occasion, was Mrs. Taylor, she played in all three pieces and introduced several new songs; in the first piece she played the Page Vincent, and it's no little praise to state, she acquitted herself with her well-known ability, and during the evening sang a new song, called "Why don't the Girls propose," composed expressly from [for] her by Mr. Lear [Lewis]; it is a pleasing ballad, and was most rapturously applauded. The first act of Giovanni followed, and her performance of the character is so highly appreciated by the public, that it needs no comment from us ...


Commentary:

A copy of the the lyrics had probably only recently arrived in Sydney; they appeared, for instance, in the Belfast Newsletter of 26 May 1835.


References:

The Theatrical Observer and Daily Bill of Play (14 May 1835), 1

https://archive.org/stream/theatricalobserv183502lond#page/n49/mode/2up

The following comic song, written by the elder Parry, was sung by Harley with great applause on the night of his Benefit. Why don't the Girls propose ...




2 December 1835 (date of report)

Lake Macquarie, NSW


INDIGENOUS

THRELKELD, Lancelot Edward (authority)


A new song and dance

Which have lately been brought from the regions far beyond Liverpool Plains


REPORT ONLY


Documentation:

Lancelot E. Threlkeld, "MISSION TO THE ABORIGINES", The Sydney Herald (8 July 1836), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12854740

Annual Report of the Aboriginal Mission at Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, 1835. To the Honorable the Colonial Secretary, Alexander McLeay, Esq., &c., &c., &c., Ebenezer, Lake Macquarie, December 2nd, 1835 ... Several of the blacks belonging to this District, headed by McGill, are travelling to Windsor, Parramatta, and Sydney, in order to teach other tribes a new song and dance, which have lately been brought from the regions far beyond Liverpool Plains, where my son has ascertained that the song exists, though the dialect is different to that used in these parts on the Sea Coast. It is not discouraging to reflect that when "Knowledge shall increase amongst these tribes," then, the same custom which promulgates the new song, will convey throughout Australia "The glad tidings" of "A Saviour, Christ the Lord."


Bibliography:

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5 December 1835

Wybalenna Island, VDL (TAS)


MANNALARGENNA (songmaker)

INDIGENOUS

ROBINSON, George Augustus (reporter)


The Song of Lamentation, and Mannalargenna's song remembered

Documentation:

Robinson, Journals; Plomley 1987, 313, also 426

5 December 1835. MANNALARGENNA was dead. Went with the surgeon, who had dined with me, to see the corpse. Soon after leaving my house heard a song of lamentation. I still went on in the direction of the place where the corpse lay, but was too ...

George Augustus Robinson, Posthumous Testimony to Mannalargenna, A celebrated Native Chieftain of Van Diemens Land who departed this life Friday Dec. 4th Anno Domini 1835. Died at the Settlement for the Aborigines Flinders Island; copy made "Jan '36", George Arthur, papers regarding Aborigines, 1825-1837, 148r ff. [image 142]; State Library of New South Wales

http://www.acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=879583

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2007/D00007/a1771.html (ONLINE TRANSCRIPT)

[Image 142] Posthumous Testimony to "Mannalargenna" A celebrated Native Chieftain of Van Diemens Land who departed this life Friday Dec. 4th Anno Domini 1835. Died at the Settlement for the Aborigines Flinders Island. On the afternoon of the above day, an Aboriginal female came to my quarters, and informed me that Mannalargenna the King was dead. I proceeded immediately to view the body, accompanied by the Surgeon. On leaving my house the Song of Lamentation was distinctly heard, the mournful dirge, like the trump of death, seemed to declare the solemn warning "Prepare to meet thy God", and pointed out the frail nature of all earthly existence. It was as though a voice from Heaven spoke saying - "And yet a little while and thou shall be numbered with the dead". Although I had for some time watched with painful feelings his approaching dissolution, still I did not apprehend his death so near. It was sudden [Image 143] and took place earlier than expected, how solemn this circumstance. I went in the direction of the house where the body lay, but was too overpowered to enter, I therefore avoided the house of mourning, and proceeded by a retired path, in the rear of the Natives' Huts to the Surgeon's Quarters; The body was afterwards removed to the new store, wrapped in a blanket, and the lamentation ceased. Some of the Male Aborigines accompanied me to the burial ground, to select a place for the grave, a spot was marked out when the Natives at my request dug it out ...

[Image 145] ... The funeral of the departed chief took place on the afternoon of the following day, upwards of One hundred persons attended the corpse to the grave. The Native Inhabitants were in clean & neat attire, the Officers of the Settlement & near relatives followed next to the corpse, the Surgeon & Catechist in front. It was past 3 O'Clock when the mournful procession moved on in solemn order to the burying ground, distant about half a mile. The day was fine and the whole scene was one of great interest. The Aborigines stood in a circular form round the grave, select portions were then read from the Burial service by the Catechist, after which the [Image 146] following hasty eulogium was delivered as a last a last tribute to the remains of the departed chieftain, though brief was listened to by the Aborigines with great attention, there never was better decorum observed among any civilised community than was [indecipherable] on this occasion ... [full text of eulogy follows, including:]

[Image 155] ... he told other black men what God had done for him, & told them to go to God & pray as he had done, and God would pardon them their sins and make them good. Then he made a song about what God had done for him, for his soul & made a tune also & sung it to other

[image 156] black men, these are some of the words & they are very good

I am glad I saw another day
Sing Glory - Glory - Glory
We ever need to sing and pray
For Glory - Glory - Glory

I have Glory - Glory in my soul
Sing Glory - Glory - Glory
Which makes me praise my Lord so bold
For Glory - Glory - Glory

I hope to praise him when I die
In Glory - Glory - Glory
And shout Salvation as I fly
To Glory - Glory - Glory

These are some of the verses - there are many more but there is not sufficient time to repeat them on this occasion ...


Further documentation: (hymn singing)

Robert Clark, report of the committee of the Aboriginal schools for the three months to 30 November 1836; Plomley 1987, 667

...Instruction is given to the Aborigines on the calendar; and to count up to fifty. They have learned six tunes of psalms and hymns, and the doxology; and they can all repeat the Lord's Prayer.

George Augustus Robinson, journal; Plomley 1987, 398

7 December [1836] Wed ... Pm visited the school. I was particularly delighted and pleased with the singing of the natives, particularly with one hymn that concluded with "we are on our way to God". They are much improved in their singing; they sing with spirit and in excellent time, and their melody is very pleasing ...

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 22 February 1837; Plomley 1987, 426

22 February [1837] Wed ... died last night of visceral inflammation. This man was among the most healthy. He was hale and young. This is the third native man dead. Samuel, Algernon, Omega, all healthy young men. painful events. All is doing requisite to their comfort, but alas it will be too late; death is making rapid inroads among them. I had promised the aborigines a festivity and this day was selected for the occasion and I had invited the officers and their wives to a festival. In consequence of the heat of the day the festival was held in a delightful spot in the park in the rear of my quarters, completely sheltered by a grove of trees ... In the evening the natives came in front of my house and sang hymns. The evening was still and the singing had a fine effect. At dinner the natives sung several hymns which was truly gratifying; Hampshire was one tune, and another the words "o'er the gloomy hills of darkness". The words of another "when I can read my title clear", "from Egypt lately come", "glory to God on high", let heaven hear the reply" and "glory, glory" being among those they are accustomed to sing. Twelve months ago they could not sing a verse of any hymn, now they can sing all the forgoing in excellent tune and time and know the words. They were at that time assisted at table, they can now do without assistance. They enjoyed the entertainment and conducted themselves with great propriety and in an orderly and becoming manner. It was a scene worthy the pencil of a painter ... Such festivities if duly observed are well calculated to fill the mind with delight and satisfaction and render the natives contented and happy, pleasing reflections to my mind on witnessing such results, in taking a retrospect of past occurrences to recollect that but a short time ago they scarcely knew a word of English now they speak seldom any other, and hearing them sing in English verse and tune it is a source of consolation. The mortality alone is to be deplored. May a good a generous God vouchsafe to bless them.

George Augustus Robinson, journal, 15 November 1837; Plomley 1987, 497

15 November [1837] Wed ... Attended the evening school and instructed the natives in singing. Busy the whole day on the public works. Last night the natives were practising singing in their houses. I have frequently been much pleased and delighted in seeing little groups of natives in their houses singing hymns and psalms. Last Sunday night Mrs. and Miss R and myself visited the houses at 9 pm, an aged female being then in the last stage of illness, and we were much pleased on coming near to Washington's house to hear hymns sung, and most excellent cadence and time was observed. Mrs R at first thought my two sons William and Henry were among them and instructing them, but what was our surprise to find on entering the cottage that none but natives were there, about twenty to twenty-five in number, men and women, all seated around the fire singing praises to the Almighty. The tunes and hymns were - (1) Behod the glory of the lamb, (2) Once more before, (3) When I can read my [title clear], and (4) O'er the gloomy hills of.

[News], The Hobart Town Courier (23 September 1836), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4174928 

Among the other careful and shrewd provisions of the new South Australia provincials, we have not observed, what we should have considered the primary and most essential of all, that any allusion is made to the Aborigines ...

On this subject we are happy to learn that the Aboriginal Committee of the House of Commons, as well as the Secretary of State, are desirous that Mr. Robinson the Commandant at Flinder's Island, should proceed to New Holland as mediator and protector of the various tribes of natives in the newly settled territories ...

Their religious exercises consist in regularly attending divine service, in joining in the responses, and singing. One of the Aborigines officiates as clerk and teacher, for which he receives 1s. per week from the fund; he has also a younger assistant, who is paid 6d. All join in the Lord's Prayer. The entire black population now amounts to 120 souls - a number which appears not only likely to be kept up, but gradually, under the improved management of Mr. Robinson, to increase.

"Slopiana", Colonial Times (27 September 1836), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8649387 

Slopiana. The following extracts from the Courier will amuse our readers. Of all the parcel of infamous, false representations, ever put forth, none can equal them. Of course the Courier will be made use of in Downing-street, and perhaps the Penny Magazine will be bribed to copy a portion thereof. Deception of this description is wicked! ... [extract from above]

"FROM THE HOBART TOWN COURIER", Launceston Advertiser (29 September 1836), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article84755548 

"Aborigines", The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia 22 (April 1837), 248

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eSoLAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA248 

"FLINDERS ISLAND ESTABLISHMENT FOR THE ABORIGINES", The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal (19 August 1837), 958

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article639877 


Bibliography:

Plomley 1987, 313, 426


Resources:

http://www.utas.edu.au/telling-places-in-country/historical-context/historical-biographies/mannalargenna


Words and music concordances:

A general collection of hymns, and spiritual songs, for the use of the Arminian baptism revivals; a new edition, enlarged (Uppingham: George Daniel, 1822) 64, Hymn 55, The Millenial

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=j_tiAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA64

I'm glad I ever saw the day,
Sing glory, glory, glory;
We ever met to sing and pray
Sing glory, glory, glory.
I've glory, glory in my soul
Sing glory, glory, glory;
Which make's me praise the Lord so bold
In glory, glory, glory ...

F. W. Wilson (ed.), Sacred songs: a selection of psalms, hymns and spiritual poetry, from ancient, modern and original sources (London: J. H. Jackson, 1847)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=DithAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA70

I am glad I ever saw the day,
Sing glory, glory, glory!
When first I learned to sing and pray,
Sing glory, glory, glory!
'Tis glory's foretaste makes me sing
Of glory, glory, glory!
And praise my Saviour and my King
Like those in glory, glory! ...

Hampshire [tune]

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=F3B814JHA_4C&pg=PA258


Thomas Kelly, Collection of psalms & hymns ... (Dublin: [s.n.], 1802), Appendix 247-48

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=FMFVAAAAcAAJ

Thomas Kelly, Hymns adapted for social worship (Dublin: Printed ... for M. Keene, 1811), 78-79

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=zcNVAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA78

1 FROM Egypt lately come,
Where death and darkness reign,
We seek our new, our better home,
Where we our rest shall gain.
Hallelujah!
We are on our way to God.

2 To Canaan's sacred bound
We haste with songs of joy;
Where peace and liberty are found,
And sweets that never cloy. Hallelujah!
We are on our way to God ...


Commentary:

-


References:

-




10 December 1835 (notice of publication)

Sydney, NSW


"A LADY" ? = HELY, Mary (composer, arranger)

"F. A. H." = HELY, Frederick Augustus (songwriter)

The Parting

Source [LOST]:

[The Parting; Ballad; words: F. A. H.; music "said to be by a lady" / "by a young lady"]

([Dublin: Andrew Ellard, for Francis Ellard, Sydney, 1835])

Exemplars:

NO COPY IDENTIFIED


Documentation:

"Sydney General Trade List: IMPORTS", The Colonist (10 December 1835), 7: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31717338

6 packages musical instruments, F. Ellard.

[News], The Sydney Gazette (12 December 1835), 2: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2201678;

We have before us a beautiful ballad, (the music said to be by a lady), and "The much admired Australian Quadrilles," published in Dublin by our enterprising fellow-colonist, Mr. Ellard, of Hunter-street, Sydney. There is a simplicity and beauty in the former which we are sure will attract the attention of all young ladies studying the pianoforte, and will be a very good addition to their initiatory studies. With regard to the second, we are satisfied that they will afford many unhappy hour of amusement to the Australian daughters and sons of Terpsichore. We strongly recommend them to the attention of the public.

"AUSTRALIAN MUSIC", The Sydney Herald (24 December 1835), 2: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28654531;

AUSTRALIAN MUSIC. We have received from Mr. Ellard, the music-seller of Hunter-street, copies of some Colonial music, harmonised in Sydney, and printed by Mr. Ellard's father, Dublin. The music consists of a Ballad entitled "The Parting," composed by a young lady, the words are easily recognisable as those of a gentleman in the Colony, whose production, both music and poetry are said to be. The ballad is in an appropriate and pretty key (flats), and its melody and arrangement display a pleasing simplicity of style, without much originality. The rest of the sheets contain a new set of Australian Quadrilles, under the names of "La Sydney, La Wooloomoolloo, L'Illawarra, La Bong Bong, and L'Engehurst," the airs of which are taken from some of the new Operas, and arranged in easy keys for the benefit of young pianists.

"ERRATUM", The Sydney Herald (28 December 1835), 3: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12853687

ERRATUM. The notice of Mr. Ellard's new music in our last number, an omission was made; instead of the Ballad of F. A. H. being in "flats," it should have been three flats.


Bibliography:


Resources:

-


Commentary:

-


References:

-




10 December 1835 (notice of publication)

Sydney, NSW


ELLARD, William (composer, arranger) 

The Much Admired Australian Quadrilles

Source:

The much Admired AUSTRALIAN QUADILLES [image of Sydney]

CONTAINING

La Sydney,

La Illawarra,

La Wooloomooloo [sic],

La Bong Bong, AND

La Enghurst

Dedicated by permission to Miss Hely of Engehurst Selected from the newest and most Celebrated Operas,

AND ARRANGED FOR THE Piano Forte or Harp BY WM. ELLARD. DUBLIN.

PUBLISHED: Dublin: [Andrew Ellard, for Francis Ellard, Sydney], [1835]


VIEW DIGITISED COPY (1)


VIEW DIGITISED COPY (2)



Exemplars:

University of Newcastle Library (with cover):

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/42311839 (not digitised)

NLA (photocopy of Newcastle exemplar above)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/171071617 (DIGITISED)


SL-NSW (without cover)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/51391578

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?itemID=921288&acmsid=0 (DIGITISED)

NLA (photocopy of SL-NSW)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/14490375 (not digitised)


Documentation:

"Sydney General Trade List: IMPORTS", The Colonist (10 December 1835), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31717338

6 packages musical instruments, F. Ellard.

"NEW MUSIC", The Sydney Monitor (12 December 1835), 3s

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32150302

NEW MUSIC. We have been favoured by Mr. Ellard with music for five Australian Quadrilles, to which we shall refer in our next.

[News], The Sydney Gazette (12 December 1835), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2201678;

We have before us a beautiful ballad, (the music said to be by a lady), and "The much admired Australian Quadrilles," published in Dublin by our enterprising fellow-colonist, Mr. Ellard, of Hunter-street, Sydney. There is a simplicity and beauty in the former which we are sure will attract the attention of all young ladies studying the pianoforte, and will be a very good addition to their initiatory studies. With regard to the second, we are satisfied that they will afford many unhappy hour of amusement to the Australian daughters and sons of Terpsichore. We strongly recommend them to the attention of the public.

"AUSTRALIAN MUSIC", The Sydney Herald (24 December 1835), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28654531;

AUSTRALIAN MUSIC. We have received from Mr. Ellard, the music-seller of Hunter-street, copies of some Colonial music, harmonised in Sydney, and printed by Mr. Ellard's father, Dublin. The music consists of a Ballad entitled "The Parting," composed by a young lady, the words are easily recognisable as those of a gentleman in the Colony, whose production, both music and poetry are said to be. The ballad is in an appropriate and pretty key (flats), and its melody and arrangement display a pleasing simplicity of style, without much originality. The rest of the sheets contain a new set of Australian Quadrilles, under the names of "La Sydney, La Wooloomoolloo, L'Illawarra, La Bong Bong, and L'Engehurst," the airs of which are taken from some of the new Operas, and arranged in easy keys for the benefit of young pianists.


Bibliography:

"Australia's first music", Art in Australia series 4/6 (June, July, August 1942), 56, 7, and 5 pages after 56 supplement (facsimile)

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-352646329/view?partId=nla.obj-352707590#page/n55/mode/1up (DIGITISED)

Facsimile of State Library of New South Wales copy of Ellard's Australian quadrilles of 1835, which, however, the article misidentifies as Reichenberg's Australian Quadrilles of 1825

Covell 1967


Resources:

-


Modern editions:


Music concordances:

-


Commentary:

Sources of the melodies featured include, for no. 1, La Sydney, the march in Norma (Bellini); and in no. 5, La Engehurst, the popular British song, The girl I left behind me (sometimes wrongly attributed to Samuel Lover).

For another later quadrille setting of The girl I left behind me, see no. 2 of Jullien's Royal Irish quadrilles [first set], composed for the visit of queen Victoria to Dublin in August 1849: http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/sheetmusic/558 


References:

-




11 December 1835 (first Australian performance)

Hobart Town, VDL (TAS)


WALLACE, William Vincent (composer, improvisor)

Concerto for violin, in which is introduced the admired melody of 'Tis the last rose of summer

Fantasia di Bravura - Violin, dedicated to Paganini, in which will be introduced 'Tis the last rose of summer


NO COPY IDENTIFIED (1835 version)


VIEW DIGITISED COPY (? later version/concordance 1856)


Source (? later version/concordance):

The last Rose of Summer, with variations [? for the piano] (London: Robert Cocks, 1847; New York: Distin, 1850)

Last Rose of Summer, fantaisie-variations de bravoura pour violon [et piano] composée et dedieée a son ami Henri Vieuxtemps par W. Vincent Wallace, Op. 74 (Hamburg, Leipzig & New York: Schuberth & Co., [1856]

http://www.loc.gov/resource/sm1856.300360


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (11 December 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4178218

MRS. CHESTER BEGS to announce to her friends and the public generally, that her Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music will be given at the Argyle Rooms, this Evening, Dec. 11,1835, on which occasion Mr. Wallace, whose performances were received with the greatest approbation, will afford his valuable assistance, and play several celebrated pieces on the pianoforte and violin, assisted by the talents of Mrs. Logan, who will kindly afford her gratuitous services on this occasion, and several Amateurs.
Part I.
Overture Glee - "Should auld acquaintance be forgot"
Song - "Arise Zariffa," [Arise Zarifa, Mrs. Arkwright] Mrs. Logan
"Fantasia di Bravura," Mr. Wallace
Song - "Alpine Maid". Mrs. Chester
Glee - "See our boat scuds o'er the main"
Concerto - Violin. Mr. Wallace
Song - "Oh 'tis sweet when the moon is beaming".
Mrs. Chester
Part II.
Overture Glee - "Ye banks and braes".
Song - "Savourneen deelish," Mrs Chester
Duet - Piano Forte, by desire (Hertz). Mrs. Logan and Mr. Wallace
Song - "Say not woman's heart is bought". Mrs. Chester
Concerto, Violin, by desire, in which will be introduced the admired melody, "'Tis the last rose of summer," Mr. Wallace
Song - "Tell me my heart," Mrs. Chester.
By the kind permission of the officers of the 2lst regiment, Mrs. Chester is allowed the assistance of the military band. Tickets 7s 6d, children 5s, to be obtained of Mrs. Chester, Freemasons' Hotel; Mr. Swan Elizabeth Street; Dr. Ross, Courier office; Mrs. Davis's, Music Warehouse, and Mr. Carter, Derwent House. Concert to commence at 8 o'clock.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (11 February 1836), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12853856

Under the Patronage of His Excellency the Governor, who has signified his intention of being present, MR. W. WALLACE, Leader of the Anacreontic Society and Professor of Composition, Royal Academy, BEGS to announce that his CONCERT of Vocal and Instrumental Music will take place in the Saloon of the Royal Hotel, on FRIDAY EVENING, the 12th February.
PART I.
Overture - Guillaume Tell, Rossini.
Glee - Forrester.
Variations, Brillantes, (Piano-forte) sur le trio Favori du Pre aux Clercs, with Orchestral accompaniment. Mr. Wallace.
Song - Should he Upbraid. Mrs. Chester.
Potpouri - Flute, Nicholson. Mr. Josephson.
Glee - Merrily goes the Bark.
Song - Savourneen Deelish. Mrs. Chester.
Concerto - Violin. Mayseder. Mr. Wallace.
PART II.
Overture - Gustavus, Auber.
Glee - Who is Sylvia?.
Solo - Clarionet, Gambaro. Mr. Lewis.
Song - Glory from the Battle Plain, Rossini. Mrs. Chester.
Grand Duett - Pianoforte, Herz, on the Favorite March in William Tell. Mr. Wallace and Mr. Josephson.
Song - Come where the aspens quiver. Mrs. Chester.
Fantasia di Bravura - Violin, dedicated to Paganini, in which will be introduced Tis the last rose of summer. Mr. Wallace.
By the kind permission of Colonel Despard, Mr. Wallace will be allowed the assistance of the admired Band of the 17th Regiment, Tickets 7s. 6d. each, to be had at Mr. Ellard's Music Warehouse, Hunter-street; and at the Royal Hotel. Concert to commence at Eight o'clock.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (23 February 1836), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2202868

"MR. WALLACE'S CONCERT", The Sydney Monitor (27 February 1836), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32150833

Mr. Wallace's second concert was held last evening. The performance of Mr. W., as on the former occasion gave universal satisfaction; his violin playing was excellent, especially the piece in which The Last Rose of Summer was introduced. Mrs. Chester and Mrs. Taylor were in good voice and sang well, and received much applause. The band of the 28th Regt. played the overtures in a very superior style. The room was crowded to excess with respectable persons, and the only drawback was the deficiency of seats, many gentlemen being obliged to stand the whole evening.

Mr. Wallace's Concert", The Australian (1 March 1836), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36854032

... The performance concluded with a Fantasia on the violin, by Mr. Wallace, in which he introduced "The last Rose of Summer " - to this it is impossible for us to do justice - re-iterated bursts of applause at every pause, amply expressing the feelings of the audience . . .

Mr. Wallace's Concert", The Australian (1 March 1836), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36854032

... The performance concluded with a Fantasia on the violin, by Mr. Wallace, in which he introduced "The last Rose of Summer " - to this it is impossible for us to do justice - re-iterated bursts of applause at every pause, amply expressing the feelings of the audience . . .

"MR. WALLACE'S CONCERT", The Australian (3 June 1836), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36853546

... The Concert terminated with a Fantasia in which was introduced the Last Rose of Summer, by Mr. Wallace on the violin, which alone was worth the price paid for the ticket. Indeed it was the most brilliant piece of music produced during the evening, and the delicacy of stop in the back Staccato passages was really quite electrifying.

"DEAR JONATHAN", Brother Jonathan 6 (18 November 1843), 327

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Clg_AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA327

Baltimore, November 12th, 1843 ... Wallace has given two concerts, and on both occasions had good houses - in the first instance-a very full one. The last concert took place on an unpropitious evening, and Mr. Wallace declared himself that his audience was more numerous than he expected. The Baltimoreans entertain but one opinion of his genius and abilities, which is that he is the very best performer they have ever listened to. His second concert gave more general satisfaction than the first, as the pieces chosen were more familiar to their ears. He played the concerto in which he introduces "Hope told a flattering tale," and "The last rose of summer" - but the gem of the evening was Paganini's variations on "non piu mesta," which he executed on one string ...

[Music], The Universalist and Ladies' Repository 18 (September 1849), 119

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=VaJEAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA119

DITSON has just published in the handsomest style ..."'Tis the last rose of Summer," with variations for the Piano Forte, by W. V. Wallace.


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

-



Commentary:

At his first Hobart concert, on 4 December 1835, presented with the assistance of his cousins Maria Logan and Marian Chester, Wallace included none of his own works in the advertised program. He did play two items billed as "Concerto. Violin" by Mayseder and Spohr, and a "Fantasia di Bravura" by Hertz, and these probably account for his unattributed items at this second concert. This Concerto on The last rose of summer was first programmed at the second concert, but since it was described as appearing "by desire", he may also have played it as an encore at the first concert. Moschelles and Herz (the later was an associate of Wallace) had both published sets of piano variations on the same theme (also known by the name of its tune The Groves of Blarney in London in 1827. Wallace may well have owned copies of both. Perhaps he also heard Paganini himself improvise on the tune at his Dublin concerts.

Plausibly an early version for violin of some of the same idea that appear in: The last Rose of Summer, with variations (London: Robert Cocks, 1847)


References:

"Review of Music", The Harmonicon 5 (June 1827), 114

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=7uYqAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA114

[Advertisement], The Hobart Town Courier (4 December 1835), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4178734





© Graeme Skinner 2014 - 2017