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A chronicle of music in colonial Australia from earliest contacts to 1800

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


THIS PAGE IS ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "A chronicle of music in colonial Australia from earliest contacts to 1800", Australharmony (an online resource toward the history of music and musicians in colonial and early Federation Australia): http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/chronicle1542-1800.php; accessed 23 August 2017


Summary

This is page 1 (of 4) of an open access work-in-progress to chronicle, in date order, all of the scarce documentary references to music in Australia, Indigenous and European, from earliest contacts until the end of 1825.

Entries are also included for some occasions in which music must certainly played a part, although there is no actual record of it, such as when it accompanied dancing, and civil, military, and religious ceremonies; and for some other important historical occasions when it is very likely to have done.


Please contact me if you have, or know of, relevant information missing here, and which you are willing to share.


For the other 3 pages:

http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/chronicle1801-1810.php 

http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/chronicle1811-1820.php 

http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/chronicle1821-1825.php 




1542

Jean Rotz's chart showing parts of north coast of Australia as Grande Java


Facsimile of Jean Rotz's chart of 1542

References:

Image above

http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.map-f503-e 

"DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA", Australasian Chronicle (14 July 1840), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31728699 

"THE FIRST DISCOVERERS OF AUSTRALIA", South Australian Register (1 May 1860), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49891540 

Heaton 1879

"THE EARLIEST AUSTRALIAN RECORDS", West Coast Times (2 December 1881), 2

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/WCT18811202.2.12

"FACSIMILES OF OLD CHARTS IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY", South Australian Register (30 March 1886), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50186942 




1606

Landing of Willem Janszoon and crew of the Duyfken in Cape York




1623

Landing of Jan Carstenszoon and Willem can Coolsteerdt and crews of the Pera and Arnhem on the west coast of the Cape York peninsula



1629



4 June 1629

Houtman Abrolhos, WA

Batavia's trumpets and trumpetters


Image:

Ongeluckige voyagie, van't schip Batavia nae de Oost-Indien Gebeleven op de Abrolhos van frederick Houtman

(Amsterdam: Voor Jan Jansz, 1647)

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Ongeluckige_voyagie,_van't_schip_Batavia 


Documentation:

See Ariese 2012


Bibliography:

Ariese 2012

https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/23580


Resources:

-


Images / artefacts:

Trumpet mouthpieces, BAT 3222; BAT 3575; trumpet sections, BAT 419; BAT 3765; BAT 465

http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-db/artefacts/bat3222-copperbrass 

http://museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-db/artefacts/bat3575-copperbrass 

http://museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-db/artefacts/bat419-copperbrass 

http://museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-db/artefacts/bat3765-copperbrass 

http://museum.wa.gov.au/maritime-archaeology-db/artefacts/bat456-copperbrass 

Trumpet, bell garland, conical with part bezel. Inner edge cut into darts resembling acanthus leaves. Inscription: MDCXXVIII. MACHT . Nürnberg town shield . ICH . CONRAT.DROCHL [1628. Made Myself Conrat Dro[s]chl]


Commentary:

On 4 June 1629 the ship Batavia struck Morning Reef near Beacon Island in the Wallabi Group, Houtman Abrolhos, off the cost of Western Australia. Of the 322 aboard, most of the passengers and crew managed to get ashore, although 40 people drowned.

The survivors included:

JANSZ, Claes ("t hooft" [the head]) Chief trumpeter (Batavia)

GROENEWALD, Jacop Upper-trumpeter (Batavia)

PIETERSZOON, Cornelis ("den dicke trompetter" [Cornelis the fat trumpeter]) Under-trumpeter (Batavia)

though one of them was soon afterward murdered.


References:

Ralph J. G. Henssen, Trompetters en tamboers in de Zeeuwse zeevaart ten tijde van de Republiek: plichten en Praktijken (thesis, Utrecht University, 2011)

http://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/204412



1642



2 December 1642

Blackman's Bay, TAS


INDIGENOUS

TASMAN, Abel (reporter)

Sounds at Blackman's Bay


Image:

Melchisedech Thevenot, Hollandia nova detecta 1644; Terre Australe decouuerte l'an 1644

(Paris: De l'imprimerie de Iaqves Langlois, 1663) [based on a map by Joan Blaeu]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_Diemen's_Land#/media/File:Tasmania_1644.png 


Documentation:

"Extract Uittet Journael vanden Scpr Commandr Abel janssen Tasman"

Sydney, SL-NSW (digitised MS and online transcription/translation):

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?acmsID=423571&itemID=852933 (DIGITISED)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=852933&suppress=N&imgindex=33 (image 33:a287033) (DIGITISED)

http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600571h.html (translation; modern online edition)

The Pilot-major and the second mate of the Zeehaan made the following report, to wit: ... That they had heard certain human sounds and also sounds nearly resembling the music of a trump or a small gong not far from them though they had seen no one. 


Bibliography:

The Tasmanian almanack for the year of our Lord 1829

(Hobart Town: Andrew Bent, 1829), 73

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-76120595/view?partId=nla.obj-76130623#page/n76/mode/1up 

... Tasman came to an anchor on the 1st December, in a bay he called Frederick Henry Bay, which is situated a little to the southward of Maria Island, and the following day he sent the master of his ship, with an armed boat in quest of fresh water, provisions, wood, and other necessaries; in which they succeeded, but saw no human creature, though they heard not far off human cries, and likewise music, as of a trumpet, or small gongs, similar to the symbol used in the eastern islands ...

Bonwick 1870b, 2

https://archive.org/stream/lasttasmanianso00bonwgoog#page/n22/mode/2up 

... The trumpet sound could be none other than the coo-ee of the foresters assembling the tribe, doubtless to consider the mysterious invasion of their land by the white-faced and pantalooned strangers. As the Dutchmen sailed away in a day or two, they had no opportunity of intercourse with the wild men of the woods ...

Walker 1890, 274

http://handle.slv.vic.gov.au/10381/87457 (DIGITISED)

On December 2, early in the morning, the boat was sent to explore, and entered a bay a good 4 miles to the north-west (Blackman's Bay). The boat was absent all day, and returned in the evening with a quantity of green-stuff which was found fit to cook for vegetables. The crew reported that they had rowed some miles after passing through the entrance to the bay (now known as the Narrows). They had heard human voices, and a sound like a trumpet or small gong (probably a cooey), but had seen no one.

"THE HISTORIC ANCHORAGE", Daily Telegraph (12 September 1903), 9

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153901760

... No natives were seen, but there was undoubted proof that the land was inhabited. Human voices could be heard not far distant, and a metallic sound was also noticed as if from a trumpet or gong ...

"TERCENTENARY OF TASMANIA", The Mercury (24 November 1942), 7

On December 2 the pinnace of the Heemskerck, under the command of Pilot Major Franchoys Jacobsz, manned with six musketeers armed with pikes and side-arms, and the cock boat of the Zeehaen sailed into a bay four miles north-west of the anchorage, and the first landing of white men on these shores took place. Samples of vegetables were carried back, and it was reported that certain human sounds and something like trumpet or gong had been heard ...



Commentary:

Later in New Zealand, Tasman reported in his diary (18 December 1642) on musical details of first contact with Māori, and (22 January 1643) on instruments his sailors had with them:

We made the second mate of the Zeehaan come on board of us with his trumpet, and one of her sailors with a violin, and from time to time had them blow and play tunes together with our own trumpeter and one of our sailors who could play the German flute, at which music they were greatly astonished.




1756



25-28 May 1756

Near Duyfken Point, Weipa, QLD


DE HAAN, Gerrit (reporter)

A kind of chant ... dancing and singing

Documentation:

Heeres 1899, 94-95

The following day, being the 26th of May, our men went ashore at daybreak, and on landing found several persons there, who, however, all took to flight directly. They also saw two dogs, not unlike so-called Bengal jackals. The persons who had fled, shortly after returned to them, when they found them armed with the assagays above described. They were accompanied by a number of females who had their privities covered with a kind of small mats. The natives then all of them sat down on the beach near our men, who made signs to them that they were seeking fresh water; upon which the natives got up and signified to our men their willingness to show them the places where water was obtainable. Nor were our men deceived, for after walking on along the beach for some time, they were conducted to a pleasant valley with fine trees such as those above described. This seemed to be the dwelling-place of the natives, for our men saw here more women and children and also a number of primitive dwellings, merely consisting of sheltered places under the trees partly covered in with bark. The water which they found here, welled up out of the earth in pits dug by human hands. After having inspected the whole place, they went back to the beach, where they found the two prows in which the natives had previously approached the ship. As our men were seated on the beach, nineteen natives came up to them, all of them with bodies daubed over with red; when the said natives were by our men treated to some arrack with sugar, they began to make merry and even struck up a kind of chant, at the conclusion of which they retired to the wood again.

[Report of the "Master Cartographer" at Batavia, GERRIT DE HAAN, to the G.-G., and Counc. September 30, 1756] ... In the morning of the 27th our men went ashore again for the purpose of attempting to get hold of one or two natives, but did not succeed in doing so that day, because they landed too late to lure the natives to the beach. Early in the morning of the 28th they again landed in order to execute their plan; on their arrival the natives came up to them dancing and singing, sat down close to them, laid aside their so-called assagays or weapons, and again enjoyed the liquor with which our men plied them. While they were thus making merry, our men seized hold of two of them, upon which the others jumped to their feet, snatched up their assagays and began to throw them at our people without, however, wounding any one; except that the ship's clerk, who in flying tried to seize one of the natives round the body, was in the scuffle slightly wounded in the hand; upon this, our men fired a volley, wounding one of the natives, who thereupon all of them fled into the bush. Our people then tried to drag to the boat the two men they had got hold of, but as they were tying their [95] arms and legs together, one of them by frantic biting and tearing contrived to get loose and effect his escape. Shortly after upwards of fifty natives again made their appearance, throwing assagays, but they also took to their heels, when our people let off another volley of musketry, after which our men succeeded in carrying off their one prisoner to the boat.

Jack 1921, 73 ff


Bibliography:

Loos 1974, 6

On 8 February 1756, the Rijder, commanded by Lt. Jean Etienne Gonzal, and the Buijs, commanded by First Mate L. Ludowijk Van Asschens, set out from Batavia but were parted by a storm at Banda, The Buijs left Banda on 1 April and sighted Cape York Peninsula at 12º 58'S, near Pera Head on 23 April, Asschens sailed north close to the land until he reached 10º 56'S, Here a boat with eight men was sent out to take soundings towards land and was never seen again. Possibly it was wrecked in the shoals or the crew fell into the hands of hostile Aborigines, Asschens waited till 12 May before he sailed for Timor Laut. He had not set foot on land. After separating from the Buijs, the Rijder, continued east sighting probably Prince of Wales and Hammond Islands on 10 April and making several landings on Prince of Wales Island from 17 to 26 April. Here a Torres Strait Islander was seen but he fled. From 28 April to 13 May the Rijder remained at what was probably Wednesday Island waiting for the Buijs. On 28 April a party from the ship had encountered some Islanders who also fled. The Rijder put out to sea on 13 May sailing south and did not sight the Australian mainland until 24 May at 12º 18'S, The next day Gonzal anchored at 12º 26'S, nine miles south of Duyfken Point. Four Aborigines in two canoes rowed towards the ship signifying they wanted the Dutchmen to land. The following day when the Dutch went ashore, they encountered several Aborigines who fled, soon returning, however, armed with spears and accompanied by a number of women. All of the Aborigines sat down on the beach near the Europeans apparently waiting for communication to be initiated. When the Dutch signified they wanted water, the Aborigines immediately conducted them "to a pleasant valley with fine trees ... the dwelling-place of the natives" and gave them water from their wells. After the Dutch returned to the beach, nineteen Aborigines approached them with their bodies daubed with red and were given sugared arrack by the Dutch, after which the Aborigines performed "a frolic with a kind of song", the first record of Europeans' having been entertained with a corroboree. The Dutch went ashore too late the next day, 27 May, "to lure the natives to the beach ... to get hold of one or two". But on 28 May the Aborigines greeted the Dutch landing party with "dancing and singing, sat down close to them, laid aside their ... weapons, and again enjoyed the liquor with which our men plied them". The Dutch seized two of them whereupon the others retrieved their weapons and attacked the Dutch but with no success. A volly from the Dutchmen wounded an Aborigine and caused the others to flee into the bush. One of the two Aboriginal captives escaped. More than fifty Aborigines gathered to attack the Dutchmen but another volley of musketry dispersed them ...


Commentary:

Gonzal and van Asschens and the crews of the Rijder and Buijs sailed around the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Keerweer and recorded extensive contacts with Indigenous inhabitants, including what several later writers claim to be the first European report of a corroboree.




1770



1770

New Holland

Music on James Cook's Endeavour voyage?

Documentation:

-


Bibliography:

Irving 2005

Agnew 2008

Skinner 2011a


Commentary:

Scant records exists concerning music on James Cook's Endeavour. However, music on Cook's second and third Pacific voyages is much better documented, both music of the Pacific peoples encountered, and music made and played by the British ship's band.


References:

Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, on Discovery (London: E. Newbery, 1781)

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ztANAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA134

On the 25th, about noon, the commanders, with the principal officers and gentlemen, embarked on board the pinnaces, which, on this pecasion, were decked in all the magnificence that silken streamers, embroidered ensigns, and other gorgeous decoration could display. Omai, to surprize the more, was cloathed in a Captain's uniform, and could hardly be distinguished from a British officer. From Mattavai to Oparree, was about three miles. They arrived at the landing place, about one o'clock in the afternoon, and were received by the marines already under arms. As soon as the company were disembarked, the whole band of musick struck up a grand military march, and the procession began.

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ztANAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA172

The drums, trumpets, bagpipes, hautboys, flutes, violins, and, in short, the whole band of music attended, and took it by turns to play while dinner was getting ready; and when the company were seated, the whole band joined in full concert, to the admiration of crowds of the inhabitants, who were assembled round the house on this occasion.

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ztANAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA318

The same day the king and his chiefs dined on board the Resolution, and were entertained with music, the whole band having orders to play all the while they sat at dinner. They were highly delighted with the music, and would not suffer the performers to rest a moment.

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=zccNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA383 

On the 14th of May, Capt. Cook left Annamooka, and steered along a cluster of small islands ... After noticing Toofoa, a volcanic isle, at the distance of two leagues, the smoke of which they saw several times, they arrived on the 17th, at the islands, called by the general name of Hepaee ... Capt. Cook's reception at Hapaee was the most honourable that can be imagined ... As to our musical instruments, they held none of them in the least esteem except the drum; and even that they did not think equal to their own. Our French horns, in particular, seemed to be held in great contempt.




28 April 1770

Botany Bay, NSW


PARKINSON, Sydney (reporter)

Warra warra wai ... and ceremony
Botany Bay, April 1770

Documentation:

Parkinson 1773, 134, and plate 27 (after 134)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=AOhBAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA134 

On the 28th, we got into a fine bay, and some of our people went on shore on one side of it, where we saw some houses. On our approaching the shore, two men, with different kinds of weapons, came out and made toward us. Their countenance bespoke displeasure; they threatened us, and discovered hostile intentions, often crying to us, Warra warra wai. We made signs to them to be peaceable, and threw them some trinkets; but they kept aloof, and dared us to come on shore. We attempted to frighten them by firing off a gun loaded with small shot; but attempted it in vain. One of them repaired to a house immediately, and brought out a shield, of an oval figure, painted white in the middle, with two holes in it to see through, and also a wooden sword, and then they advanced boldly, [see pl. XXVII.] gathering up stones as they came along, which they threw at us. After we had landed, they threw two of their lances at us; one of which fell between my feet. Our people fired again, and wounded one of them; at which they took the alarm and were very frantic and furious, shouting for assistance, calling Hala, hala, mae; that is, (as we afterwards learned,) Come hither; while their wives and children set up a most horrid howl. We endeavoured to pacify them, but to no purpose, for they seemed implacable, and, at length, ran howling away, leaving their wives and children, who hid themselves in one of the huts behind a piece of bark. After looking about us a little while, we left some nails upon the spot and embarked, taking with us their weapons; and then pro-ceeded to the other side of the bay, where we had seen a number of people, as we came in, round a fire, some of whom were painted white, having a streak round their thighs, two below their knees, one like a sash over their shoulders, which ran diagonally downwards, and another across their foreheads. Both men and wo-men were quite naked, very lean and raw-boned; their complexion was dark, their hair black and frizzled, their heads unadorned, and the beards of the men bushy.

Joseph Banks, Endeavour journal, volume 2, page 247 (online image 125), SL-NSW

http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=887466 (DIGITISED)

Hawkesworth 1773, 88-89

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=6tReAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA88 

The place where the ship had anchored was abreast of a small village, consisting of about six or eight houses; and while we were preparing to hoist out the boat, we saw an old woman, followed by three children, come out of the wood; she was loaded with fire-wood, and each of the children had also its little burden: when she came to the houses three more children, younger than the others, came out to meet her: she often looked at the ship, but expressed neither fear nor surprise: in a short time she kindled a fire, and the four canoes came in from fishing. The men landed, and having hauled up their boats, began to dress their dinner, to all appearance wholly unconcerned about us, though we were within half a mile of them. We thought it remarkable that all of the people we had yet seen, not one had the least appearance of clothing, the old woman herself being destitute even of a fig-leaf. After dinner the boats were manned, and we set out from the ship, having Tupia of our party. We intended to land where we saw the people, and began to hope that as they had so little regarded the ship's coming into the bay, they would as little regard our coming on shore: in this, however, we were disappointed; for as soon as we approached the rocks, two of the men came down upon them to dispute our landing, and the rest ran away. Each of the two [89] champions was armed with a lance about ten feet long, and a short stick which he seemed to handle as if it was a machine to assist him in managing or throwing the lance: they called to us in a very loud tone, and in a harsh dissonant language, of which neither we nor Tupia understood a single word: they brandished their weapons, and seemed resolved to defend their coast to the uttermost, though they were but two, and we were forty. I could not but admire their courage, and being very unwilling that hostilities should commence with such inequality of force between us, I ordered the boat to lie upon her oars: we then parlied by signs for about a quarter of an hour, and to bespeak their good-will, I threw them nails, beads, and other trifles, which they took up and seemed to be well pleased with. I then made signs that I wanted water, and, by all the means that I could devise, endeavoured to convince them that we would do them no harm: they now waved to us, and I was willing to interpret it as an invitation; but upon our putting the boat in, they came again to oppose us. One appeared to be a youth about nineteen or twenty, and the other a man of middle age ...



Bibliography:

-





? 20 May 1770

Fraser Island, QLD

1923 (reported and transcribed)

1944 (first published)


BADTJALA (unidentified informant)

ARMITAGE, Edward (reporter, transcriber)

Badtjala song 1

? After seeing the Endeavour pass Indian Head, Fraser Island, on 20 May 1770


Source and documentation:

Watson 1944, 96-97: "Corroborees of the Aborigines of Great Sandy Island, written and translated by Edward Armitage, of Maryborough, Queensland, 1923"

https://sites.google.com/site/ugarapul/home/watson (DIGITISED)

Gavrin wundoola yaneen, Areeram!
Anyoongyne ween komwyil-vong?
Oonda wunyamba dhalu thoor-ening-ba, geverr barine.
Mummo gum- beling bundee vurree, oora thaan marangya.
Yooin yungo mummo gumbee billing unda.
Tikgera thunda kungmung-aleen moonya.

These strangers, where are they going?
Where are they trying to steer?
they must be in that place Thoorvour, it is true.
See the smoke coming from the sea.
These men must be burying themselves like sand crabs.
They disappeared like the smoke.

Notes by Mr. Armitage. - Thoorvour ... is a dangerous shoal near Indian Head, where the Changsha and Marloo were wrecked.

This short song clearly refers to Captain Cook, who passed the high, rocky bluff so close that he saw there, and mentioned in his log, "a number of Indians." The blacks saw him and his men on the deck and noted the man at the wheel and that the ship worked this way and that as he worked it. They supposed him to be the chief or master of the strangers. They thought that he was going to hit the Thoorvoor [sic] shoal. His disappearance over the horizon they compared to the sand crabs and the smoke and clouds. They had no conception of other lands or countries than their own ... What Cook did not know was that these blacks had followed him from the south end of the Island in their excitement at the first ship they had ever seen.

Cook (Wharton) 1893, 256

https://archive.org/stream/cihm_14800#page/n345/mode/2up

Sunday, 20th. Winds Southerly, Gentle breezes. At 10 p.m. we passed, at the distance of 4 Miles, having 17 fathoms, a black bluff head or point of land, on which a number of the Natives were Assembled, which occasioned my naming it Indian Head ... We saw people in other places besides the one I have mentioned; some Smokes in the day and fires in the Night.


Bibliography:

Lack 1970, 75

Evans and Walker 1977

Swain 1993, 114f

Karskens 2009, 48

Cronin 2012

"Badtjala song; translated by Gemma Cronin for all Badtjala descendents", East coast encounter: a balanced creative exploration of the 1770 encounter (2012)

http://www.eastcoastencounter.com.au/eastcoastencounter/about.html

Gabrin wuna'la yaneen, Areeram
Ngun'gu'ni wiinj gung'milung
Nyundal wun'yamba dhali dhak'kin'bah, Gebeer barine
Moomoo gumbir'l'im bundi burree, Yauwa dhan man'ngur
Yuang yangu moomoo gumbir, Billi'ngunda
Tin'gera dan'da gung'mungalum minya??

Strangers are travelling with a cloud, Areeram!!
It has fire inside, must be a bad water spirit.
It's stupid maybe? It's going directly to that rainbow serpent place, This is the truth that I bring.
It is breathing smoke rhythmically from its rear, must be song men and sorcerers.
Coming up and going back with the wind at its rear, like a sand crab.
The sea carries this ship here, why??


Commentary:

This is one of two songs taken down by Edward Armitage, from unidentified Indigenous informants, Maryborough/Fraser Island district, Queensland. His notes reproduced in Watson 1944 are dated 1923. The subjects of the songs he believed to be [1] Cook's Endeavour passing Indian Head 1770 (Gavrin wundoola yaneen, Areeram!), and [2] Matthew Flinders's at Watoomba [= Wathumba]. According to Coo's journal for May 1770 (see separate entry below).


References:

"GIFT OF ABORIGINAL VOCABULARIES", The Courier-Mail (25 February 1943), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42047128 

"NEW BOOK ON NATIVE DIALECTS", The Courier-Mail (12 August 1944),5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48949289 




June-July 1770

Endeavour River, NSW (QLD)


PARKINSON, Sydney (reporter)

Mingoore - To dance

Documentation:

Parkinson 1773, 147-51

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=AOhBAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA147 

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=AOhBAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA151 

Their language was not harsh, as may be seen by the following vocabulary, and they articulated their words very distinctly, though, in speaking, they made a great motion with their lips, and uttered their words vociferously, especially when they meant to shew their dissent or disapprobation. When they were pleased, and would manifest approbation, they said Hee, with a long flexion of the voice, [148] in a high and shrill tone. They often said Tut, tut, many times together, but we knew not what they meant by it, unless it was intended to express astonishment. At the end of this Tut, they sometimes added Urr, and often whistled when they were surprised ...

[151] ... Marra, To go. Mingoore, To dance. Mailelel, To swim ...


Bibliography:

-




1772



7 March 1772

Marion Bay, VDL (TAS)


MARION DUFRESNE, Marc-Joseph

LE DEZ, Lieutenant (reporter)

Singing and clapping


Documentation:

Du Clesmeur [Captain, Marquis de Castries], "Account of a voyage in the South Seas and the Pacific beginning in 1771 ... ", translation Duyker 1992

I accompanied M. Marion in his boat, which we steered towards the spot where we had seen the natives, and we saw them again. As we approached, the women, who were not to be seen again, ran into the woods with their children ... The men, naked and armed with one or several small hatchets, gathered together and came towards us. We showed them cloth of different colours and some glass objects. One of them separated himself from the group and took to the water, but after walking a few steps, he stopped and signalled us to come to him. M. Marion sent two sailors swimming towards him. One of the old Diemanslander advanced towards them, and presented them with a torch - which is really a sign of peace for these people. Our people accepted it and presented a mirror to the old man ... The colour of the sailors did not surprise them less. After staring at hard at them they threw away their hatchets and began to dance. This reception made M. Marion very optimistic and he ordered a landing at once.

Le Dez, journal, Extrait d'un nouveau voyage en australizie en 1772, archive Nationales France (Archives Privées), Fonds Bouganville 155 AP 3, pièce 4; translation Duyker 1992

[7 March] M. Marion, seeing that they did not appear very dangerous and very much wanting to commence, made two sailors undress and go ashore, unarmed, carrying with them some small presents such as motors, necklaces etc. The Diemanlanders, seeing them approaching thus, put their spears on the ground and with several gestures which marked their joy and contentment, came leaping to meet them, singing and clapping their hands.


Bibliography:

Duyker 1992




1786



November 1786

England

Botany Bay: a new song


Sources and documenation:

"BOTANY BAY. A NEW SONG", The Country Magazine (November 1786)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=2rURAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA176 (DIGITISED)

LET us drink a good health to our schemers above,
Who at length have contriv'd from this land to remove
Thieves, robbers, and villains, and send them away
To become a new people at Botany Bay.

Such men as have talents, and trades to get bread,
Yet sponge on the public to be cloathed and fed;
Who spend all they get, and turn night into day,
Such sots should be all sent to Botany Bay.

When gay powder'd coxcombs and proud dressy fops,
With very small fortunes set up in great shops;
If they run into debt - with design not to pay,
They should all be transported to Botany Bay.

The bankrupt who gets his certificate sign'd,
And once more to take in his friends is inclin'd;
All such depredators our ships should convey,
With other less villains, to Botany Bay.

The tradesmen who play at cards, billiards, and dice,
Must pay for their goods an extravagant price;
No, faith, I'm mistaken, - such rogues never pay,
And therefore should all go to Botany Bay.

If at an election an agent is found
Corrupting the voters, or handing bribes round;
Such dabblers in dirty work, send them away,
With those that employ them, to Botany Bay.

When men that are married to good natured wives
Run after lewd wenches, and lead debauch'd lives
Our wise legislature should send such away
To support their new system at Botany Bay.

The night-walking strumpets that swarm in each street,
Proclaiming their calling to each man they meet,
Are become such a pest, that without more delay,
Those despoilers of youth should be sent to the Bay.

If any proud parson his flock should neglect,
And more than his bible the tythe laws inspect
Or if he's too lazy to preach or to pray,
Such a drone should be sent out to Botany Bay.

When clerical coxcombs affect the bon ton,
Keep hunters, grooms, footmen, girls, dogs, and a gun;
Much more than their income they squander away
And are very fit objects for Botany Bay.

If monopolizers will add to their store,
By cruel oppression, and squeezing the poor;
Or jobbers or farmers grow rich in that way,
Such foes to the public should go to the Bay.

If great men above, or our gentry below,
Who talk much of honour, and make a great show,
If they the poor tradesmen don't annually pay,
Send off such defaulters to Botany Bay.

When lecherous whoremasters practise vile arts,
To ruin young virgins, and break parents hearts
Or from the fond hufbar.d the wife leads astray,
Let such debauch'd stallions be sent to the Bay.

When rakes are promoted they ought to be watched,
For some will pass sentence on girls they've debauch'd;
If men break the peace - who to keep peace but pay
Send off such transgressors to Botany Bay.

Then whores, pimps, and bastards, a large costly crew,
Maintain'd by the sweat of the labouring few,
Should have no commissions, place, pension, or pay,
Such locusts should all go to Botany Bay.

And that our foul nation may cleanly be swept,
Send of all the keepers as well as the kept;
Who beggars his children his bunter to pay,
Should work for a breakfast at Botany Bay.

The hulks and the jails have some thousand, in store,
But out of the gaols are ten thousand times more
Who live by fraud, cheating, vile tricks, and foul play,
And should all be sent over to Botany Bay.

Should any take umbrage at what I have writ,
And here find a bonnet, or cap that will fit;
To such I have only this one word to say, - 
They're welcome to wear it to Botany Bay.


"A NEW SONG", in Richard Graves (ed.), Senilities; or, Solitary amusements: in prose and verse . . . by the editor of The reveries of solitude . . . (London: Printed for T. N. Longman and O. Rees, 1801), 208-11

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=lKQIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA208 

A NEW SONG.

To the Tune of - "By Jove! I'll be free."

Come all ye young virgins, so frolic and fair,
Who the market have tried - and of husbands despair;
Bid adieu! to old England, and trip it away,
And join the bold convicts at Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay;
And join the bold Convicts at Botany-Bay.

If slighted by neighbours, to scandal inclin'd,
For having been once to a lover too kind;
Despise their base censure; come trip it away,
And join the bold Convicts at Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay, &c.

Among five hundred felons, a man you may chuse,
Who like you too has no reputation to lose;
Then solace each other by night and by day,
No scandal can hurt you at Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay, &c.

Tho' a thief or a robber, in that commonweal,
Live honest he must - where there's nothing to steal;
And where halters are plenty; for Botanists say,
The finest of hemp grows at Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay, &c.

How happy you'll live in your peregrination,
Where you've nothing to do but attend procreation;
The more children you get, the better you'll pay
Your debt to old England at Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay, &c.

From such worthy parents each worthy descendant
May hereafter grow rich - and become independent,
Then laugh at old England, who sent you away,
And so happily plac'd you at Botany-Bay,
At Botany-Bay, &c.

Our American friends, by Frenchmen deceiv'd,
From fancied oppression may think they're reliev'd;
Tho' for England's mild laws they'll have despotic sway,
But we hope better things from Botany-Bay.
At Botany-Bay, &c.


Music concordance:

"SONG LXII", The convivial songster being a select collection of the best songs in the English language; humourous satirical bachanalian. &c. &c. &c. with the music prefixed to each song (London: John Fielding, [1782]), 126-27

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=CsoUAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA122 

[James Aird], Aird's selection of Scotch, English, Irish and foreign airs, vol. 3 [first edition 1788] (Glasgow: J. McFadyen, [?]), No. 498, 191

https://archive.org/stream/selectionofscotc01rugg#page/190/mode/2up 


Bibliography:

Ferguson

Fahey 2010, 12-13 (with new, but good, tune by Fahey nicely "fashioned for it")


Resources:

Jen Willets

http://www.jenwilletts.com/a_new_song_1788.htm 




1787



1787

England


DRUMS AND FIFE OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

Drums and fife on the First Fleet

Documentation:

Phillip 1789, viii

https://archive.org/stream/voyageofgovernor00phil#page/n25/mode/2up (DIGITISED)

Drums and fife ... total of the detachment, 8


Bibliography:

-





4 March 1787

England, UK, First Fleet, before sailing


FOWELL, Newton (guitarist)

Music for Rosina set for the guitar
Newton Fowell, 4 March 1787 (SL-NSW)

Documentation:

Letter, Newton Fowell to his parents, 4 March 1787; SL-NSW, ML MSS 4895/1/7

http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=403669 (DIGITISED) (image 3)

There is Music for Rosina set for the Guitar. Thank you to send it if the ship comes to Plym[ou]th.


Bibliography:

-


Music concordances:

Rosina, first edition, vocal score (London: William Napier, [1782/3])

http://imslp.org/wiki/Rosina_(Shield,_William) (DIGITISED)


Commentary:

This must have been an arrangement of airs from William Shield's opera Rosina (fp. Covent Garden, 1782), whether in a print, or a manuscript copy. But it is unclear from Fowell's postscript request whether he was asking his parents to send music he or they already possessed, or whether he was asking them to purchase it (in which case he cleary assumed they would have little trouble finding it in print). If Fowell did indeed receive it and bring it with him to Australia, it is the earliest identification of an actual copy of a piece of art European music to have been landed. If a print, which






7 August 1787 (Tuesday)

Rio de Janiero, Brazil


WORGAN, George Boucher (pianist)

SMYTH, Arthur Bowes (reporter)

Worgan's piano I


Documentation:

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, original, NLA

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/43228195

http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.ms-ms4568-s41-e (DIGITISED) (bottom of page and top of next page)

[Tuesday 7 August 1789, Rio de Janiero] ... This day Mr. Wogern Surgeon of the Sirius dined on board, to whom I was introduced by Mr. Watts, & rec'd a pressing invitation to dine on board the Sirius while we ly in harbour, & to hear him play on the Piano Forte. He has a very fine one on board, is the Son of Dr. Wogern D: Mus: & seems a very agreeable good kind of Man.

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, fair copy, SL-NSW

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2007/D00007/a1085.html (CATALOGUE RECORD)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=823394&suppress=N&imgindex=38 (DIGITISED)

[Tuesday 7 August 1789, Rio de Janiero] . . . This day Mr. Wogan Surgeon of the Sirius dined on board, to whom I was introduced by Mr. Watts, & re'ed, an Invitation to dine wt. him in the Sirius, & to hear his Piano Forte; he is a Son of Dr. Wogan D: Music: &: seems a very sensible good kind of man.


Bibliography:

Cobley 1967b, 295

Without Bowes's reference to a party at Rio de Janeiro, we could not know with certainty that Worgan's piano reached the colony in the First Fleet ...


Commentary:

Cobley was first to note Bowes Smyth's journal entry of 7 August 1787, Rio de Janiero, confirming that George Worgan had his piano with him on the Sirius in 1787-88. However, he also claimed that the piano was a Broadwood, which is not documented.





9 September 1787

16 September 1787

On board the Friendship, Atlantic ocean


CLARK, Ralph (informant)

WOMEN CONVICTS (singers)

The convict women read prayers and sang Spalmes to themselves ... sat up until 2 oClock this morning Singing and drinking

Documentation:

Lieutenant Ralph Clark, Journal kept on the Friendship during a voyage to Botany Bay and Norfolk Island, volume 1 (9 March 1787 - 31 December 1787)

http://archival.sl.nsw.gov.au/Details/archive/110316465 

Image FL1608661 (a262067h)

http://digital.sl.nsw.gov.au/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=FL1608661 (DIGITISED)

[Sunday 9 September 1787] ... The convict women read prayers and sang Spalmes to themselves. I read the prayers of the day and spalmes of the day was taking very bad of dinner with the tooth ache ...

[Sunday 16 September 1787] ... Sat up untill 2 oClock this morning Singing and drinking Capt M: Mr. F: and the doctor got a little in for it with drinking Punch —- I drank nothing but Lemonnade - Sleep but very little ...


Bibliography:

Paul Fidlon and R. J. Ryan (eds), The journal and letters of Lt Ralph Clark, 1787-1792 (Sydney: Australian Documents Library, 1981), 44

http://setis.library.usyd.edu.au/ozlit/pdf/clajour.pdf (DIGITISED TRANSCRIPT)

Jordan 2012, 193




11 November 1787

Cape Colony, South Africa


BAND OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

WHITE, John (reporter)

PHILLIP, Arthur

Commodore Phillip's band of music


Documentation:

White 1790, 99

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=5dJcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA99 (DIGITISED)

November 11th. [1787] Having got on board such animals, provisions, &c. as we could stow, the commodore, with all the officers that had lodgings on shore, embarked. Previous to the commodore's embarkation he gave a public dinner to some of the gentlemen of the town and the officers of his fleet. The Dutch governor was to have been of the party but by some unforeseen event was detained in the country, where he had been for some days before. Commodore Phillip had his band of music on shore upon the occasion, and the day was spent with great cheerfulness and conviviality.


Bibliography:

-


Commentary:

Phillip personally is not usually considered to be a musical figure. However, among his general administrative and military duties, he had overall management of a "band of music", which he duly deployed in the interests of government and diplomacy.




1788



2 January 1788

On board the Scarborough, in the Southern Ocean, south of Adelaide, SA


ANONYMOUS (convicts) (singers)

EASTY, John (authority)

. . . this Night the Convicts Made a play & Sang many Songs



Documentation:

Sydney, SL-NSW, DLSPENCER 374; manuscript journal: "Pt Jno Easty A Memorandum of the Transa[ ] of a Voiage [sic] from England to Botany Bay in The Scarborough transport Captn Marshall Commander kept by me your humble Servan[ ] John Easty marine wich [sic] began 1787", [79]

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=412912 (CATALOGUE RECORD)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=823440&suppress=N&imgindex=79 (DIGITISED)

Wedensday Jan'y the 2d 1788 Thick Clowdy weather with Light Breases the wind att WBS Steard EBN this Morning Luke hines Confind by ordar of Major Ross for unsolder Like behaveour and tryed by A Cortmartiall immeadiately Captn Shea President Lieuth Kellow & Davey Members Sentanced one hundread Lashes forgiven his Punishment in Latd of 44:04 South and Longtd 138:08 East this Night the Convicts Made a play & Sang many Songs the wind att SSW Steard E By North with Moradte Breases fine weather all Night and Cleare Weather


Bibliography:

Easty 1965 (facsimile edition)

Jordan 2002, 27





22 January 1788

Botany Bay, NSW


FOWELL, Newton (authority)

TENCH, Watkin (authority)

Worra worra, fife tunes, sailors dancing


Documentation:

Letter, Newton Fowell to his parents, 12 July 1788; SL-NSW, ML MSS 4895/1/18, page 5

http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=411983 

http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemLargeCopyright.cgi?itemID=820946&size=full&album=1&collection=824081&parent=411983 (DIGITISED)

January 21. The Govonor accompanied by Capt Hunter & some other officers went in Boats to examine Port Jackson which lies 9 Miles to the Northward of B. Bay. Mr. King went up the SW Leguna where he found a very good soil but no signs of any Fresh Water, had a Party of men on shore to clear away Ground in readiness for Pitching Tents & against the return of the Govonor if his intentions where to make the Settlement here, Saw a number of Natives who came to the boats just at Sun set when the People were going on board ... they speak very Loud, and mostly all together very often pronouncing the Words Worra Worra Wea & seemed quite Surprized at not being Answered ... The next day one of the Party took a fife on Shore, played several tunes to the Natives who were highly delighted with it especially at seeing some of the Seamen dance.

Callam 1788, volume 3, (9-) 10

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=QeVbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA10 

[9] ... On the Supply's entering the [10] Bay, the alarmed Natives run along the Beach, shooting and hallowing, seizing their wretched Canoes, and carrying them to the Woods, - together with their Fishing-tackle and Children; we brought up pretty close to the North Shore, open to the Sea, - to be seen by the Fleet, which we daily expected. - Seven of them came opposite to the Ship, brandishing their implements of War, such as Spears of an amazing length, armed with Fish-bone, Lances, Clubs, &c. &c. throwing their bodies in threatening Postures, called out in harsh notes, Warraw! Warraw! Warraw!

[12] Next Morning we proceeded along with the Governor to examine two Rivers, one in a North-west direction, up which we proceeded about six Miles; the other in a South-west, - as we advanced up the fiist, numbers of Natives seemed Fishing in their Canoes, while others were employed dressing them on its Banks; they retired on our approach, Howling and Crying. - Here we first observed them to have Dogs, they are of the Wolf kind, with long shaggy Hair. - When they found we passed their Canoes, &c. without injuring them, - on our return down the River, they frequently appeared abreast of the Boats, calling out as usual, Warraw! Warraw! ...

Home 1789, 4

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=pnQEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA4 

... I have often met with these in the coves a-fishing, and have observed the people bring the fish on shore, make a fire and broil them, and have no reason to think they are that cannibal race we were taught to believe them. In meeting with different gangs of these people, their common salutation was warrey, the meaning of which I am unable to explain. I generally used to answer them with the same word, without knowing whether it indicated friendship or hostility, but as I genejally carried fire-arms with me in the woods, at meeting them my method was to clap my arms behind my back, and to lay my hand on my breast, which, they answered by putting their spear behind them, and their hand in the same manner, and then both advancing we shook hands ...

Tench 1789, 56

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=862008&suppress=N&imgindex=36 

... These people seemed at a loss to know (probably from our want of beards) of what sex we were, which having understood, they burst into the most immoderate fits of laughter, talking to each other at the same time with such rapidity and vociferation as I had never before heard. After nearly an hour's conversation by signs and gestures, they repeated several times the word whurra, which signifies, begone, and walked away from us to the head of the Bay ...

Cook (Tench) 1790, 583

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=zccNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA583

Hunter 1792, ?

Hunter 1793, 406

[page 406 missing in SL-NSW DIGITISED IMAGE SET]

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15662/15662-8.txt (modern edition online)

[Bennelong] sings, when asked, but in general his songs are in a mournful strain, and he keeps time by swinging his arms: whenever asked to dance, he does it with great readiness; his motions at first are very slow, and are regulated by a dismal tune, which grows quicker as the dance advances, till at length he throws himself into the most violent posture, shaking his arms, and striking the ground with great force, which gives him the appearance of madness. It is very probable that this part of the dance is used as a sort of defiance, as all the natives which were seen when we first arrived at Port Jackson, always joined this sort of dance to their vociferations of "woroo, woroo," go away.

Southwell papers; Journal and Letters of Daniel Southwell; HRNSW, 2, 691

http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks12/1204411h.html

June 23d [1788], at 4 p.m. per log, there was felt the gentle shock of an earthquake, and the appearance of the country warrants an opinion that it has been subject to very severe ones. The King's birthday was celebrated with great state and solemnity, and large bonfires— - we had plenty of wood - were burning all night. The ships saluted at sunrise, noon, and sunset, which must have frightened the warra warras, for so we call the blacks, from their constant cry of "warra warra" at everything they see that is new.


Bibliography:

Engel 1866, 246

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=0k4QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA246 

War dances of one kind or other are usual, especially in uncivilized nations. Captain Hunter, in describing a "dance of defiance" of the aborigines of Australia, remarks, - "All the natives which were seen when we first arrived at Port Jackson, always joined this sort of dance to their vociferations, woooroo! woooroo! ('go away! go away!')."


Commentary:

In their Endeavour journals, Sidney Parkinson and Joseph Banks record a similar show of defiance at Botany Bay, on 28 April 1770 (see above)





21-25 January 1788

Botany Bay, NSW


ANONYMOUS (Officer of the NSW Marine Corps) (whistler)

INDIGENOUS

TENCH, Watkin (reporter)

Malbrooke at Botany Bay


Documentation:

Tench 1789, (53, 57) 58

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=862008&suppress=N&imgindex=37 (DIGITISED)

... For on the Supply's arrival in the Bay on the 18th of the month, they were assembled on the beach of the south shore, to the number of not less than forty persons, shouting and making many uncouth signs and gestures ... Owing to the lateness of our arrival, it was not my good fortune to go on shore until three days after this had happened, when I went with a party to the south side of the harbour, and had scarcely landed five minutes, when we were met by a dozen Indians, naked as at the moment of their birth, walking along the beach ... Between this and our departure we had several more interviews with the natives, which ended in so friendly a manner, that we began to entertain strong hopes of bringing about a connection with them. Our first object was to win their affections, and our next to convince them of the superiority we possessed: for without the latter, the former we knew would be of little importance. An officer one day prevailed on one of them to place a target, made of bark, [58] against a tree, which he fired at with a pistol, at the distance of some paces. The Indians, though terrified at the report, did not run away, but their astonishment exceeded their alarm, on looking at the shield which the ball had perforated. As this produced a little shyness, the officer, to dissipate their fears and remove their jealousy, whistled the air of Malbrooke, which they appeared highly charmed with, and imitated him with equal pleasure and readiness. I cannot help remarking here, what I was afterwards told by Monsieur De Perrouse, that the natives of California, and throughout all the islands of the Pacific Ocean, and in short wherever he had been, seemed equally touched and delighted with this little plaintive air.

Cook (Tench) 1790, 584

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=zccNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA584 (DIGITISED)

"Barrington" 1802, 25

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA25 

... The natives imitate any thing said by the English very correctly, indeed so much so, that they have even sung songs after our people, though on the contrary we do not find it an easy task to imitate them.


Bibliography:

Barton 1889, 121


Music concordance (tune):

Malbrook (Edinburgh repository, 1818)

Edinburgh repository of music, containing the most select English, Scottish & Irish airs ... volume 2

(Edinburgh: Printed & Sold by J. Sutherland, [1818, 1825]), 78

http://digital.nls.uk/special-collections-of-printed-music/pageturner.cfm?id=87778665 (DIGITISED)





7 February 1788

Sydney, NSW


BAND OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

SMYTH, Arthur Bowes (reporter)

TENCH, Watkin (reporter)

Band of music ashore

Documentation:

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, original, NLA

http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.ms-ms4568-s141-e (DIGITISED)

This day about 11 o'Clock a.m. Everyone, who cd. leave the Ships. & every other person on Shore were summoned to hear the Governors Commission read, as also the Commission constituting the Court of Judicature. The Soldiers were all under arms & rec'd the Governor, attneded by the Judge Advocate, the Clergyman, the Lieut. Governor, the Surveyor General &ca wt. Colours flying, & a Band of Music playing: After complimenting the General Officers & being Complimented in return. The soldiers marched with music playing, Drums & Fifes, &ca, & formed a circle round the whole of the Convicts . . . who were alo ordered to withdtaw a small distance . . .

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, fair copy, SL-NSW

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2007/D00007/a1085.html (DIGITISED)

This morng. at 11 o'Clock all who cd. leave the Ships were summon'd on Shore, to hear the Governor's Commission read; & al so the Commission constituting the Court of Judicature. - the Marines were all under arms & reed, the Governor wt. flying Colours & a Band of Music - he was accompanied by the Judge Advocate, Lieut. Governor, Clergiman, Serveyor General, Surgeon General &ca. After taking off his hat & Compting. the Marine Officers, who had lower'd their Colours &: pd. that respect to him as Governor wh. he was in titled to, the Soldiers marched wt. music playg. Drums & fifes & formed a circle round the whole of the Convict Men & Women, who were collected together ...

See also edition, HRNSW, 2, 393

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=T8dJAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA393 

Letter, George Boucher Worgan to his brother Richard Worgan, 12-18 June 1788, 23

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2015/D33332/a1175.html 

Sat 9th Last Thursday [7th] the Governor's Commission, and the Commission for establish the Laws by which the Colony is to be governed, were read by the Judge-Advocate of the Settlement. There was some little Ceremony observed on this Business. Orders had been issued (the preceding Day) that every Body, on Shore, and from on Board the Ships that could be spared should attend. Early in the Morning the English Ensigns were displayed on Board the Ships & on the Shores, about 9o'Clock the Battalion were drawn up on the Spot of Ground that had been cleared for a Parade, about 10, the Governor, all the Officers of the several Departments, the Convicts, Men & Women were assembled within a Square formed by the Military Arrangement; The Judge-Advocate of the Settlement then proceeding to the Business of reading the several Commissions, which, being performed, the Battalion fired 3 Volleys of Small-arms, the Band playing the first part of God save the King, between each Volley. The Governor then addressed the Convicts in an excellently adapted Speech, accompanied

Tench 1789

https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/tench/watkin/botany/chapter10.html (modern online edition)

Cook (Tench) 1790, 588

http://books.google.com.au/books?id=zccNAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA588 (DIGITISED)

OWING to the multiplicity of pressing business necessary to be performed immediately after landing, it was sound impossible to read public commissions and take posession of the Colony in form, until the 7th of February. On that day all the officers of guard took post in the marine battalion, which was drawn up, and marched off the parade with music playing, and colours slying, to an adjoining ground, which had been cleared for the occasion, whereon the convicts were a assembled to hear His Majesty's commission read, appointing his Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq. Governor and Captain General in and over the territory of New South Wales, and its dependencies: together with the Act of Parliament for establishing trials by law within the same; and the patents under the Great Seal of Great Britain, for holding the civil and criminal courts of judicature, by which all cases of life and death, as well as matters of property, were to be decided. When the Judge Advocate had finished reading, his Excellency addressed himself to the convicts in a pointed and judicious speech, informing them of his future intentions, which were invariably to cheerish and render happy those who shewed a disposition to amendment; and to let the rigour of the law take its course against such as might dare to transgress the bounds prescribed. At the close three vollies were fired in honour of the occasion; and the battalion marched back to their parade, where they were reviewed by the Governor, who was received with all the honours due to his rank . . .


Southwell papers, Journal and Letters of Daniel Southwell; HRNSW, 2, 691

http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks12/1204411h.html 

[Journal] Feb'y 7. [1788] ... After some other words tending to this effect, they had liberty to disperse, and Gov. after pass'd up and down thro' the diff't company of marines upon the parade, and being saluted by them with the due honors, he, together with the principle officers, went to partake of a cold repast that had been purposely prep'd at the marquee. During all the ceremony at intervals the band played, and "God Save the King" was perform'd after the commis's were read.

[Letter, Daniel Southwell to Mrs. Southwell] ... Soon after our arrival, when the affairs of the colony were in some measure adjusted, the commissions for the Governour, Lieut.-Governour, &c., were read in publick, on a place for parade near the camp. The soldiers on this occasion were drawn up, and the band at intervals performed several pieces suited to the business. The convicts were placed by themselves ...


Bibliography:

-





9 February 1788

12 February 1788

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS AND FIFE OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

SMYTH, Arthur Bowes (reporter)

. . . the Fife & Drum ... playing the Pursuit ... the Rogue's March playing


Documentation:

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, original, NLA

http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview/?pi=nla.ms-ms4568-s147-e 

[9 February] ... This day one of the Sailors belonging to the Alex[ander] was caught in the women's Tents & drum'd out of the Camp wt. his hands tyed behind him & the Rogue's March playing.

Tuesday 12 [February] this day our Carpenter, one of the Sailors & a Boy belonging to the Prince of Wales, were caught in the Womens tents, they were drummed wt. the Rougue's March out of the Camp & thro. the Women's Street, the Boy in a woman's petticoat & the others wt. their hands ty'd behind them ...

Arthur Bowes's diary, 9 February 1788

Arthur Bowes Smyth, diary, MS, fair copy, SL-NSW

http://archival.sl.nsw.gov.au/Details/archive/110316318

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2015/D36405/a1085.html (TRANSCRIPT)

image 91 (page 99)

This day one of the Sailors was caught in the women's Tents & drum'd out of the Camp wt. his hands fastened behind him & the Fife & Drum marching before him playing the Pursuit.

image 92 (page 100)

Feby. llth. [? recte 12]... This day our Carpenter, one of our Sailors, & a Boy belongg. to the Prince of Wales were caught in the Womens Tents; they were drum'd out of the Camp wt. the Rogue's March playing before them &: the Boy had petticoats put upon him, they had all of them their hands tyed behind 'em.

See also edition, HRNSW, 2, 393

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=T8dJAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA393 


Bibliography:

HRNSW 2 (Grose and Paterson) 1893, 393

Cobley 1962, 64

... was drummed out of the camp ... and the Fife and Drum marching before him playing the Rogue's March."

Richardson 1964, 76, fo   llows Cobley

Covell 1967, 8, follows Cobley

Travers 1973, 9, follows Cobley

Fidlon and Ryan 1979, 70 [SLNSW transcript?]

Jordan 2015, 13 (from Fidlon and Ryan, 70)


Music concordances (tunes):

No certain musical concordance for "The pursuit" has yet been found. Unfortunately, the tune of the Scotch song, The vain pursuit, though perhaps relevant to the crime in question, is more than likely to be too late; thought to be by Thomas Blacklock, it probably dates from no earlier than the mid 1780s, and one of the earliest sources is Joseph Haydn's published setting of 1795. Similarly unlikely, the following, from the Pantomime of Captain Cook, probably dates from no earlier than 1789, in other words postdating by two years the departure of the first fleet for New South Wales

"The pursuit (in the Pantomime of Capt. Cook)"; in The celebrated circus tunes performed at Edinburgh this season ... set for the piano forte or violin and bass by John Watlen (Edinburgh: Printed for the author, 1791), 10

http://imslp.org/wiki/Special:ReverseLookup/176915 (DIGITISED)

http://tunearch.org/wiki/Pursuit_(1)_(The)

Probably more likely, the tune Bowes called "The pursuit" may be found under another name in standard military tune collections of the era, such as that including the "Rogues March" below:


Rogue's March (Compleat Tutor for the Fife 1765)

Rogues March [Rogue's March], from The compleat tutor For the fife (London: S. Thompson, [1765]), 14

http://digital.nls.uk/special-collections-of-printed-music/pageturner.cfm?id=94689820


Commentary:

Since the 1960s, it has often been stated that the Rogue's March was, fittingly, the first named and identifiable piece of music documented as having been played in the new penal colony of NSW.

For a much later reference to the Rogue's March, in the Sydney press in 1826, see below.


References:

[News], The Monitor (24 November 1826), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31758003 

THE lowest grade of punishment inflicted upon a soldier, usually the last award to incorrigibles, and that of all others universally looked on as most disgraceful, was carried into effect on Wednesday morning on two privates of the 57th Regiment, named Thomson and Sudds. Some few weeks past these men walked into the shop of a certain Israelitish dealer, one Michael Napthali, and in a most barefaced manner stole a piece of calico, for which offence they were tried at the Quarter Sessions, and sentenced to seven years campaign on a fresh station - owing to the turpitude of the crime in a moral point of view, and the odium attached to the corps by the disgraceful conduct of these its renegade members, it was determined by the Commanding Officer that the additional punishment of drumming out should be resorted to - the troops formed a line in double ranks - the culprits were brought forward attired in habiliments truly grotesque, a complete suit of bright yellow, with a ponderous load of iron manacles appended to every practicable part, from the neck collar downward to the enormous bazil's which circumscribed their legs - In this array, surrounded by guards, civil and military, (their sentence being previously read by the Brigade Major) they promenaded before their brethren in arms - nor were they unaccompanied by music - the Rogue's March grated in their ears to the outmost verge of the Barracks. They were in conclusion conducted to the gaol, and are to be returned to their Regiment at the expiration of their sentence.





2 and 4 March 1788 (date of events)

Broken Bay, NSW


INDIGENOUS

PHILLIP, Arthur

Songs at Broken Bay

Report only


Documentation:

Arthur Phillip, despatch no. 1, to Lord Sydney, 15 May 1788, Broken Bay; HRA series 1, I (1914), 26-28, 31

https://archive.org/stream/historicalrecord00aust#page/26/mode/2up 

In Broken Bay several women came down to the beach with the men where we landed, one of whom, a young woman, was very talkative and remarkably cheerful. They all readily assisted us in making a fire, and behaved in the most friendly manner ...

The loins of many of the women appeared as if they had something of a scrofulous disorder, but which I thought might be the marks still remaining of a chastisement. They certainly are not treated with any very great tenderness, and I believe are mostly employed in the canoes, where I have seen them with very young infants at the breasts. They appear very obedient to the men, and as they are the weakest, so in this state of nature they appear to be treated as the inferior. The women, as well as the men, seem fond of little ornaments, but which they soon lay aside; and the talkative lady, when she joined us in her canoe the day after we first landed, stood up and gave us a song that was not unpleasing ...

[27] When we returned two days afterwards to the spot where the old man had been so friendly, he met us with a dance and a song [28] of joy. His son was with him. A hatchet and several presents were made to them; and as I intended to return to Port Jackson the next day, every possible means were taken to secure his friendship; but when it was dark he stole a spade, and was caught in the act.

[31] In Botany Bay, Port Jackson, and Broken Bay we frequently saw the figures of men, shields, and fish roughly cut on the rocks, and on the top of a mountain I saw the figure of a man in the attitude they put themselves in when they are going to dance, which was much better done than I had seen before; and the figure of a large lizard was sufficiently well executed to satisfy everyone what animal was meant.

Phillip 1789, (76), 78-79

https://archive.org/stream/voyageofgovernor00phil#page/78/mode/2up

[76] ... [March 2, 1788] On the 2d of March Governor Phillip went with a long boat and cutter to examine the broken land, mentioned by Captain Cook, about eight miles to the northward of Port Jackson, and by him named Broken Bay ... [78] ... In this excursion some interviews with the natives took place. When the party first landed in Broken Bay several women came down to the beach with the men. One of these, a young woman, was very talkative and remarkably cheerful. This was a singular instance, for in general they are observed on this coast to be much less cheerful than the men, and apparently under great awe and subjection. They certainly are not treated with much tenderness, and it is thought that they are employed chiefly in the canoes, in which women have frequently been seen with very young children at the breast. The lively young lady, when she joined the party the second day in her canoe, stood up and gave a song which was far [79] from unpleasing ...

Phillip 1789, 83-84

https://archive.org/stream/voyageofgovernor00phil#page/n139/mode/2up

[83] ... Two days afterwards, when Governor Phillip returned to the same spot, the old man met him with a dance and a song of joy. His son was with him, and several of the natives; a hatchet was given them and other presents; and as the Governor was to return next day to Port Jackson, it was hoped that the friendship thus begun, and so studiously cultivated, would have continued firm. But as soon as it was dark, the old man stole a spade, and was caught with it in his hand. Governor Phillip thought it necessary, on this occasion, to shew some tokens of displeasure, and therefore when the delinquent approached, he gave him two or three slight slaps on the shoulder, and then pushed him away, at the same time pointing to the spade. This gentle chastisement at once destroyed their friendship. The [84] old man immediately seized a spear, and coming close up to the Governor, poized it, and seemed determined to strike. But seeing that his threats were disregarded, (for his antagonist chose rather to risk the effects of his anger than to fire upon him) or perhaps dissuaded by something the other natives said, in a few moments he dropped the spear and went away. It was impossible not to be struck with the courage displayed by him on this occasion, for Governor Phillip at the time was not alone, but had several officers and men about him. From this and other similar events, personal bravery appears to be a quality in which the natives of New South Wales are not by any means deficient. The old man returned the next morning with many other natives, but, in order to convince him of his fault, he was less noticed than his companions, who were presented with hatchets and various other articles.

Phillip 1790, 93, 99-100

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=0iAQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA93 

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=0iAQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA99 


Bibliography:

-





16 April 1788

Sydney, NSW

Map of Sydney, 16 April 1788

Image:

Detail from Sketch & description of the settlement at Sydney Cove Port Jackson in the County of Cumberland taken by a transported convict on the 16th of April, 1788, which was not quite 3 months after Commodore Phillips's landing there ([London]: R. Cribb, 1789 July 24), after original attributed to Francis Fowkes

http://nla.gov.au/nla.map-nk276




24 April 1788

Middle Harbour, Port Jackson, NSW

They entertained the old man with dancing

Documentation:

Sirius, log, 21 April 1788

-

Monday 21st ... A.M. Capt. Hunter Mr Bradlys Lieut & Master with Longe Boat a Gig went to Survy the Arm Newly Discovered


William Bradley, journal, 21-24 April 1788

-

Monday. 21st. Captain Hunter with the Officers who had before assisted him, went with two boats to survey the branches of the Middle Harbour ...

Thursday. 24th: As the tide flowed we went over the flats in the small boat, found many winding reaches with holes of 2 & 3 fathom water in some of them: as we went up we saw one Old Man setting upon the rocks by his Canoe, at about 1/2 flood we got nearly up to the fresh water in the boat: when we returned we found the Old Man with our people, they entertained him with dancing, combing his hair & beard & shew'd him how to smoke a pipe, two or three whiffs perfectly satisfied that part of his curiosity, & set him coughing. We gave him roasted Oysters which he eat as fast as he could get them & on giving a bunch of them roasted he open'd them with his thumb as easy as we could ...


Bibliography:

-





4 June 1788 (The king's birthday)

Sydney, NSW


BAND OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

ANONYMOUS (convicts) (singers)

WATERHOUSE, Henry (reporter)

WHITE, John (reporter)

WORGAN, George Boucher (reporter)

God Save the King and several excellent marches

Documentation:

White 1790, 169

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=5dJcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA169 (DIGITISED)

June 4th. This being the anniversary of his Majesty's birth-day, and the first celebration of it in New South Wales, his excellency ordered the Sirius and Supply to fire twenty-one guns at sun-rise, at one o'clock, and at sun-set. Immediately after the Kings ships had ceased firing, at one o'clock, the Borrowdale, Friendship, Fishburne, Golden Grove, and Prince of Wales, fired five guns each. The battalion was under arms at twelve, and fired three vollies, succeeded by three cheers. After this ceremony had taken place, the lieutenant-governor, with all the officers of the settlement, civil and military, paid their respects to his excellency at his house. At two o'clock they all met there again to dinner, during which the band of musick [170] played "God save the King" and several excellent marches. After the cloth was removed, his Majesty's health was drank with three cheers. The Prince of Wales, the Queen and royal family, the Cumberland family, and his Royal Highness Prince William Henry succeeded. His Majesty's ministers were next given; who, it was observed, may be Pitted against any that ever conducted the affairs of Great Britain.

When all the public toasts had gone round, the governor nominated the district which he had taken possession of, Cumberland County ...

Letter from Henry Waterhouse to his father, William Waterhouse, Sydney Cove, 11 July 1788, pages 2-3

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=446657 (CATALOGUE RECORD)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?acmsID=446657&itemID=824068 (DIGITISED) (images 2 and 3)

... the 4th [june] hoisted a flag at each Mast head & fired as did the Supply 21 Guns at sun rise the same at 1 oclock & the same [3] at Sun Set, the Transports made up the same number between them [indecipherable] one oclock, the Governor this day gave a Publick dinner at which where all the Officers of the Garrison, The Captain Lieutenants & three Midshipmen, one of wich I had the honor to be;

We went on shore at twelve oclock where the whole Battalion where assembled fir'd three Volleys & gave three cheers as did the Convicts who this day where allow'd liquor: At two oclock we where all assembled & had a most excellent dinner, after it was over the following Publick healths where drank with three Cheers & the band playing God save the King, - The King - The Queen & Royal Family - The Prince of Wales - Prince William Henry - His Majestys Ministers - The Cumberland Family - the Governor then said he meant to name the County which he call'd the County of Cumberland which was drank - the Governor then went out & his health was drank likewise with three Cheers the healths & toasts then circulated briskly & most did honor to the day, we supp'd at 9 & went on board at 11, the Convicts had made a most amazing fire & the day was concluded on all sids with great festivity, though I am affraid alarm'd the Nativs most terribly;

Letter from George Boucher Worgan (12-18 June 1788) to his brother Richard Worgan, MS, SL-NSW, pages 34-35

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=412921 (DIGITISED (images 36-37)

http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/_transcript/2015/D33332/a1175.html (TRANSCRIPT)

Wed. 4th. This being the Anniversary of His Majesty's Birth Day, Governor Phillip had prepared, for the Celebration of it, with every Mark of Loyalty and Distinction, he could think of. At Sun-rise the British Flags were displayed on Board the Ships, and on the Shore. The Sirius, and Supply fired 21 Guns each; This Ceremony they repeated at 1 O'Clock, and at Sun-set. At 12 O'Clock the Battalion was drawn up before the Governor's House, where, they fired three Vollies of Musketry, the First part of God Save the King being played by the Band between each Volley, after this Ceremony, the Officers of the Battalion, together with the Naval & Civil Departments, proceeded to the Governor's House, to pay our Respects to the Governor, who received Us with great Politeness, and congratulated Us, on being the first of His Majesty's Subjects, who celebrated this Day in New South Wales: He had previously given a general Invitation to the Officers to dine with Him; and about 2 O'Clock We sat down to a very good Entertainment, considering how far we are from Leaden-Hall Market, it consited of Mutton, Pork, Ducks, Fowls, Fish, Kanguroo, Sallads, Pies & preserved Fruits. The Potables consisted of Port, Lisbon, Madeira, Teneriffe and good old English Porter, these went merrily round in Bumpers. The Toasts after Dinner were, the King, Queen & Royal Family, the Prince of Wales, Prince William Henry, after this Toast, the Governor, in a very facetious and judicious Manner, mentioned the Necessity there was of having a County in order to circumscribe the Situation of our new Settlement. He would therefore, take this Opportunity of giving it the Name of Cumberland County, mentioning the Limits to be Botany Bay to the Southward, Broken Bay to the Northward, and some high Land (which he would call Landsdown and Carmarthen Hills) about 40 or 50 miles to the Westward. He then gave as a Toast, The County & the Cumberland Family. In the Course [Page 37] of the Afternoon the Governor had occasion to step into an adjacent Room, when, it was intimated by some one to pay Him a flattering Compliment, and every Gentleman standing up & filling his Glass, we all with one Voice gave, as the Toast, The Governor and the Settlement. We then gave three Huzza's, as we had done indeed after every loyal Toast, The Band playing the whole Time. We had hardly seated ourselves again before the Governor entered, He said "Gentlemen I heard You, and I thank You heartily for the Honour you have done Me, and filling his Glass, drank our Healths, wishing Harmony & Unanimity throughout the Settlement, promising that nothing should be wanting on his Side to promote it.

About 5 O'Clock we broke up, and walked out to visit the Bonfires, The Fuel of One of Which, a number of Convicts had been two Days collecting, and to one who had never seen any bigger than Tower Hill Bonfire on these Occasions, it was really a noble Sight, it was piled up for several Yards high round a large Tree; Here, the Convicts assembled, singing and Huzzaing; on the Governor's Approach, they all drew up on the Opposite Side, and gave three Huzza's, after this Salutation, A Party of them joined in singing God Save the King.


Bibliography:

-





Before 12-18 June 1788

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

DRUMS AND FIFE OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

WORGAN, George Boucher (reporter)

Drum, Fife, keeping time to the Tune

Documentation:

Letter, George Boucher Worgan (12-18 June 1788) to his brother Richard Worgan, MS, SL-NSW, page 12

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?acmsID=412921&itemID=823462 (DIGITISED) (image 12)

The Drum was beat before them, which terrified them exceedingly, they liked the Fife, which pleased them for 2 or 3 Minutes. Indeed Music of any kind does not attract their attention, long together, they will sometimes jump to it, and make a grunting Noise by way of keeping Time to the Tune.


Bibliography:

-





July 1788

Sydney, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Dances and songs for convict visitors

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 37

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA37 

... notwithstanding this appearance of hostility in some of the natives, others were more friendly. In one of the adjoining coves resided a family of them, who were visited by large parties of the convicts of both sexes on those days in which they were not wanted for labour, where they danced and sung with apparent good humour, and received such presents as they could afford to make them; but none of them would venture back with their visitors.

Collins 1804, 35

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ol5dAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA35 


Bibliography:

-





29 July 1788

Sydney, NSW


WHITE, John (reporter)

An exchange of songs

Documentation:

White 1790, 192-93

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=5dJcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA192-IA4 (DIGITISED)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=gTtfAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA194 [sic] (DIGITISED)

While they were thus employed, one of the gentlemen with me sung some songs; and when he had done, the females in the canoes either sung one of their own songs, or imitated him, in which they succeeded beyond conception. Any thing spoken by us they most accurately recited, and this in a manner of which we fell greatly short in our attempts to repeat their language after them.

While we were thus amicably engaged, all on a sudden they paddled away from us. On looking about to discover the cause, we perceived the gunner of the Supply at some little distance, with a gun in his hand, an instrument of death, against which they entertain an insuperable aversion. As soon as I discovered him, I called to him to stay where he was, and not make a nearer approach; or, if he did, to lay down his gun. The latter request he immediately complied with; and when the natives saw him unarmed they shewed no further fear, but, returning to their employment, continued alternately to sing songs and to mimic the gentlemen who accompanied me.


Bibliography:

Cobley 1962, Cobley 1963, 199





1788-90

Sydney, NSW


SOUTHWELL, Daniel (recorder, reporter)

Be-riă, Be-riă, Că-rāb-bă-ră

Documentation:

Daniel Southwell, journal and wordlist, Port Jackson, 1788-90; MS, BL; as transcribed Bladen 1893 (HRNSW 2)

To dance. Că-rāb-bă-ră.

To sing or singing. Be-riă, or Be-riă.


Bibliography:

Bladen 1893 (HRNSW 2)


Commentary:

With "boojery caribberie" (Hunter 1793), Southwell's "Carrabara" is one of the earliest records of the word later standardised in transliterationas "corroboree". Closer to that form, see John Washington Price's "Corrobborra" (1800).




1789




1 January 1789 (event)

Government House, Sydney Cove, NSW


ARABANOO (Manly) (participant)

ANONYMOUS (marine officer) (singer)

GOVERNOR PHILLIP'S BAND OF MUSIC

TENCH, Watkin (participant, reporter)

New Year's dinner music


Documentation:

Tench 1793, 13

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=uYxNAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA13 (DIGITISED)

1st. January, 1789. To-day being new-year's-day, most of the officers were invited to the governor's table: Manly dined heartily on fish and roasted pork; he was seated on a chest near a window, out of which, when he had done eating, he would have thrown his plate, had he not been prevented: during dinner-time a band of music played in an adjoining apartment; and after the cloth was removed, one of the company sang in a very soft and superior style; but the powers of melody were lost on Manly, which disappointed our expectations, as he had before shown pleasure and readiness in imitating our tunes. Stretched out on his chest, and putting his hat under his head, he fell asleep.


Select bibliography:

Barton and Bladen, History of New South Wales from the Records 1 (1889), 120

Cobley, Sydney Cove, 1789-1790 (1962), 3

Kenneally, The commonwealth of thieves (2007), 197

Jordan 2012, 198







4 June 1789 (The King's Birthday)

Sydney Cove, NSW


COLLINS, David (reporter)

TENCH, Watkin (reporter)

The Recruiting Officer


Documentation:

Tench 1793, 25

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=uYxNAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA25 (DIGITISED)

The anniversary of his majesty's birth-day was celebrated, as heretofore, at the government-house, with loyal festivity. In the evening, the play of the Recruiting Officer was performed by a party of convicts, and honoured by lbe presence of his excellency, and the officers of the garrison. That every opportunity of escape from the dreariness and dejection of our situation should be eagerly embraced, will not be wondered at. The exhilarating effect of a splendid theatre is well known: and I am not ashamed to confess, that the proper distribution of three or four yards of stained paper, and a dozen farthing candles stuck around the mud walls of a convict-hut, failed not to diffuse general complacency on the countenances of sixty persons, of various descriptions, who were assembled to applaud the representation. Some of the actors acquitted themselves with great spirit, and received the praises of the audience: a prologue and an epilogue, written by one of the performers, were also spoken on the occasion; which, although not worth inserting here, contained some tolerable allusions to the situation of the parties, and the novelty of a stage-representation in New South Wales.

Collins 1798, 70

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA70 (DIGITISED)

The anniversary of his Majesty's birth-day, the second time of commemorating it in this country, was observed with every distinction in our power; for the first time, the ordnance belonging to the colony were discharged; the detachment of marines fired three vollies, which were followed by twenty-one guns from each of the ships of war in the cove; the governor received the compliments due to the day in his new house, of which he had lately taken possession as the government-house of the colony, where his excellency afterwards entertained the officers at dinner, and in the evening some of the convicts were permitted to perform Farquhar's comedy of the Recruiting Officer, in a hut fitted up for the occasion. They professed no higher aim than "humbly to excite a smile", and their efforts to please were not unattended with applause.


Bibliography:

Maclehose 1838, 128-29

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=WmtZAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA128 

In looking over some old papers entrusted to us, and reverentially preserved by "an old hand," we find, that as far back [129] as when the now flourishing town of Sydney was a mere wild bush, that a few wretched exiles from their native land, cherished the remembrance of "Home, sweet Home," by assembling in a wooden gunyah, and reciting various passages from Shakspeare's plays ...

Brewer 1892

Weirter 1926

On June 4, 1789, the first public performance of a play in Australia was given by a party of convicts, who performed "The Recruiting Officer" in honour of his Majesty's birthday. From that time onward plays were given at intervals by soldiers of the garrison, sailors of the fleet, or by convicts, among whom were a number of really clever and scholarly men ...

Jordan 2002

Garvey 2002





15 (or 18) June 1789

Sydney Cove, NSW

A disturbance ... William Hogg and a fiddler

Documentation:

SR-NSW, SZ765, page 183-86 (see Jordan 2002, 300 note 4)


Bibliography:

Jordan 2002, 270-71, 300 note 4

[A disturbance of the peace], nine days after The Recruitng Officer, included the comic actor William Hogg, and a fiddler.

Garvey 2002, 45

[William] Hogg received a caution on 18 June 1789 for his involvement in a boozy sing-along with seamen and some the colony's least reputable characters ...


Commentary:

-


References:

Collins 1798, 428

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA428 

[September 1795] William Hogg, a prisoner well known and approved at this place for his abilities as a silversmith, and an actor in the walk of low comedy, put an end to his existence in a very deliberate manner afew days before the Fancy sailed. Spirits being in circulation after her arrival, he went to the "Grog-shop" as long as he had money; but, finding that he had no credit, he could no longer endure the loss of character which he thought attached to it; and though he did not "make his quietus with a bare bodkin," yet he found a convenient rope that put him out of the world.



1790



December 1790 (date of reported event)

Botany Bay, NSW


INDIGENOUS (Kamaygal or Gweagal man) (singer)

WOOLLARAWARRE BENNELONG (reporter)

HUNTER, John (authority)

Song at Botany Bay

Report only


Documentation:

Hunter 1793, 493

http://acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=152435

[page 493 is image 511 in the SL-NSW online record]

Bannelong ... had lately been at Botany-Bay, where, he said, they danced, and that one of the tribe had sung a song, the subject of which was, his [Bennelong's] house, the governor, and the white men at Sydney.

See also online modern editions with searchable text

http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks/e00063.html

http://adc.library.usyd.edu.au/data-2/hunhist.pdf

Note that the relevant passage is not included in Hunter 1793 (abridged)


Bibliography:

Clendinnen 2005, 173

Skinner 2011a, 61

Smith 2011, 7

Smith 2012, "Tubowgule (Bennelong Point)"




1791



1790 or 1791

Sydney, NSW


INDIGENOUS

PATYEGARANG (informant, singer)

DAWES, William (reporter, transcriber)

A Song of New South Wales

Song, Cadigal, Eora, words only


VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE HERE (words)


Source:

Unpublished MS, William Dawes, Sydney, NSW, 1790-91; University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, MS. 41645, Notebooks of William Dawes (1790-91), Book B, 31: "A Song of New South Wales":

http://www.williamdawes.org/ms/msview.php?image-id=book-b-page-31

http://www.dnathan.com/eprints/dnathan_etal_2009_dawes.pdf

A Song of New South Wales
Parabulā Paramā Manginiwā Yenbōngi
three or four times repeated, then
Parabulā Paramā Berianggalangdā
Toindinmā Manginiwā Yenbōngi



Bibliography:

Smith 2011


Commentary:

Keith Vincent Smith (2011) demonstrated that the words of this song were also recorded, in slightly different transcriptions, by Edward Jones, from the singing of Bennelong and Yamroweny in London in 1793, see A song of the natives of New South Wales

and by David Collins in Sydney (before late 1796), see the first of Two songs.





7 March 1791

Sydney, NSW


MACARTHUR, Elizabeth (pianist, reporter)

Worgan's piano II

Documentation:

Letter to Miss Kingdom, from Elizabeth Macarthur, Sydney, 7 March 1791

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=404867 (DIGITISED)

... I shall now introduce another acquaintance, Mr. Worgan, to you, a gentleman I have not hitherto named. He was surgeon to the Syrius, and happened to be left at this place when that ship met with her fate at Norfolk. It is not improbable this Gentleman may himself deliver this letter to you. He is well known to Doctor [illegible]. I assure you in losing him a very considerable branch of our society will be lopped off. I shall now tell you of another resource I had to fill up some of my vacant hours. Our new house is ornamented with a pianoforte of Mr. Worgan's; he kindly means to leave it with me, and now, under his direction, I have begun a new study, but I fear without my master I shall not make any great proficiency. I am told, however, that I have done wonders in being able to play off God Save the King and Foot's Minuet, besides that of reading the notes with great facility. In spite of musick I have not altogether lost sight of my botanical studies ...


Bibliography:

McGuanne 1901

"EARLIEST WOMAN AGRICULTURIST", The Sydney Morning Herald (15 February 1911), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15213752

Macarthur (Onslow) 1914, 29

http://archive.org/stream/someearlyrecords00maca#page/n49/mode/2up

Lancaster 2015, I, 481-92, II, 297-98


Music concordances:

"Minuet" [= Foot's Minuet] and "God save the King", The harpsichord or spinnet miscellany, being a gradation of proper lessons from the beginner to the tollerable performer, chiefly intended to save masters the trouble of writing for their pupils, to which are prefixed some rules for time (London: Robert Vremner, [1765]), 7, with manuscript annotations and fingering; scanned from copy once owned by Martha Parke Custis Washington, Rare Books and Special Collections, Rockefeller Library at Colonial Williamsburg, MT243 .B74 H37 1765

http://imslp.org/wiki/The_Harpsichord_or_Spinnet_Miscellany_(Bremner,_Robert)

"Foote's Minuet", in Ambrose Pitman, The miseries of music masters; including the Art of fingering keyed instruments (London, 1815)

Foot's minuet (Pitman, 1815)

Commentary:

-


References:

"POETRY - The Miseries of Music Masters", The Entertaining Magazine, or, Repository of General Knowledge for the Year 1815 (London; Sherwood, Neely, and Jones, [1815] ), 385

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=BrgPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA385

[Review], "The Miseries of Musick-masters ...", The Gentleman's Magazine (December 1815), 540

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ZrAUAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA540

[Letter to the editor, Sylvanus Urban], The Gentleman's Magazine 19 (January 1816), 28-29

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=h3sdAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA28 




21 July 1791

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW MARINE CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Drummed out of the marines


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 169

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA169 (DIGITISED)

[July 1791] We had twice in this month found occasion to assemble the court of criminal judicature. In the night of Saturday the 16th, a soldier of the marine detachment was detected by the patrols in the spirit cellar adjoining to the deputy-commissary's house, the lock of which he had forced. On being taken up, he offered, if he could be admitted an evidence, to convict two others; which being allowed, the court was assembled on the 19th, when two of his brother soldiers were tried; but for want of evidence sufficiently strong to corroborate the testimony of the accomplice, they were of necessity acquitted. Godfrey the accomplice was afterwards tried by a military court for neglect of duty and disobedience of orders in quitting his post when sentinel; which offence being proved against him, he was sentenced to receive eight hundred lashes, and to be drummed out of the corps. In the evening of the day on which he was tried (the 21st) he received three hundred lashes, and was drummed out with every mark of disgrace that could be shown him.


Bibliography:

-





September 1791

Sydney, NSW

November 1791

Norfolk Island

First barrel organ in the colonies

Summary:

On his return to Norfolk Island in November 1791 to take up the lieutenant governorship there, Philip Gidley King (1758-1808) apparently brought with him a barrel organ that he had been given at the Cape Colony on his most recent voyage from London. Whether it remained in Sydney or went with himto Norfolk Island is not known; however, it was almost certainly, as Rushworth suggests, the first organ of any sort in the colonies. Writing from the Cape, King directed his London agent, James Sykes, to send a "Chamber Organ, with Two Barrells" to Cape Town as exchange for the one he had been given. King estimated the cost of the replacement instrument as between 10 and 18 guineas, and so was shocked when, a little over a year later, the agent reported that he had ordered the instrument to be manufactured for £70, and further directed him "do not pay for it, another way will be found to satisfy the party at the Cape."


Documentation:

Letter, P. G. King, Cape Colony, 29 July 1791, to James Sykes, London; P. G. King, Papers relating to Norfolk Island, 1788-1807, C188, 7; Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales (transcr. Rushworth)

Cape July 29th 1791. Dear Sir, I should be much obliged to you to send to the Cape of Good Hope a new Chamber Organ, with Two [? Ten] Barrells for the first conveyance & ship it onboard any ship that is certain of touching at this port, & pay for the freight of it, as it is a return for one I have got, from the person to whom it is addressed, as underneath. I am Yours Sincerely, P. G. King; - direct it for Mr. Peter De Wit at the Cape of Good Hope & be so good as to write him a line at the time -

Letter, James Sykes to P. G. King, 25 January 1793; King to Sykes, 20 July 1794 (quoted Wright)


Bibliography:

Rushworth 1988, 17-18

Reg Wright, The trial of the twenty-one: a reassessment of the commandants of Norfolk Island, 1788-1814 and 1825-1855 (Ph.D thesis, Macquarie University, 2001), vol. 1, 49

Banfield 2007, 68, 87 note 19

Banfield says the instrument was manufactured by Willis, but gives no reference.

Jordan 2012, 205, 210 note 62

Lancaster 2015

http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p319281/html/ch11.xhtml 





Before December 1791 (when Tench sailed for England)

Sydney and environs, NSW


INDIGENOUS (dancers, singers)

TENCH, Watkin (reporter)

Songs and dances

Report only


Documentation:

Tench 1793, 183-85

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=uYxNAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA183 

. . . The colours with which they besmear the bodies of both sexes, possibly date from the same common origin. White paint is strictly appropriate to the dance. Red seems to be used on numberless occasions, and is considered as a colour of less consequence. It may be remarked, that they translate the epithet white, when they speak of us, not by the name which they assign to this white earth; but by that with which they distinguish the palms of their hands . . .

[184] . . . They have a dance and a song appropriated to this [185] awful occasion, which consist of the wildest and most uncouth noises and gestures. Would they act such a ceremony did they not conceive, that either the thunder itself, or he who directs the thunder, might be propitiated by its performance? that a living intellectual principle exists, capable of comprehending their petition, and of either granting or denying it? They never address prayers to bodies which they know to be inanimate, either to implore their protection, or avert their wrath . . .

Tench 1793, 197-99

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=uYxNAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA197 

. . . But enmity has its moments of pause: then they assemble to sing and dance. We always found their songs disagreeable, from their monotony: they are numerous, and vary both in measure and time. They have songs of war, of hunting, of fishing, for the rise and set of the sun, for rain, for thunder, and for many other [198] occasions. One of these songs, which may be termed a speaking pantomime, recites the courtship between the sexes, and is accompanied with acting, highly expressive. I once heard and saw Nanbaree and Abaroo perform it: after a few preparatory motions, she gently sunk on the ground, as if in a fainting fit: Nanbaree applying his mouth to her ear, began to whisper in it; and baring her bosom, breathed on it several times. At length, the period of the swoon having expired, with returning animation she gradually raised herself: she now began to relate what she had seen in her vision, mentioning several of her countrymen by name, whom we knew to be dead ; mixed with other strange incoherent matter, equally new and inexplicable, though all tending to one leading point - the sacrifice of her charms to her lover.

At their dances I have often been present ; but I confess myself unable to convey in description, an accurate account of them. Like their songs, they are conceived to represent the progress of the passions, and the occupations of life. Full of seeming confusion, yet regular and systematic, their wild gesticulations, and frantic distortions of body, are calculated rather to terrify, than delight, a spectator. These dances consist of short parts, or acts, accompanied with frequent vociferations, and a kind of hissing, or whizzing noise: they commonly end with a loud rapid shout, and after a short respite are renewed. While the dance lasts, one of them (usually a person of note and estimation) beats time with a stick, on a wooden instrument, held in the left hand, accompanying the music with his voice; and the dancers sometimes sing in concert.

I have already mentioned that white is the colour appropriated to the dance; but the style of painting is left to every one's fancy. Some are streaked with waving lines from head to foot; others marked by broad crossbars, on the breast, back, and thighs; or encircled with spiral lines; or-regularly striped like a zebra. Of these ornaments, the face never [199] wants its share; and it is hard to conceive any thing in the shape of humanity, more hideous and terrific, than they appear to a stranger: seen, perhaps, through the livid gleam of a fire; the eyes surrounded by large white circles, in contrast with the black ground; the hair stuck full of pieces of bone; and in the hand a grasped club, which they occasionally brandish with the greatest fierceness and agility. Some dances are performed by men only; some by women only; and in others the sexes mingle. In one of them, I have seen the men drop on their hands and knees, and kiss the earth with the greatest fervor, between the kisses looking up to Heaven. They also frequently throw up their arms, exactly in the. manner in which the dancers of the Friendly Islands are depicted, in one of the plates of Mr. Cook's last voyage.

Courtship here, as in other countries, is generally promoted by this exercise, where every one tries to recommend himself to attention and applause. Dancing not only proves an incentive, but offers an opportunity in its intervals. The first advances are made by the men, who strive to render themselves agreeable to their favourites, by presents of fishing-tackle, and other articles, which they know will prove acceptable . . .


Bibliography:

-




1792



Before April 1792 (when Hunter sailed for England)

Sydney and environs, NSW


INDIGENOUS (dancers, singers)

WOOLLARAWARRE BENNELONG (singer)

HUNTER, John (authority)

Bennelong's songs

Report only


Documentation:

Hunter 1793

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15662/15662-8.txt

This native has no less than five names, viz. "Bannelon, Wollewarre, Boinba, Bunde-bunda, Wogé trowey," but he likes best to be called by the second ...

... he sings, when asked, but in general his songs are in a mournful strain, and he keeps time by swinging his arms: whenever asked to dance, he does it with great readiness; his motions at first are very slow, and are regulated by a dismal tune, which grows quicker as the dance advances, till at length he throws himself into the most violent posture, shaking his arms, and striking the ground with great force, which gives him the appearance of madness. It is very probable that this part of the dance is used as a sort of defiance, as all the natives which were seen when we first arrived at Port Jackson, always joined this sort of dance to their vociferations of "woroo, woroo," go away.

Dance (boojery caribberie)

Report only


Documentation:

Hunter 1793

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15662/15662-8.txt (modern edition online)

... they often had a dance amongst themselves at night, on the lower part of Sydney-cove ... It had been signified to some of the principal amongst them, that we should be glad to have an opportunity of seeing them dance, which they readily agreed to, and the following night was appointed, when the governor and a considerable number attended ...

On the whole, this exhibition was well worth seeing; and this was the first opportunity that had offered for us to see any thing of the kind, since we had been in the country [there follows a detailed description of the performance].

They very frequently, at the conclusion of the dance, would apply to us for our opinions, or rather for marks of our approbation of their performance; which we never failed to give by often repeating the word boojery, which signifies good; or boojery caribberie, a good dance. These signs of pleasure in us seemed to give them great satisfaction, and generally produced more than ordinary exertions from the whole company of performers in the next dance.


Bibliography:

-





August 1792

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Drummed out of the NSW Corps

Documentation:

Collins 1798, 228

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA228 

[August 1792] One third of the provisions received from Bengal by the Atlantic, and the like proportion of the stores add provisions which had been landed from the Britannia, having been put on board the former of those ships, she sailed on the 19th for Norfolk Island, having also on board two settlers from the marine detachment, twenty-two male convicts, an incorrigible lad who had been drummed out of the New South Wales corps, three natives, and a free woman, wife to one of the convicts. Among the latter description of persons were some of very bad character; others who were supposed to have formed a design of escaping from the colony; some who professed to be flax dressers, and a few artificers who might be useful at that island.


Bibliography:

-


Commentary:

The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in 1789, with the purpose of gradually relieving the marine forces that had come out with the fleets. The regiment began arriving as escort-guards on the Second Fleet in 1790, and the changeover was effectively complete with the arrival in Sydney of the commandant, Francis Grose on 14 February 1792, to assume the role of Lieutenant-Governor, allowing Arthur Phillip to leave for England.





1792

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (singers)

JOHNSON, Robert (authority)

Idle songs


Documentation:

Johnson 1794, 39

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-68468020/view#page/n62/mode/1up (DIGITISED)

... Too many of you can find time to jest, to talk obscenely or profanely, to read and sing idle songs; why might not some, or rather the whole of this time be employed in reading, or hearing the Bible? ...


Bibliography:

Garvey 2002, 43





October-December 1792

Sydney, NSW


INDIGENOUS (singers)

THOMPSON, George (reporter)

The French tune of Malbrook very perfect


Documentation:

Thompson 1794

Thompson 1794 (second edition), "Extract for the journal of G. Thompson", 16 (second pagination):

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=xsNbAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA64 (DIGITISED)

... They are very quick in learning to speak English, and will repeat any sentence after you immediately, particularly any tune. When in their canoes, they keep constantly singing while they paddle along. They have the French tune of Malbrook very perfect; I have heard a dozen or twenty singing it together.




1793




1793

See A song of the natives of New South Wales




January-February 1793

Recherche Bay, VDL (TAS)


LABILLARDIÈRE, Jacques Julien Houtou de (reporter)

LA MOTTE DU PORTAIL, (reporter)

VENTENANT, Louis (reporter)


Recherche Bay 1793
Songs in thirds, forming a concord ... dance in a ring

Report only


Documentation:

Labillardière 1799, 2, 41

http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/12557850?n=513 

Notre ménétrier avoit apporté son violon comptant exciter en eux par des airs bruyans le même enthousiasme que nous avions remarqué parmi les insulaires de Bouka; mais son amour-propre fut vraiment piqué de l'indifférence de ceux-ci. Les Sauvages sont généralement peu sensibles aux sons des instrumens à cordes.

Labillardière 1800a, 2, 41

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=4H9lXR2_5AIC&pg=PA41 

Labillardière 1800b, 2, 45

https://archive.org/stream/voyageinsearchof02labi#page/n57/mode/2up 

Our musician had brought on shore his violin, imagining that he should excite as much enthusiasm among them by some noisy tunes, as we had observed in the islanders at Bouka; but his self-love was truly mortified, at the indifference shown to his performance here. Savages, in general, are not very senfible to the tones of stringed instruments ...

Labillardière 1802, 2, 39

https://archive.org/stream/accountofvoyagei00labiiala#page/n49/mode/2up 

Our fiddler had brought his violin, thinking by noisy tunes to excite in them the same enthusiasm that we had remaked among the the islanders of Bouka; but his vanity was completely mortified at their indifference. Savages are in general little affected by the sounds of stringed instruments.

*

Labillardière 1799, 2, 45

http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/12557850?n=517 

Nous perdîmes sans doute beaucoup à ne pas entendre le langage de ces naturels, car une des jeunes filles nous dit prodigieusement de choses; elle nous parla très-long-tems avec une volubilité extraordinaire: cependant elle eût bien dû s'appercevoir que nous ne la comprenions pas; mais n'importe il falloit qu'elle pariât.

Les autres essayèrent à différentes reprises de nous charmer par des airs dont la modulation me frappa singulièrement par leur grande analogie avec ceux des Arabes de l'Asie mineure. Plusieurs fois elles chantèrent à deux le même air , mais constamment àla tierce l'une de l'autre , et formant cet accord avec la plus grande justesse.

Labillardière 1800a, 2, 45

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=4H9lXR2_5AIC&pg=PA45 

Labillardière 1800b, 2, (49), 50

https://archive.org/stream/voyageinsearchof02labi#page/n63/mode/2up

No doubt we lost much by not understanding [50] the language of these natives, for one of the girls said a great deal to us; she talked a long while with extraordinary volubility; though she must have perceived that we could not comprehend her meaning; no matter, she must talk.

The others attempted more than once to charm us by songs, with the modulation of which I was singularly struck, from the great analogy of the tunes to those of the Arabs in Asia Minor. Several times two of them sung the same tune at once, but always one, a third, above the other, forming a concord with the greatest justness.

Labillardière 1802, 2, 43-44

https://archive.org/stream/accountofvoyagei00labiiala#page/n53/mode/2up 

We doubtless Lost a great deal by not understanding the language of these natives; for one of the young girls said to us a prodigious number of things; she spole to us for a long time with an extraordinary volubility: however, she must certainly have perceived that we did not [44] comprehend her; but no matter - she would still talk.

The others endeavoured, at different times, to charm us with airs, the modulation of which struck me singularly, from their great analogy to those of the Arabs of Asia Minor. Two of them frequently sang the same air together; but the one constantly a third above the other, forming this harmony with the greatest exactness.

*

Labillardière 1799, 2, 50

http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/12557850?n=522 

Nous savions déjà que ces Sauvages avoient peu de goût pour les sons du violon. On se flatta cependant qu'ils n'y seraient pas insensibles si l'on jouoit des airs vifs et d'une mesure très - marquée. D'abord ils nous laissèrent quelque tems dans l'incertitude ; notre musicien redoubla d'efforts, comptant obtenir leurs applaudissemens; mais son archet lui tomba des mains lorsqu'il vit cette nombreuse assemblée se mettre les doigts dans l'es oreilles pour ne pas l'entendre davantage.

Labillardière 1800a, 2, 50

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=4H9lXR2_5AIC&pg=PA50

Labillardière 1800b, 2, 55

https://archive.org/stream/voyageinsearchof02labi#page/n69/mode/2up 

We knew already that these savages had little taste for the violin; but we flattered ourselves that they would not be altogether insensible to its tones, if lively tunes, and very distinct in their measure, were played. At first they left us in doubt for some time; on which our musician redoubled his exertions, in hopes of obtaining their applause; but the bow dropped from his hand, when he beheld the whole assembly stopping their ears with their fingers, that they might hear no more.

Labillardière 1802, 2, 49

https://archive.org/stream/accountofvoyagei00labiiala#page/49/mode/2up 

We knew that these savages had little taste for the sounds of the violin. We flattered ourselves however that they would not be quite insensible to them if some lively tunes were played, and in very distinct time. At first they left us some moments in suspense: our musician redoubled his efforts, thinking to obtain their plaudits; but his bow fell from his hand when he saw this numerous assembly put their fingers in their ears that they might hear no more.

*

Labillardière 1799, 2, 58

http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/12557850?n=530 

Les autres ayant été invités par des gens de l'équipage à danser en rond avec eux, imitèrent assez bien tous leurs mouvemens

Labillardière 1800a, 2, 58

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=4H9lXR2_5AIC&pg=PA58 

Labillardière 1800b, 2, 63

https://archive.org/stream/voyageinsearchof02labi#page/n81/mode/2up 

... The others being invited by some of our crew to dance in a ring with them, imitated all their movements tolerably well.

Labillardière 1802, 2, 57

https://archive.org/stream/accountofvoyagei00labiiala#page/57/mode/2up 

The others, having been invited by our people to dance in a ring with them, imitated tolerably well all their motions ...


Bibliography:

Brian and Piard-Bernier 1993, 363 (from the journal of Louis Ventenat, a priest, naturalist, and flute-player)

Their dance consists of raising one foot behind them, touching the head with the hand, then they bend the body down and straighten up in turn, the movements being made quite violently. Their voice is sonorous, pleasant and agreeable. When they sing they only have two tones, which are pitched between B and G ... They articulate in the throat and speak very rapidly.

Plomley and Piard-Bernier 1993, 306, 302 (from the journal of La Motte du Portail)

... the women often sang among themselves, but also very softly and in a very sad manner ... As for our songs, they seemed to listen to them with pleasure.

Dyer 2005, 90-91

D'Auribeau: "Mr. Saint Aignan played the violin for them several times [which] did not delight them at all [and] they gave him to understand that their ears were hurting ... They seemed very happy to see him stop" ... [91] When the chaplain, Ventenat, played on his flute, however, "they lent an attentive ear" and when the French sang some songs (noted La Motte du Portail) "they seem to listen to them with pleasure."

Mulvaney 2007, chapter 7

http://press.anu.edu.au/aborig_history/axe/html/ch07.html#ftn.d0e2560 

The French made strenuous efforts to establish a word list. Labillardière's vocabulary included 83 words. However, Plomley and Piard-Bernier consolidated a vocabulary of 155 words from all the French diarists. Words were carefully obtained, as d'Entrecasteaux explained:

"We have made them repeat the same word several times; and after they had repeated it, they would designate the object we had requested them to name. We have asked the same question of several of them; and we have used the same means to ensure that the pronunciation was correct." [Labillardière, 1800b, appendix: 19-20]

Joseph Raoul, the second pilot on Recherche, produced a reliable word list, which he gave to d'Auribeau. Upon meeting the same people for a second time, he related, "I profited by their willingness to correct some of the words I had collected from them … and to gather some more. Because I had an opportunity to check the meaning I am sure that they are accurate; and I have only recorded words which I heard clearly and were repeated several times." [Plomley and Piard-Bernier 1993, 307]

D'Auribeau thought that their speech was "crisp and lively," but found that some words which he pronounced distinctly, Tasmanians could not repeat - "français and d'Entrecasteaux were among them. They said anglais extremely well, likewise the names of almost all the officers. It seemed to me that they were unable to articulate the f and that they substituted p for it." [Plomley and Piard-Bernier 1993, 280]

Some of the vocabularies may have been derived through songs, for both the French and Tasmanians sang, the former lustily.





March 1793

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Drummed out of the NSW Corps


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 275

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA275 (DIGITISED)

[March 1793] The commission of offences was now so frequent, that it had become necessary to assemble the criminal court during this month; and William Ashford, a lad who had been drummed out of the New South Wales corps, was tried for stealing several articles of wearing apparel from some of the convicts; of which being convicted, he was sentenced to receive three hundred lashes.





March-April 1793

Sydney, NSW


MALASPINA, Alejando (reporter)

They have danced and sung almost the whole night around the campfire

Documentation:

Alejandro Malaspina, "Apuntes sobre la colonia ingleas de Puerto Jackson", 1793; Madrid, Museo Naval, MS 318; translated King 1986, 54

We should not hide, however, the fact that the measures taken by the English for their civilisation have been quite humane and prudent. We have seen gathered and cared for with the greatest kindness, several Boys and Girls. Others, both men and women, although entirely naked and disgustingly dirty, have been admitted to the same Room where we were eating and have been regaled with one or other dainty from the same Table. At times we have heard entire Families salute us with several shouts in English; at times in the principal Streets of the Colony itself they have danced and sung almost the whole night around a campfire, without anyone molesting them. But, whether or not they are able to combine with the sociable Instinct of Man other such strange contradictions, it is certain that, similar to the Hottentots, the young adults at times suddenly quit the house where they are being fed, and the clothing which covers them in order to return to their own to continue their primitive wandering life, divested it would appear of all sociable attraction.


Bibliography:

King 1986, 50, 54

King 1990

McBryde 1989, 39, 43





March-April 1793

Sydney, NSW


BAND OF THE NSW CORPS

MALASPINA, Alejandro (authority)

Band of the New South Wales Corps plays for the Spaniards


Documentation:

Malaspina (Novo y Colson) 1885, 255

https://archive.org/stream/cihm_15573#page/n329/mode/2up (DIGITISED)

El tiempo favoreció mucho el primer convite á bordo de la DESCUBIERTA en donde se hicieron al Mayor Grose los honores de Teniente General embarcado y además se acompañaron con salvas los siguientes tres brindis: 1.o El Rey de Inglaterra, el Rey de España y ambas Reales familias. 2.o El Comodoro Philipps, el Mayor Grose y la prosperidad de la colonia. 3.o Las señoras que nos favorecí an con su presencia. Todos los convidados repitieron el brindis, anteponiendo el Rey de España al Rey de Inglaterra; hicieron eco á estos sentimientos de cariño y de respeto los ¡viva el Rey! de la marinerí a, y la música del regimiento tocando al mismo tiempo el aria God Save the King dio á esta escena agradable y tierna todo el semblante majestuoso que merecí a: el tiempo lluvioso y con viento algo arrafagado no permitió ai dia siguiente que las señoras concurriesen á bordo de la ATREVIDA pero no faltó otro alguno de los convidados; se hicieron al Mayor Grose los mismos honores del dí a anterior y se renovaron los mismos brindis.

Malaspina (Novo y Colson) 1885 (second edition), 255

https://archive.org/stream/cihm_15573#page/n325/mode/2up (DIGITISED)


Bibliography:

Malaspina (Jamieson) 2004, 78

[T]he first to the King of England, the King of Spain and both Royal Families; the second to Commodore Phillip, Major Grose, and the prosperity of the colony; and the third to the ladies who favoured us with their presence. As was to be expected, all our guests repeated the toast naming the King of Spain before the King of England. The crew echoed these sentiments of affection and respect with their "Long live the King" while the regimental band played the anthem "God Save the King", which lent all appropriate dignity to this pleasant and affectionate scene ...

Olcelli 2013, 44


Commentary:

This is the first independent record of the Band of the New South Wales Corps. It is likely to have included some remaining members of Phillip's marine band, such as first fleeter Harry Parsons.





June 1793

Sydney NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Lashed by the drummers of the NSW Corps


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 289

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA289 (DIGITISED)

[June 1793] The lieutenant-governor, on being informed by some officers who were present of the dangerous and alarming temper which the seamen manifested on board, resolved, by taking a firm and very active part, to crush the disorder at once, He accordingly went on board in person, with some soldiers, and, ordering the ship to be brought to an anchor, returned with Williams, and two others who were pointed out by the master as his confederates, not only in refusing the duty of the ship, but in throwing him overboard during the preceding night. This resolute step was instantly followed up by their being taken to the public parade, and there punished, Williams with one hundred and fifty, and his companions with one hundred lashes each, by the drummers of the New South Wales corps. At the place and in the moment of punishment Williams's courage forsook him, and the spirit which he had displayed on board the Kitty was all evaporated. He would have said or done any thing to have averted the lash.





August 1793

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

A drummer receives 225 lashes


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 302

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA302 (DIGITISED)

[August 1793] The two soldiers who were put into confinement on suspicion of being parties in a plan to seize one of the long-boats, were tried by a regimental court-martial on the first day of this month, and one was acquitted; but Roberts, a drummer, who was proved to have attempted to persuade another drummer to be of the party, was sentenced to receive three hundred lashes, and in the evening did receive two hundred and twenty-five of them. While smarting under the severity with which his punishment was inflicted, he gave up the names of six or eight of his brother soldiers as concerned with him, among whom were the two who had absented themselves the preceding evening. These people, the day following their desertion, were met in the path to Parramatta, and told an absurd story of their being sent to the Blue Mountains.





November 1793

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

When the drum beat for labour, breakfast ration still not ground


Documentation:

Collins 1798, (323) 324

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA324 (DIGITISED)

[November 1793] On Saturday the 23rd, the flour and rice in store being nearly expended, the ration was altered to the following proportions of those articles, viz: To the officers, civil and military, soldiers, overseers, and the settlers from free people, were served, of biscuit or flour 2 pounds; wheat 2 pounds; Indian corn 5 pounds; peas 3 pints. To the male convicts were served, women and children receiving in the proportions always observed, (of biscuit or flour, none, and for the first time since the establishment of the colony) wheat 3 pounds; Indian corn 5 pounds; paddy 2 pints; gram 2 pints. [324] This was universally felt as the worst ration that had ever been served from his Majesty's stores; and by the labouring convict particularly so, as no one article of grain was so prepared for him as to be immediately made use of. The quantity that was now to be ground, and the numbers who brought grain to the mill, kept it employed all the night as well as the day; and as, from the scarcity of mills, every man was compelled to wait for his turn, the day had broke, and the drum beat for labour, before many who went into the mill house at night had been able to get their corn ground. The consequence was, that many, not being able to wait, consumed their allowance unprepared. By the next Saturday, a quantity of wheat sufficient for one serving having been passed through the large mill at Parramatta, the convicts received their ration of that article ground coarse.





29 December 1793

Sydney, NSW

... the Anacreontic, or Singing Society

Documentation:

Letter from Neil MacKellar, ensign NSW Corps, Sydney, 29 December 1793, to John Piper, ensign, Norfork Island, Piper Papers, A256, 497, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales (ed. Cobley 1983, Sydney cove, IV, 92

... There has been a Society established here for some time back, called by the members, the Anacreontic, or Singing Society. All the unmarried people (with Messrs. Hunt [? Kent], & Bell Agts and Surgeons in the Navy) & Capt. Foveaux, Clephan & myself are members, Nosy is not, because he would not be admitted. It is carried on thus, every Saturday night they meet alternately at each others Houses, and the amusement is singing and drinking grog - every man sings his song, whether he can or no - It is not thought of by the sober thinking set and I spend those evenings - most other, at the Majors or Capt. Patersons. Laing is a member but does not relish it much ... (Piper's papers 495 [sic])


Bibliography:

Cobley 1983, Sydney cove, IV, 92

Jordan 2012, 198

[Jordan identifies another member of the society as a Dr. Harris]




1793

London, England, 1793 (song from the Sydney area, NSW, c.1790)


PATYEGARANG (informant, singer)

DAWES, William (reporter, transcriber)

WOOLLARAWARRE BENNELONG (Wangal singer)

YEMMERRAWANNE (Wangal singer)

JONES, Edward (transcriber, arranger)

INDIGENOUS (unidentified informants, singers)

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Barrabula

A song of the natives of New South Wales

(A traditional song from the Sydney area, c.1790s, known to have been sung by Wangal and perhaps also Cadigal people)

The music and words, along with a description of the singers' clap-stick accompaniment, were written down by Edward Jones, a Welsh harpist, from a performance by two Wangal men, Bennelong and Yemmerrawanne, in London, England, in mid 1793.

This transcription first published by Jones in London in 1811 in his collection Musical curiosities (Jones 1811, 15):


GO to main entry:


Checklist of colonial musical transcriptions of Indigenous songs




1794




23 June 1794

Sydney, NSW


JOHNSON, Richard (reporter)

Bell ringer abused

Documentation:

Letter, Richard Johnson, colonial chaplain, to Francis Grose, lieutenant governor, 23 June 1794 (ed. Cobley 1983, Sydney Cove 4, 147-48

. . . I have long seen & lamented the sad Profanation of the Sabbath, & neglect of Publick worship among the convicts ... [148] ... Excuse My Freedom in informing you also, that the Person which I hire for the Purpose of ringing the Bell, complained to me yesterday, that he had [? repeatedly] been abused by some one of the Guard, whilst ringing it, though he never that I know of exceeded the Time which I understand you gave Directions it cd. be rung ...

Grose, who was in ongoing dispute with the chaplain, did not reply.




29 September 1794

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

To much for poor drummer's wife


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 392

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA392 (DIGITISED)

[29 September 1794] The wife of Griffin the drummer, whose hoarded guineas were supposed to have been stolen by Charles, or (as he was more commonly named) Pat Gray, killed herself with drinking, expiring in a fit of intoxication while the husband was employed in the lower part of the harbour in fishing for his family. She left him four children to provide for.


Bibliography:

-





5 October 1794

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (singers)

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Lamentation of a Sinner


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 392

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA392 (DIGITISED)

[October 1794] This month opened with an indispensable act of justice: John Bevan, a wretched convict, whose name has been frequently mentioned in this narrative, broke into the house of William Fielder at Sydney, and being caught in the act, it was substantiated against him beyond the chance of escape; he was of course fully convicted, and received sentence of death. The trial was on the 1st, and at nine in the morning of the 6th he was executed. At the tree he confessed nothing, but seemed terrified when he found himself so near the ignominious death that he had so long merited. On being taken to hear divine service the Sunday preceding his execution, he seemed not to be in the smallest degree affected by the clergyman's discourse, which was composed for the occasion; but was visibly touched at the singing of the psalm intitled the 'Lamentation of a Sinner.'


Bibliography:

-


Music concordance:

"Lamentation of a Sinner ... Martyr's Tune", The Whole Booke of Psalmes Collected Into English Metre by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, &c. ... with all the Ancient and Proper Tunes ... compos'd in three parts ... by John Playford ... the nineteenth edition (London: Printed by A. Pearson, 1738), 299-300

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ywxdAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA299 

"Lamentation of a Sinner", Hymns taken from the supplement to Tate and Brady's Psalms (London: Rivington, 1815), 9-10

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=XktVAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA7 





13 December 1794

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

"A Native of Derby, in the New South Wales Corps" (reporter)

Singing and dancing

Report only


Documentation:

Saunders's News-Letter (31 July 1795), transcribed in Bladen 1893 (HRNSW 2), 815-17

"SOME ACCOUNT OF BOTANY BAY, Extracted from a Letter written by a Native of Derby, in the New South Wales Corps", The Freemasons' Magazine (August 1795), (126) 127

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=1AkOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA127 

[Sydney (Port Jackson), Dec. 13, 1794] ... The natives in general of Botany Bay are tall and slender, have very black, curly hair, flat faces, and very large mouths; some of them run sticks through their noses; they draw the front tooth in tribute to their chief; are much scarified on the back and breast, done by an oyster-shell cemented with gum at the end of the whornmora (or throwing-stick); they talk very quick; dance by raising their arms and wheeling in a circle, at sometimes singing or making a confused noise. One of the females sits thumping her stomach, which gives a droll sound ...


Bibliography:

Bladen 1893 (HRNSW 2), (815) 817

[815 note] Saunders's News-Letter of Friday, 31st July, 1795. The Editor describes it as "an abstract of a narrative written by a native of Derby, in the New South Wales Corps, now in Botany Bay," adding that its authenticity could be depended upon. The letter contains internal evidence of having been written by a passenger on board the Pitt.




1795



25 January 1795 (date of event)

Farm Cove, Sydney, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Ceremony with songs and singing

Report only


Yoo-long 1795

Image:

Collins 1798, plate 2

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=846401&suppress=N&imgindex=15 


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 563-83, and 8 engravings

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA563 (DIGITISED)

... Between the ages of eight and sixteen, the males and females undergo the operation which they term Gnah-noong, viz. that of having the septum nasi bored, to receive a bone or reed, which among them is deemed a great ornament, though I have seen many whose articulation was thereby rendered very imperfect. Between the same years also the males receive the qualifications which are given to them by losing one of the front teeth. This ceremony occurred twice during my residence in New South Wales; and in the second operation I was fortunate enough to attend them during the whole of the time, attended by a person well qualified to make drawings of every particular circumstance that occurred. A remarkable coincidence of time was noticed as to the season in which it took place. It was first performed in the beginning of the month of February 1791; and exactly at the same period in the year 1795 the second operation occurred. As they have not any idea of numbers beyond three, and of course have no regular computation of time, this can only be ascribed to chance, particularly as the season could not have much share in their choice, February being one of the hot months.

On the 25th of January 1795 we found that the natives were assembling in numbers for the purpose of performing this ceremony. Several youths well known among us, never having submitted to the [564] operation, were now to be made men. Pe-mul-wy, a wood native, and many strangers, came in; but the principals in the operation not being arrived from Cam-mer-ray, the intermediate nights were to be passed in dancing ... The place selected for this extraordinary exhibition was at the head of Farm Cove, where a space had been for some days prepared by clearing it of grass, stumps, &c.; it was of an oval figure, the dimensions of it 27 feet by 18, and was named Yoo-lahng ...

"Barrington" 1802, 207

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA207 

[207] ... Prior to the death of the poor fellow murdered by Cole-be [16 December 1897], the natives at Sydney were called to the celebration of that ceremony, Yoo-lahng Era-ba-diang * [See pages from 12 to 15]

"Barrington" 1802, 12-15

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA12 

The ceremony then begins, from the opposite end of the Yoo-lahng, the armed party advance, singing and clattering their shields and spears, and with their feet kicking up dust enough to hide and choak every body around them; on nearly reaching the children, one of the armed men steps forward, and seizing a lad returns to his party, who hail him by a shout, showing at the same time, a determination to keep and protect the victim; in this way the whole are taken and seated on the opposite end of the Yoo-lahng, each with his legs crossed under him, holding down his head and clasping his hands. Miserable as this situ-[13]-ation must be, it is not to be altered during the night, and till all the ceremony concludes, no refrefhment is to be given them. As the natives are well aware, that the knocking out the tooth is attended with considerable pain, the performers of the mystic rites have cunning enough to impress on the minds of those about to suffer, that on their being delivered of a bone, for which farce they conceal one in a girdle, that the operation will be effected with a proportionate degree of ease, as they suffer the greater degree of pain. Thus one falls on the ground, and draws himself into every form that ideal pain can invent, and while in this state, some dance, some sing, and some beat him, till he produces the wonderful bone that is to perform the operation with little or no pain. This closes the first act of the farce, and with it generally closes the day ...


Collins 1804, 364-74, and 8 engravings

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n417/mode/2up (DIGITISED)


Bibliography:

-


Resources:

Yoo-long Erah-ba-diahng 1795 (ceremony), Dictionary of Sydney

http://dictionaryofsydney.org/event/yoo-long_erah-ba-diahng_1795 (ONLINE)





February 1795

Port Stephens, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Dance of welcome

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 408-09

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA408

... On the 1st of March the Francis returned from Port Stephens. Mr. Grimes reported, that he went into two fresh-water branches, up which he rowed, until, at no very great distance from the entrance, he found them terminate in a swamp. He described the land on each side to be low and sandy, and had seen nothing while in this harbour which in his opinion could render a second visit necessary. The natives were so very unfriendly, that he made but few observations on them. He thought they were a taller and a stouter race of people than those about this settlement, and their language was entirely different. Their huts and canoes were something larger than those which we had seen here; their weapons were the same. They wel-[409]-comed him on shore with a dance, joined hand in hand, round a tree, to express perhaps their unanimity; but one of them afterwards, drawing Mr. Grimes into the wood, poised a spear, and was on the point of throwing it, when he was prevented by young Wilson, who, having followed Mr. Grimes with a double-barrelled gun, levelled at the native, and fired it. He was supposed to be wounded, for he fell; but rising again, he attempted a second time to throw the spear, and was again prevented by Wilson. The effect of this second shot was supposed to be conclusive, as he was not seen to rise any more. Mr. Grimes got back to his boat without any other interruption ...

"Barrington" 1802, 140

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA140 

Collins 1804, 285-86

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n331/mode/2up 


Bibliography:

-




1796




16 January 1796

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (? musicians)

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Opening of a play-house

Documentation:

Collins 1798, 448-49

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA448 (DIGITISED)

Some of the more decent class of prisoners, male and female, having a short time since obtained permission to prepare a play-house* at Sydney, it was opened on the 16th, with the play of The Revenge, and the entertainment of The Hotel. They had sitted up the house with more theatrical propriety than could have been expected, and their performance was far above contempt. Their motto was modest and well chosen - "We cannot command success; but we will endeavour to deserve it." Of their dresses the greater part was made by themselves; but it was understood that some veteran articles from the York theatre were among the best that made their appearance.

At the licensing of this exhibition they were informed, that the slightest impropriety would be noticed, and a repetition punished by the banishment of their company to the other settlements; there was, however, more danger of improprieties being committed by some of the audience than by the players themselves. A seat in their gallery, which was by far the largest part of the house, as likely to be the most resorted to, was to be procured for one shilling; and, as much flour, or [449] as much meat or spirits, as the manager would take for that sum, was often paid at the gallery door. It was feared that this, like gambling, would furnish another inducement to rob; and some of the worst worst of the convicts, ever on the watch for opportunities, looked on the play-house as a certain harvest for them, not by picking the pockets of the audience, but by breaking into their houses while the family might be enjoying themselves at the theatre ...

[448 footnote]* The building cost upward of one hundred pounds. The names of the principal performers were, H. Green, Sparrow, (the manager,) William Fowkes, G. H. Hughes, William Chapman, and Mrs. Davis. Of the men, Green best deserved to be called an actor.

Collins 1798, 454

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA454 (DIGITISED)

February. [1796] The players, with a politic generosity, on the 4th of this month performed the play of The Fair Penitent with a farce, for the benefit of the widow Eades and her family. The house was full, and it was said that she got upwards of twelve pounds by the night.

Collins 1804, 319-320

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Yx0QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA319 (DIGITISED)

"BOTANY BAY THEATRICAL. PROLOGUE, Spoken on Opening the Theatre at Sydney, Botany Bay", The European Magazine, and London Review (October 1801), 289-90

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=GW7gAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA253 [sic] (DIGITISED)

From distant climes o'er wide-spread seas we come,
Though not with much eclat or beat of drum, [290]
True patriots all - for be it understood,
We left our Country for our Country's good:
No private views disgrac'd our generous zeal,
What urg'd our travels was our Country's weal;
And none will doubt but that our emigration
Has prov'd most useful to the British nation ...
...

Grant us your favour, put us to the test,
To gain your smiles we'll do our very best:
And, without dread of future Turnkey Lockits,
Thus, in an honest way, still pick your pockets.

"BOTANY BAY THEATRICALS", [as printed in] Oracle (13 July 1797)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemPopLarger.aspx?itemid=456555 (DIGITISED)

"Botany Bay", The Monthly Mirror (July 1797), 56

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=w8sPAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA56 (DIGITISED)

The following copy of a Botany Bay play bill shews to what a degree of refinement that settlement lias already attained: By Permission of his Excellency, the Governor, FOR THE BENEFIT OF H. GREEN. On Saturday, July 23, 1796, will be performed, THE BUSY BODY. Marplot, W. Fowkes; Sir Francis Gripe, L. Jones; Charles, W. Chapman; Sir Jealous Traffic, H. Green; Whisper, R. Evans; and Sir George Airy, J. Sparrow. Isabinda, Mrs. Greville; Patch, Mrs. Radley; and Miranda, Mrs. Davis. To which will be added, THE POOR SOLDIER, Patrick, H. Lavell; Fitzroy, R. Momdy; Father Luke, H. Green; Dermot, R. Evans; Darby, W. Fowkes; Kathlane, H. Wynn, and Norah, Mrs. Greville. Front Boxes 3s. 6d. Pitt 2s. 6d. Gallery 1s. Doors to be opened at half past five o'clock, and to begin at six. Tickets to be had of R. Sidway, of R. Evans, and, on Saturday, at the House adjoining the theatre. [Editorial] NOTA-BENE. The whole of the Dramatis Personae is composed of Convicts, and H. Green, the person for whose benefit the play was performed, was a pickpocket of great notoriety. [57] MRS. RADLEY was transported for perjury, in attempting to prove the innocence of her husband, who was charged with a robbery. SIDWAY was an old offender, and went out in the first fleet to Botany Bay; but being a baker by trade, he was made baker to the colony; and taking into his head to be a very industrious, frugal fellow, had, when this account came away, accumulated upwards of 3000l.!! His sentence has been expired two or three years, but he does not wish to return at present, being in a fair way of making a rapid fortune.


Bibliography:

Fred. W. Weirter, "SYDNEY'S FIRST THEATRE", The Sydney Morning Herald (29 May 1926), 11

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16295309 

...Among those who came out in the First Fleet with Governor Phillip was Robert Sideway, a baker, who had been sen- tenced to seven years' transportation. He was a man full of energy, who made good in the colony. In Saunders' "News Letter," a paper published in England, it is mentioned under date September 12, 1797, that the convict Sideway was living in a state of great respectability, and that he had a contract for serving the colony with bread, and a free grant of several bundled acres of land, which he cultivated. ON CHURCH HILL. Sideway was, on application to the Governor, John Hunter, given permission to erect a playhouse on his own, and adjoining the leases of John Harris, near the soldiers' barracks and huts - that would be somewhere on what is now known as Church Hill. This theatre, the first in Australia, was opened on January 16, 1796. There was no newspaper in Sydney at this time, not even a printing press, so we are dependent on English papers for news. The "Edinburgh Advertiser" of May 18, 1798 (two years after, but there were no steam mail ships in those days) says: - "The theatre at Botany Bay was built entirely by convicts, and cost about £100. With singular propriety, the gallery is the largest part of the house. The admission is 1/, which is paid in money or flour or meat." On September 3, 1798, the "Weekly Entertainer," a little octavo news sheet, published in London, gives a much fuller account of the theatre, although the Edinburgh paper had the "scoop." It says: - "Some of the more decent class of prisoners, male and female, having some time since obtained permission to prepare a playhouse at Sydney, it was opened on Saturday, January 16, 1796, under the management of John Sparrow, with the play, 'The Revenge,' and the entertainment of 'The Hotel.' The building cost upwards of one hundred pounds. The names of the principal performers were: H. Green, Sparrow, William Folkes, C. H. Hughes, William Chapman, and Mrs. Davis. Of the men, Green best deserved to be called an actor. They had fitted up the house with more theatrical propriety than could have been expected, and their performance was far above contempt. Their motto was modest and well chosen: 'We cannot command success, but will endeavour to deserve it.' Of their dresses, the greater part was made by themselves; but we understand that some veteran articles from the York Theatre were among the best that made their appearance. At the licensing of this exhibition they were informed that the sliglitest impropriety would be noticed, and a repetition punished by the banishment of their company to the other settlements. There was, however, more danger of improprieties being committed by some of the audience than by the players themselves. A seat in their gallery, which was by far the largest place in the house, as likely to be the most resorted to, was to be procured for one shilling. In the payment of this price for admission one evil was observable, which, in fact, could not be prevented; in lieu of a shilling, as much flour, or as much meat or spirits, as the manager would take for that sum, was often paid at the gallery door. It was feared that this, like gambling, would furnish another inducement to rob; and some of the worst of the convicts, ever on the watch for opportunities, looked on the playhouse as a certain harvest for them, not by picking the pockets of the audience of their purses or their watches, but by breaking into their houses while the whole family might be enjoying themselves in the gallery. This actually happened on the second night of their playing. In February the players, with a politic generosity, performed the play of the 'Fair Penitent,' with a farce, for the benefit of the family of a soldier who wa accidentally drowned, The house was full, and It was said that they got upward of twelve pounds by the night." THE THEATRE CLOSED. Because of the thefts mentioned in the above article, which had become so frequent, Governor Hunter closed the theatre in 1798, and ordered it to be pulled down.





Before August 1796

Sydney, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Bennilong sings over Ba-loo-der-ry

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 601-02

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA601

... The interment of Ba-loo-der-ry was accompanied with many curious ceremonies. From being one day in apparent perfect health, he was brought in the next extremely ill, and attended by Bennillong, whom we found singing over him, and making use of those means which ignorance and superstition pointed out to him to recover his health. Ba-loo-der-ry lay extended on the ground, appearing to [602] be in much pain. Bennillong applied his mouth to those parts of his patient's body which he thought were affected, breathing strongly on them, and singing: at times he waved over him some boughs dipped in water, holding one in each hand, and seemed to treat him with much attention and friendship ...

"Barrington" 1802, 31

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA31 

In all ages diseases have been the companions of mortals, and the natives of New South Wales have their share; most nation's have their cures, and all attempt to cure the maladies by which they suffer. A pain in the belly, they cured formerly by breathing on the hand to warm it and applying it to the part affected, singing a suitable song to the occasion, and keeping the mouth near the affected part, frequently stopping to blow on it, and making a noise, after blowing, like the barking of a dog; but our settling there rendered this useless, as tincture of rhubarb saves this trouble. In 1789, a disorder in appearance like the small-pox, raged with incredible violence ...

Collins 1804, 387-88

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n455/mode/2up 


Bibliography:

-





Before August 1796

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Chant to dispel thunder and lightning

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 596

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA596

... Of thunder and lightning they are also much afraid; but have an ideal that by chanting some particular words, and breathing hard, they can dispel it. Instances of this have been seen.

Collins 1804, 383

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n451/mode/2up 


Bibliography:

-





Before August 1796

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Chaunting their little song . . .

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 592-93

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA592

... I had long wished to be a witness of a family party, in which I hoped and expected to see them divested of that restraint which perhaps they might put on in our houses. I was one day gratified in this wish when I little expected it. Having strolled down to the Point named Too-bow-gu-lie, I saw the sister and the young wife of Bennil-long coming round the Point in the new canoe which the husband had cut in his last excursion to Parramatta. They had been out to procure fist, and were keeping time with their paddles, responsive to [593] the words of a song, in which they joined with much good humour and harmony. They were almost immediately joined by Bennillong, who had his sister's child on his shoulders. The canoe was hauled on shore, and what fish they had caught the women brought up. I observed that the women seated themselves at some little distance from Bennillong, and then the group was thus disposed of - the husband was seated on a rock, preparing to dress and eat the fish he had just received. On the same rock lay his pretty sister War-re-weer asleep in the sun, with a new born infant in her arms; and at some little distance were seated, rather below him, his other sister and his wife, the wife opening and eating some rock-oysters, and the sister suckling her child, Kah-dier-rang, whom she had taken from Bennillong ...

Collins 1798, 601

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA601

... As they never make provision for the morrow, except at a whale-feast, they always eat as long as they have any thing left to eat, and when satisfied, stretch themselves out in the sun to sleep, where they remain until hunger or some other cause calls them again into action. I have at times observed a great degree of indolence in their dispositions, which I have frequently seen the men indulge at the expence of the weaker vessel the women, who have been forced to sit in their canoe, exposed to the fervour of the mid-day sun, hour after hour, chaunting their little song, and inviting the fish beneath them to take their bait; for without a sufficient quantity to make a meal for their tyrants, who were lying asleep at their ease, they would meet but a rude reception on their landing.

Collins 1804, 387 (Second extract only)

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n455/mode/2up 

... As they never make provision for the morrow ...


Bibliography:

-





Before August 1796

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

The principal tribes have their peculiar dances and songs

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 543

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA543

... They have been always allowed so far to be their own masters, that we never, or but rarely, interrupted them in any of their designs, judging that by suffering them to live with us as they were accustomed to do before we came among them, we should sooner attain a knowledge of their manners and customs, than by waiting till we had acquired a competent skill in their language to converse with them. On this principle, when they assembled to dance or to fight before our houses, we never dispersed, but freely attended their meetings . . .

Collins 1798, 552

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA552

... On particular occasions they ornament themselves with red and white clay, using the former when preparing to fight, the latter for the more peaceful amusement of dancing. The fashion of these ornaments was left to each person's taste; and some, when decorated in their best manner, looked perfectly horrible. Nothing could appear more terrible than a black and dismal face, with a large white circle drawn round each eye. In general waved lines were marked down each arm, thigh, and leg; and in some the cheeks were daubed; and lines drawn over each rib, presented to the beholder a truly spectre-like figure. Previous either to a dance or a combat, we always found them busily employed in this necessary preliminary; and it must be observed, that when other liquid could not be readily procured, they moistened the clay with their own saliva ...

Collins 1798, 585

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA585

... They have yet another instrument, which they call Ta-war-rang. It is about three feet long, is narrow, but has three sides, in one of which is the handle, hollowed by fire. The other sides are rudely carved with curved and waved lines, and it is made use of in dancing, being struck upon for this purpose with a club.

Collins 1798, 586

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA586

... It must be observed, that the principal tribes have their peculiar weapons. Most of us had made collections of their spears, throwing-sticks, etc. as opportunities occurred; and on showing them to our Sydney friends, they have told us that such a one was used by the people who lived to the southward of Botany Bay; that another belonged to the tribe of Cam-mer-ray. The spear of the wood tribes, Be-dia-gal, Tu-ga-gal, and Boo-roo-bir-rong-gal, were known from being armed with bits of stone, instead of broken oyster-shells. The lines worn round the waist by the men belonged to a peculiar tribe, and came into the hands of others either by gift or plunder. The nets used by the people of the coast for carrying their fish, lines, etc differed in the mesh from those used by the wood natives; and they extend this peculiarity even to their dances, their songs, and their dialect.

Collins 1798, 588

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA588

... Bone-da, a very fine youth, who lived at my house for several months, died of a cold, which, settling in his face, terminated in a mortification of his upper and lower jaws, and carried him off. We were told that some blood must be spilt on this occasion; but six weeks elapsed before we heard of any thing having happened in consequence of his decease. About that time having passed, however, we heard that a large party of natives belonging to different tribes, being assembled at Pan-ner-rong (or, as it is named with us, Rose Bay), the spot which they had often chosen for shedding blood, after dancing and feasting over-night, early in the morning, Mo-roo-ber-ra, the brother, and Cole-be, another relation of Bone-da, seized upon a lad named Tar-ra-bil-long, and with a club each gave him a wound in his head, which laid the skull bare. Dar-ring-ha, the sister of Bone-da, had her share in the bloody rite, and pushed at the unoffending boy with a doo-ull or short spear. He was brought into the town and placed at the hospital, and, though the surgeon pronounced from the nature of his wounds that his recovery was rather doubtful, he was seen walking about the day following. On being spoke to about the business, he said he did not weep or cry out like a boy, but like a man cried Ki-yah when they struck him; that the persons who treated him in this unfriendly manner were no longer his enemies, but would eat or drink or sit with him as friends.

Collins 1798, 591-92

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA591

... A native of the name of Bur-ro-wan-nie had some time before been beaten by two natives of the tribe of Gwe-a, at the head of Botany Bay. One of these being fixed on, he was in return to be beaten by Bur-ro-wan-nie. For this purpose a large party attended over-night at the head of the stream near the settlement to dance; at which exercise they continued from nine till past twelve o'clock. The man who was to be beaten danced with the rest until they ceased, and then laid himself down among [592] them to sleep. Early in the morning, while he was yet on the ground, and apparently asleep at the foot of a tree, Cole-be and Bur-ro-wan-me, armed each with a spear and a club, rushed upon him from among some trees. Cole-be made a push at him with his spear, but did not touch him, while the other, Bur-ro-wan-me, struck him with his club two severe blows on the hinder part of the head. The noise they made, if he was asleep, awaked him; and when he was struck, he was on his legs. He was perfectly unarmed, and hung his head in silence while Cole-be and his companion talked to him. No more blows were given, and Bennillong, who was present, wiped the blood from the wounds with some grass. As a proof that Bur-ro-wan-nie was satisfied with the redress he had taken, we saw him afterwards walking in the town with the object of his resentment, who, on being asked, said Bur-ro-ween-nie was good; and during the whole of the day, wheresoever he was seen, there also was this poor wretch with his breast and back covered with dried blood; for, according to the constant practice of his countrymen, he had not washed it off. In the evening I saw him with a ligature fastened very tight round his head, which certainly required something to alleviate the pain it must have endured.

"Barrington" 1802, 17

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA17 

The spirit of retaliation, and ideas of honor they entertain, produces some singular circumstances, of which the following is one: A native of Botany Bay had been beaten by two natives of another tribe, one of these was in return to be beaten by him; for this purpose a party attended over night at the edge of a stream, near the settlement, to dance, which they continued doing till past twelve o'clock: the man who was to be beat danced with the rest, and then lay down among them. The next morning, while he was asleep at the foot of a tree, the one who was to beat him and another armed with spears and clubs, rushed on him; one threw his spear at him, but missed his object, when the other gave him two blows with his club. This awoke him, he got up, but being unarmed, he sorrowfully hung down his head; no more blows were given, and his enemy wiped the blood from his wounds with some grass: after this they were friends, for having satisfied his revenge he forgot the injury he formerly received.


Bibliography:

-





Before August 1796

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS

COLLINS, David (reporter, recorder)

Pelican and porpoise songs

VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (1798) (words)

VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (1804) (words)


Source and documentation:

Collins 1798, 614

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA614 

Car-rang-a bo mur-ray, A pelican. When they see this bird over their heads, they sing the following words:

Gnoo-roo-me ta-taw-natwa na-twa. - Gnoo-roo-me ta-taw-na-twa, na-twa, tar-ra wow, tar-ra wow.

On seeing a shoal of porpoises, they sing while the fish is above water, No-te-le-bre la-la, No-te-le-bre la-la, until it does down, when they sing the words No-tee, No-tee, until it rises again.

Collins 1804, 556

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n637/mode/2up 

Two songs

VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (1798) (words)

VIEW DIGITISED SOURCE (1804) (words)


Source and documentation:

Collins 1798, 616

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA616 

Words of a Song:

Mang-en-ny-wau-yen-go-nah, bar-ri-boo-lah, bar-re-mah. This they begin at the top of their voices, and continue as long as they can in one breath, sinking to the lowest note, and then rising again to the highest. The words are the names of deceased persons.

E-i-ah wan-ge-wah, chian-go, wan-de-go. The words of another song, sung in the same manner as the preceding, and of the same meaning.

Collins 1804 (2nd edn.), 394

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n465/mode/2up

A sensible difference was often remarked on hearing the same word sounded by two people; and, in fact, they have been observed sometimes to differ from themselves, substituting the letter b for p, and g for c, and vice versa. In their alphabet they have neither s nor v; and some of their letters would require a new character to ascertain them precisely. The following are The Words of a Song:

Mang-en-ny-wau-yen-go-nah, bar-ri-boo-lah, bar-re-mah.

This they begin at the top of their voices, and continue as long as they can in one breath, sinking to the lowest note, and then rising again to the highest. The words are the names of deceased persons.

E-i-ah wan-ge-wah, chian-go, wan-de-go: the words of another song, sung in the same manner as the preceding, and of the same meaning.


Bibliography:

Pinkerton 1807,

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=CDYyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA630

Smith 2011


Commentary:

Collins left the colony in August 1796 for London, and wrote up this account in October while on the voyage.





Shortly before August 1796

Sydney area, NSW


INDIGENOUS (dancers, singers)

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Dances and ceremonies

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 590

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA590

Not a long time before I left the country, I witnessed another contest among them, which was attended with some degree of ceremony. The circumstance was this. A native of the Botany Bay district, named Collindiun, having taken off by force Go-roo-boo-roo-bal-lo, the former wife of Bennillong, but now the wife of Car-ru-ey, and carried her up the harbour, Car-ru-ey with his relation Cole-be, in revenge, stole upon this Collindiun one night while he lay asleep, and each fixed a spear in him. The wounds, though deep and severe, yet did not prove mortal, and on his recovery he demanded satisfaction. He came accompanied by a large party of natives from the south shore of Botany Bay, and rather reluctantly, for he had wished the business to be decided there, rather than among Car-ru-ey's friends, as many of his associates in arms were entire strangers to us. Thirsting after revenge, however, he was prevailed with to meet him on his own ground, and the Yoo-lahng formerly used for a different purpose was the place of rendezvous.

At night they all danced, that is to say, both parties, but not mixed together; one side waiting until the other had concluded their dance. In the manner of dancing, of announcing themselves as ready to begin, and also in their song, there was an evident difference. Our friends appeared to have some apprehension of the event not proving favourable to them; for perceiving an officer there with a gun, Car-ru-ey strenuously urged him, if any thing should happen to him, to shoot the Botany Bay black fellows. The women, to induce us to comply with his request, told us that some of the opposite party had said they would kill Car-ru-ey. Some other guns making their appearance, the strangers were alarmed and uneasy, until assured that they were intended merely for our own security. The time for this business was just after ten in the forenoon. We found Car-ru-ey and Cole-be seated at one end of the Yoo-lahng, each armed with a spear and throwing-stick, and provided with a shield. Here they were obliged to sit until some one of their opponents got up; they also then arose and put themselves en garde. Some of the spears which were thrown at them they picked up and threw back; and others they returned with extraordinary violence. The affair was over before two o'clock; and, what was remarkable, we did not hear of any person being wounded. We understood, however, that this circumstance was to produce another meeting.

Collins 1804, 379-80 (account abridged)

https://archive.org/stream/AccountEnglishC00Coll#page/n447/mode/2up 


Bibliography:

Pinkerton 1807, 617

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=CDYyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA630 

Paterson 1811, 122-23

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ACMQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA122 





April 1796

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Drummed out of the Corps


Documentation:

Collins 1798, 473

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA473 (DIGITISED)

[April 1796] Three prisoners were tried for stealing some articles out of the store at the river, one of whom was found guilty, viz James Ashford, a young lad who had been formerly drummed out of the New South Wales corps. He was sentenced to seven years labour at Norfolk Island. One soldier was accused by an old man, a settler at the river, of an unnatural crime, but acquitted.

Collins 1804


Bibliography:

-





May 1796

Sydney, NSW


BAND OF THE NSW CORPS

PAINE, Daniel (authority)

He comes, he comes, the hero comes


Documentation:

Daniel Paine, journal, MS, edited in Knight and Frost 1983

[May 1796] Arrived the Britannia Captn Raven from Madras with some provisions for the colony but the greater part of her cargo belonging to the gentlemen monopolizers ... Great and tumultuous was the Joy and Ludicrously extravagant was the Exhibition of it on the Arrival and Landing of this Great Man. He [Raven] was met and attended by the Principal Officers of the Colony, the Military Band playing and a Chaise belonging to Colonel Paterson the Military Commandant was brought by the Soldiers to the landing place in which his Ponderous Body was placed and dragged by a Circuitous Rout to the Barracks amidst the noisy Huzza's of the Soldiers of the Town in an uproar and the Music at one time even struck up the Military Air He comes He comes the Hero comes.

Having with some difficulty alighted at one of the Officer's Houses orders were then given that the Soldiers should drink Captn.R's. Health in some of his Bengal rum and towards the close of the Day its Effects were visible in a number of his Welcomers.

Such were the Honours paid to this Great Man much greater than those paid to Governor Hunter on his Arrival although his character and Virtues were well known in the Colony. But he brought no Supply of Rum with him.


Bibliography:

Paine (Knight and Frost) 1983

Karskens 2009, 172

Groom 2012, 90

Jordan 2015, 14 (Jordan notes Raven was "almost as big as three common sized men")


Music concordance:

He come he comes the hero comes

"Song a 2 voc. Mr. H. Carey (He comes, he comes, the hero comes)"

Essex harmony, being a choice collection of the most celebrated songs and catches now in vogue ... volume 1, the third edition, with additions

(London: Printed by A. Rivington and J. Marshall, for J. Buckland, B. Law, and S. Crowder, 1786), 5

http://digital.nls.uk/special-collections-of-printed-music/pageturner.cfm?id=90498131 (DIGITISED)





Before August 1796

Sydney, NSW


DRUMS OF THE NSW CORPS

COLLINS, David (reporter)

Drums and marches for the burial of Ba-loo-der-ry

Documentation:

Collins 1798, 604

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eRZcAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA604 (DIGITISED)

[1796] ... they proceeded to the grave which had been prepared in the governor's garden. Twice they changed the bearer who walked the foremost, but his friend Collins carried him the whole of the way. At the grave some delay took place, for unfortunately it was found not to be long enough; but after some time, it being completed according to their wishes, Yel-lo-way levelled the bottom with his hands and feet, and then strewed some grass in it, after which he stretched himself at his length in it, first on his back, and then on his right side. Bennillong had earnestly requested that some drums might be ordered to attend, which was granted, and two or three marches were beat while the grave was preparing; Bennillong highly approving, and pointing at the time first to the deceased and then to the skies, as if there was some connexion between them at that moment. When the grave was ready, the men to the number of five or six got in with the body, but being still somewhat too short, the ends of the canoe were cut ... and the grave was filled in by the natives and some of our people ...

Collins 1804, 389-90

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Yx0QAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA389 (DIGITISED)

After this they proceeded to the grave, which had been prepared in the Governor's garden. Twice they changed the bearer who walked the foremost; but his friend Collins carried him the whole of the way. Yel-lo-way levelled the earth, and then strewed some grass in it; after which he stretched himself at his length in the grave, first on his back and then on his right side. Some drums had attended at the request of Ben-nil-long, and two or three marches were beat while the grave was preparing; he highly approving, and pointing at the time, first to the deceased [390] and then to the skies, as if there was some connection between them at that moment. On laying the body in the grave, great care was taken so to place it, that the fun might look at it as it passed, the natives cutting down for that purpose every shrub that could at all obstruct the view. He was placed on his right side, with his head to the N. W. When the grave was covered in, several branches of shrubs were placed in a half circle on the south-side of the grave, extending them from the foot to the head of it. Grass and boughs were likewise laid on the top of it, and crowned with a large log of wood.This log appeared to be placed there for some particular purpose; for, after strewing it with grass, the placer laid himself on it at his length for some minutes, with his face towards the sky. Every rite having been performed, the party retired, some of the men first speaking in a menacing tone to the women. Cole-be and Wat-te-wal, who seemed the most particular persons at this ceremony, were painted red and white over the breast and shoulders, and distinguished by the title of Moo-by; and it was understood, that while they were so distinguished they were to be very sparing in their meals. The spectators were enjoined on no account to mention the name of the deceased; a custom which they rigidly attended to themselves whenever any one died. Such were the ceremonies attendant on the interment of Ba-looder-ry ...


Bibliography:

-




1797




9 February 1797

Preservation Island, Bass Strait, TAS

A flute mouthpiece from the wreck of the Sydney Cove

Documentation:

Mike Nash, The Sydney Cove shipwreck survivors camp (Flinders University maritime archaeology monograh series, 2) (Adelaide: Flinders University, Department of Archaeology, 2006), 27

https://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/archaeology/department/publications/MAMARS 

https://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/archaeology/department/publications/MAMARS/MAMS%20PDF/2%20nash%20final.pdf (DIGITISED)

One of the disappointments of the shipwreck excavation was the lack of evidence that could be directly related to life on board the vessel . . . It is evident from the lack of material on the shipwreck that the crewmembers were able to salvage most of their personnel possessions and the equipment required for survival on Preservation Island. The paucity of finds that may be identified as tools or personal possessions was carried over to the terrestrial site . . . Of particular interest was a small iron hatchet head measuring 35 mm along the blade and 45 mm total height. A single section of a clay pipe stem was also recovered as well as the earthenware mouthpiece of what appears to be a form of recorder or flute.





16 December 1797

Sydney, NSW


ANONYMOUS (reporter)

Song of lamentation over Cole-be's victim

Documentation:

"Barrington" 1802, 204

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA204 

On the 10th of December two of the natives, both of them well known in the settlement, (Cole-be, the friend of Bennillong, and one of another tribe) meeting at Sydney, attacked each other. Cole-be was remarkable for his activity, but his opponent was much younger, and a perfect match for him. Closing on each other, with their clubs, Cole-be, who had not before gained any advantage, and the handle of the other's shield drawing out, and falling from his grasp, he stooped to pick it up, when Colebe struck him on the head, and staggered him, and followed his blow while in that situation.

Cole-be [w]as conscious this would acquire him the name of jee-run, or coward, as that the friends of the other would revenge his cause, the consequences might be serious if he died, he thought proper to abscond, and the poor fellow was taken care of, but on the 16th he died. During this time he was attended by some of his male and female friends, particularly two, Collins and Mo-roo-bra. One of the nights when a dismal song of lamentation had been sung over him, principally by women, his male friends, after listening with great attention, started up, and siezing their weapons, went off determined on revenge, knowing where to meet with Cole-be, they beat him and reserved the [205] gratification of killing him for their final revenge, until the fate of their companion should be ascertained ...

"Barrington" 1802, 207

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA207 

[207] ... Prior to the death of the poor fellow murdered by Cole-be, the natives at Sydney were called to the celebration of that ceremony, Yoo-lahng Era-ba-diang * [See pages from 12 to 15]


Bibliography:

-




1798




1798

Sydney, NSW


JOHNSON, Richard (authority)

One of Dr. Watt's Hymns ... Church bell

Documentation:

Letter, Richard Johnson, London, MS, Society for the Propogation of the Gospel, archives, transcribed Mackaness 1954, 2, 29

RULES OR ARTICLES TO BE OBSERVED RESPECTING THE SCHOOL AT SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, 1798

1. That this School is to be considered for the Benefit of Children of all Descriptions of Persons, whether Soldiers, Settlers or Convicts, provided they comply with the Rules here laid down.

2. Any Parent, &c, as intends to send a Child to School is to give a week's notice to the Revd. Mr. Johnson, that the Child's name, together with that of its parents may be registered in a book, which Mr. Johnson will keep for that purpose ...

10. All children belonging to this School, are regularly to attend public worship on the Sabbath Day, (except upon necessary and proper occasions they may be prevented) and to appear clean and decent; the different Masters (two at least) likewise to attend, to mark those that are absent, & to report the same to Mr. Johnson on Monday morning.

11. The children to be catechized, & to sing one of Dr. Watt's Hymns for Children every Sunday forenoon, & to be catechized at Church at such times as Mr. Johnson or the clergyman officiating may find convenient. Such parents as neglect or refuse to send their children to be thus instructed, to be deprived of the Privilege of the School.

12. A Form of Prayer to be read by one of the School Masters, & one of Dr. Watt's Hymns to be sung morning & evening. And it is strongly recommended that Parents will send their Children early to School to pray, as they are able, for a Blessing to attend the Instruction given them.

13. The Church Bell to ring a quarter before Nine in the morning, as a warning for the Children to prepare immediately to School.

14. Those Parents as make a practice of keeping their Children for several days together from School upon frivolous occasions, (by wh means their children make little or no improvement in their learning, whilst the blame is laid upon the Master) are first to be warned of such neglect, & if they still persist, they are to be deprived of the Benefit of sending their Child to this School.

15. As books of learning are at present very scarce in the Colony, the children are to give up their Books to the Master every noon & evening, except on Saturday, when they may be allowed to take them Home, that the Parents on Sundays, during the Interval of Divine Service may hear their Lessons, & thereby see the Improvement they have made during the week. But such children as either tear, lose, or do not bring back their Books, must not expect other Books to be given them.

16. The pecuniary Benefits derived from teaching school from the time these Rules & Regulations were made to be divided equally amongst the Schoolmasters appointed for that purpose, - and

17. The persons thus appointed are William Richardson, Isaac Nelson, and Thomas Tabor, who are to receive & enjoy the above mentioned Benefits, untill some good & sufficient Reason be given for their removal - or, shd more assistance be required, as the scholars increase in numbers, in that case, observation to be had of the 16th article.

18. These different Rules may be hereafter allowed to be altered, enlarged or curtailed as may be deemed necessary - to be read publicly in Church once a quarter; & a copy of them to be kept in the Vestry Room, that no Person may be able to plead ignorance of their Contents or Meaning.

Sydney, New S. Wales, August 29th, 1798. RICHARD JOHNSON


Letter, Rev. R. Johnson to Governor Hunter, 5 July 1798

Edited in HRNSW, 3, 432-33

https://archive.org/stream/historicalrecor05walegoog#page/n486/mode/2up 

Hon'd and Dear Sir ... (433) ... I beg leave here to give your Excellency an anecdote that happened one Sunday morning at that time. I had got up at daybreak, as usual, to be ready in time to perform public service. At six o'clock the drum beat for church. I met the soldiers at the place appointed, in the open air. Before I began I heard the drum-major give directions to two drummers to beat off at ten minutes or a quarter belore seven, as usual. Suspecting what was going on, I looked at my watch, read part of the morning sendee, then (without any singing) gave out my text, and had gone through about half of my discourse when the drum beat, and the soldiers instantly got up, took their arms, fell into their ranks, and marched away. Judge you, sir, what must have been my astonishment and concern. I looked round and saw about half a dozen convicts standing behind me, but (such were my feelings upon this occasion) I c'd not go on with my discourse, and therefore returned home, greatly distressed in my mind at such barefaced profanation and infidelity ...


Bibliography:

Mackaness 1954, 2, 29

Jordan 2012, 194




1799




Before 3 May 1799

Sydney, NSW


COLLINS, David (reporter)

WATLING, Thomas (reporter, artist)

A Night Scene in the Neighbourhood of Sydney ... singing and dancing

Documentation:

Collins 1802, frontispiece (engraving above), 208-09

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=846072&suppress=N&imgindex=7 (DIGITISED IMAGE)

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/ItemViewer.aspx?itemid=846072&suppress=N&imgindex=236 (DIGITISED TEXT)

[May 1799] ON the third day of this month his Majesty's ship Buffalo arrived from England ... [209] Although this ship was named the Buffalo, yet her head was the carved figure of a kangooroo, which very much amused the natives, who could have had no idea of seeing the animals of their country represented in wood.

Some of these people, ever hostile to the settlers, had lately speared one of them, a marine settler (as those were stiled who had formerly belonged to the marine detachment) at George's river, so effectually, that he died of his wounds. The natives belonged to the tribe of which Pe-mul-wy was the leader.

Savage as these beings certainly were toward our people, and to each other, yet they could unbend, and divert themselves with the softer amusements of singing and dancing. The annexed ENGRAVING represents a party thus occupied, and gives a correct view of their persons and manners. The figure leaning upon his shield, the attitude of the woman dancing, and the whole group, are accurate delineations of a party assembled by the light of a fire at the mouth of one of their excavated rocks.

"Barrington" 1802, 315

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA315 

The natives still hostile to the settlers, speared one of those at George's river so shockingly that he died of the wounds. The natives of New South Wales, though they retained the greatest ferocity towards our people, were not divested entirely of the softer passions, for occasionally they would retire to the woods and unbend their morose natures by singing and dancing; but that savage disposition which is universally found among them, even on these occasions gets superior to every other sensation, and they have absolutely been known leave these parties of pleasure to satisfy that thirst for revenge for which they are at all times found to be so particularly eminent. A person who has lately left the colony observes:

"The natives and our countrymen are now somewhat sociable, and there are not many outrages committed by either party. Some years previous to 1800, so many atrocious deeds were committed by one of the leaders of the former at Hawkesbury, [316] that Governor King found it necessary to issue an order offering a reward to any person who should kill him and bring in his head. This was soon accomplished by artifice; the man received the reward, and the head was sent to England in spirits, by the Speedy. But when thus speaking of the general good understanding which exists between the Europeans and natives, I must be understood to confine my meaning to the vicinity of the principal settlements, for about the remoter coasts they are still savages."


Bibliography:

-





July 1799 (died 2 July)

Sydney, NSW

Songs sung by his murders and a funeral hymn sung at the grave of Samuel Clode

Report only; words and tune not identified


Documentation:

George Bond, A brief account of the colony of Port-Jackson ... with an interesting account of the murder of Mr. Clode as communicated by the Rev. Richard Johnson ... (London: Slatter and Munday, 1806), 18, 20, 21

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=dQJcAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA18 

... and taking the knife, he went in again, and cut his throat from ear to ear, and then returned, both the knife and his hands reeking with blood. This he immediately washed, whilst Elbray scattered ashes over the room, to conceal the blood upon the floor; the window shutters were put in, the tea things set against the company returned; after tea, liquor was set upon the table; several songs were sung byJones, his wife, and others ...

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=dQJcAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA20 

[20] On Friday, his body was committed to the silent grave: the pall was borne by five surgeons (Dr. Harris, the gentleman above-mentioned, being one), and Captain Wilkinson; his excellency the governor walked with me before the corpse; Messrs. Cover, Henry, Hassel, Smith, Oakes, and the two Puckeys behind the corpse, and after them several officers and others. After having read the burial service, a hymn was sung, given out by Mr. Cover. I then spoke a little upon the melancholy occasion, many being in tears, and myself sb much affected, that I could indeed say but little, but gave notice that I purposed to preach a discourse on the Sunday but one next following ... [21] ... The ensuing week I composed two discourses, and on the 14th of July preached in the morning ... The missionaries attended church, hymns were sung, and the lines were given out by Mr. Cover ...

Letter, William Henry; quoted in Bonwick, Australia's first preacher (1898), 126

At the grave, after the funeral service, we sang a hymn, after which the Rev. Mr. Johnson gave an excellent exhortation.


On Samuel Clode (1761-1799) see James Cover (1762-1834) and William Henry (1770-1859); on the officiant, Richard Johnson (1753-1827); private Thomas Jones, of the NSW Corps, and his wife Elizabeth, murdered Clode on 2 July, and were executed on 6 July along with their co-accused William Elberry (John Albury).




22-27 August 1799

Near Glass-House Mountain, Moreton Bay, NSW (QLD)


INDIGENOUS (singers, dancers)

BONG-REE = BUNGAREE (singer)

BASS, George (reporter)

Dancing and singing in concert
The song of Bong-ree
General song and dance with three airs

Report only


Documentation:

Collins 1804, 507-12

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ol5dAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA507

[507] ... Monday the 22d [August] was passed in getting the sloop into the river, which with some difficulty was accomplished, having to find out a channel through an infinity of shoals. Having completely stopped the leak in his vessel and re-stowed her, he lost no time in prosecuting his intended excursion to the Glass-House Peaks. Previous to their departure, three natives made their appearance upon the beach, a short distance below the vessel, and unarmed as before. Bong-ree went up to them in his usual undaunted manner; but they would not suffer Mr. Flinders or any of his party to approach them, without first laying down their muskets. Presents were made them of yarn caps, pork, and biscuit, all of which they eagerly took, and made signs for Bong-ree to go with them, and they would give him girdles and fillets, to bind round his head and the upper parts of his arms. So long as their visitors [508] consisted only of two, the natives were lively, dancing and singing in concert in a very pleasing manner; but the number of white men having imperceptibly increased to eight, they became alarmed and suspicious, seeming to look with a jealous eye upon a shot-belt that Mr. Flinders wore, and which, though they did not rightly know how, might some way or other be a deadly weapon.

Observing this, he gave it to one of the people to take away. Three of the sailors, who were Scotchmen, were desired to dance a reel; but, for want of music, they made a very bad performance, which was contemplated by the natives without much amusement or curiosity. Finding that they could not be persuaded to visit the sloop, our people parted from them in a very friendly manner.

On the 25th they turned two or three miles further up the river, and anchored near the place on the western shore, where the man who had a family with him had called to them: at this time they saw a fire, and heard several younger female voices in the same place. On the following morning Mr. Flinders took the boat up a branch that pointed towards the Peaks, and got a sight of the flat-topped peak at times, which, appearing to be considerably nearer than the highest Glass-House, was that which he meant first to visit ... [509] ... At seven the next morning they found themselves under the steep cliffs of the flat-topped peak ... There was a hosue and several natives near the place, with whom Bong-ree was [510] in conversation

[510] ... Very bad weather detained Mr. Flinders here for two days, during which they were occasionally visited by the natives, who came down upon both sides of the river, and entertained them with singing and dancing. Not a spear was at any time to be seen among them.

A party who went to the eastern shore to procure sire-wood, and to comply with the desire which the natives had so often expressed of seeing them land among them, found them still timorous; ... on being encouraged and requested by signs to sing, they began a song in concert, which actually was musical and pleasing, and not merely in the diatonic scale, descending by thirds, as at Port Jackson: the descent of this was waving, in rather a melancholy soothing strain. The song of Bong-ree, which he gave them at the conclusion of theirs, sounded barbarous and grating to the ear; but Bong-ree was an indifferent songster, even among his own countrymen

These people, like the natives of Port Jackson, having fallen to the low pitch of their voices, recommenced their song at the octave, which was accompanied by flow and not ungraceful motions of the body and limbs, their hands being held up in a supplicating posture; and the tone and manner of their song and gestures seemed to bespeak the good-will and forbearance of their auditors. Observing that they were attentively listened to, they each selected one of our people, and placed his mouth close to his ear, as if to produce a greater effect, or, it might be, to teach them the song, which their silent attention might seem to express a desire to learn. As a recompence for the amuse- [511] -ment they had afforded, Mr. Flinders gave them some worsted caps, and a pair of blanket trowsers, with which they seemed well pleased. Several other natives now made their appearance; and it was some time before they could overcome their dread of approaching the strangers with their fire-arms; but, encouraged by the three who were with them, they came up, and a general song and dance was commenced. Their singing was not confined to one air; they gave three ...

... A hawk presenting himself, Mr. Flinders thought it a good opportunity of shewing his new friends a specimen of the effect and certainty of his fire-arms. He made them comprehend what was in- [512] -tended, when their agitation was so great that they seemed on the point of running into the woods: however, an expedient to detain them was devised; the seamen placed them in a cluster behind themselves, and in this situation they anxiously saw Mr. Flinders fire at the bird. What must have been his sensations at this moment! the hawk flew away. This disappointment brought to his recollection how ineffectual had been some former attempts of his to impress them with an idea of the superior refinement of his followers. Bong-ree, his musician, had annoyed his auditors with his barbarous sounds; and the clumsy exhibition of his Scotch dancers had been viewed by them without wonder or gratification.

"Barrington" 1802, 347-48

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA347 

... While their visitors were only two, the natives seemed lively, dancing and singing; but, the number of white men increasing to eight, they became alarmed and seeming to look with a jealous eye on the shot belt Lieut. Flinders wore, which they undoubtedly must have thought to be some weapon.

To restore their confidence, he gave it one of the people to carry away; but this he thought wrong, as it might tend to make them suspicious of every thing they saw, and thus destroy their friendly intercourse. By this belt they certainly recognised Lieut. Flinders as the person who fired on them before, and were evidently desirous that he should keep at a much greater distance than any other person. Three of the sailors, who were Scotch, attempted to dance a reel, but made a very bad business of it, which the natives seemed to view either without amusement or curiosity. Finding at length they could not persuade the natives to visit the sloop, they parted with them in a very friendly manner ...

"Barrington" 1802, 352-54

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=rgU6AQAAIAAJ&pg=PA352 

... Bad weather detained Lieut. Flinders here two days, during which they were occasionally visited by the natives, who came down upon both sides of the river, and entertained them with singing and dancing: their singing, indeed, could not be distinctly heard, being nearly lost in the wind ...

[253] ... The rain clearing up on Tuesday, in the afternoon, a party went to the Eastern shore to procure fire-wood, and comply with the desire which the natives had expressed of seeing them land. On approaching them, they carried their nets away to the wood, but three of them who remained, suffered the white people to advance without laying down their muskets, which never happened before. They were still timorous; but on being requested by signs to sing, they began a song in concert, which actually was musical and pleasing, and in rather a melancholy strain. Bong-ree gave them a song at the conclusion of theirs, which sounded barbarous; but he was thought a poor singer in his own country.

These, like the natives of Port Jackson, falling to a low pitch of their voice, recommenced [354] their song at the octave, which they accompanied by slow and graceful motions, their hands being held in a supplicating posture, and the tone and manner of their song and gestures seemed to bespeak the good will of their auditors. Observing they were paid attention to, they each selected one of out people, and placed his mouth close to his ear, as if to produce a greater effect, or teach them the song, which their silent attention might seem to express a desire to learn. In return for the pleasure they afforded, Lieut. Flinders gave them some worsted caps, and old blanket trowsers, with which they were greatly gratified. Other natives soon made their appearance, but it Was some little time before they overcame their dread of approaching those strangers with fire-arms; but, encouraged by the three who were with them, they came up, and a general song and dance commenced.

"Barrington" 1810, 352-54

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=WnwIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA352 

Paterson 1810, 352-57 (from Collins 1804)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=ACMQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA352 


Bibliography:

Flanagan 1862, 1, 120-21

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=WicXAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA120 





29 August 1799 (date of report)

Parramatta and Toongabbie, NSW

April 1800

Parramatta, NSW


NSW CORPS (singers)

HENRY, William (informant)

Soldiers singing at prayers, Parramatta and Toongabbie

Documentation:

Letter, William Henry to London Missionary Society, 29 August 1799, BT Box 49, pages 117-18; Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales (transcr. Jordan)

We had excellent singing and there were about a dozen of Soldiers (including Corporal & Sergeant) from Parramatta Barracks to hear, among whom were five or six who Sung every other Sabbath at Parramatta Church. They say they will attend our Worship every other Sabbath at Toongabbie to Sing.


Bibliography:

Jordan 2012, 194, 195

Jordan notes that, at Parramatta in April 1800, two nights a week were set-aside for choir practice, William Shelley taking on the responsibility of leading the singers (Letter, Rowland Hassall to London Missionary Society, 22 April 1800, BT Box 49, page 137)




1800




12 January 1800

Sydney Cove


HAROLD, James (singer)

Exile of Erin on the beach at Sydney Cove

Documentation:

Memoir of Rev. James Harold sent to Dr. Richard Madden by Richard Sheil'; Dublin, National Library of Ireland, Madden Papers no 291; transcribed Harold Perkins, The convict priests (Melbourne: Author, 1984), 22

When in the harbour, a Protestant clergyman called Dr. Dan, who was there for his politics, sent an invitation to Mr. Harrold, accompanied with a fowl and a bottle of wine, to dine with him the next day, he accepted the invitation and after dinner sang the Exile of Erin. The beach being crowded with people, mostly Irish, the people outside cried, Encore! and he had to sing it again. He told me it was one of the pleasentest days of his life, the first day he landed in Sydney.


Music concordance:

  

The Exile of Erin . . . Erin go bragh (tune - Savournah deelish), in Samuel Larkin (ed.), Nightingale: a collection of the most popular ancient & modern songs (Portsmouth, New Hampshire: William and Daniel Treadwell, 1804), 162-63; Isaiah Thomas Broadside Ballad Project

Page 162: http://www.americanantiquarian.org/thomasballads/items/show/555

Page 163: http://www.americanantiquarian.org/thomasballads/items/show/556





18 January 1800 (Queen's birthday, and anniversary of the first arrival at Botany Bay)

Government House, Sydney


HUNTER, John (violinist)

BAND OF THE NSW CORPS (?)

PRICE, John Washington (reporter)

Governor Hunter having played on the violin we had some minuets and country dances

Documentation:

Journal kept on board the Minerva transport, from Ireland to New South Wales and Bengal, by John Washington Price, Surgeon, May 1798-June 1800; London, BL Add MS 13880; transcribed Fulton 2000, 146

At 3 p.m. I repaired to dinner to the Governors, where there was a large and agreeable company, composed of the principal officers of the colony, civil and military, & the officers of Reliance, enlivend, graced & adorned with the presence of the most amiable ladies in the colony . . . We spent the afternoon with the greatest pleasure & harmony being entertained with some beautiful songs by the ladies, after which the Governor having played on the violin we had some minuets and country dances, at 12 we sat down to supper, after which the ladies retired . . .


Bibliography:

Fulton 2000, 146

Groom 2012, 97


Resources:

Minuets for the year 1777 as they were performed at the ball at court and other publick assemblys (London: T. Straight and Skillern, 1777)

www.vwml.org/browse/browse-collections-dance-tune-books/browse-straight1777 

Twenty four new country dances for the year 1799 with proper directions to each dance (London: T. Skillern, 1799)

http://www.vwml.org/browse/browse-collections-dance-tune-books/browse-skillerns1799 

Preston's twenty four country dances for the year 1799 with proper tunes and directions to each dance (London: Preston & Son, 1799)

http://www.vwml.org/browse/browse-collections-dance-tune-books/browse-prestons1799 


References:

"Dr. John Washington Price", DAAO

http://www.daao.org.au/bio/dr-john-washington-price 




8 March 1800

The Theatre, Sydney, NSW


PARRY, Frances (soprano vocalist)

PARSONS, Harry (actor)

The Virgin Unmasked

Sydney playbill, 8 March 1800 (SL-NSW)

Documentation:

[Playbill], SL-NSW

http://archival-classic.sl.nsw.gov.au/album/albumView.aspx?itemID=997838&acmsid=0 (DIGITISED)

By Permission of His Excellency, at the THEATRE, SYDNEY, on Saturday March 8, 1800, will be Presented The COMEDY of The Recruiting Officer ... To which will be added
A Musical Entertainment called
The Virgin Unmasked.
Blister. W. Smith.
Goodwill. H. Parsons.
Quaver. G. Hughes
Coupee. B. Smith
Thomas. J. White
Lucy. Mrs. Parry ...


Bibliography:

Fred. W. Weirter, "SYDNEY'S FIRST THEATRE", The Sydney Morning Herald (29 May 1926), 11

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16295309 

...In 1800, and it was at the opening of it that the first playbill was printed in Australia, a copy of which may be seen in the Mitchell Library. It announces: "By permission of his Excellency, at the Theatre, Sydney, on Saturday, March 8, 1800, will be performed the comedy of The Recruiting Officer." The names in the cast then follow: "W. Smith, W. Richards, G. Hughes, J. Cox. H. Parsons, B. Smith, J. White, Mrs. Barnes, Mrs. Radley, Master Haddocks, and Mrs. Parry." The after-piece was "The Virgin Unmasked." The prices of admission were Boxes 5/, front boxes 3/6, pit 2/6, gallery 1/. Doors opened at half-past begin at half past 6.


Music concordance (song and tunes):

An Old Man Taught Wisdom: Or, the Virgin Unmask'd. A Farce. As it is Perform'd at the Theatre-Royal, by His Majesty's Servants. By Henry Fielding, Esq; With the Musick Prefix'd to Each Song

(London: Printed for J. Watts, 1735)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=vR0OAAAAQAAJ (DIGITISED)

TABLE of the SONGS

AIR 1. Do you, Papa, but find a Coach. Page 10 [AIR 1 - Thomas, I cannot]
2. When he in a Coach can be carry'd. p. 12 [2 - Wully Honey]
3. In Women we Beauty or Wit may admire. p. 14 [3 - Round, round the Mill]
4. Ah, be not angry, good dear Sir. p. 17 [4 - Now ponder well, &c]
5. Ah, Sir! I guess. p. 19 [5 - Buff-Coat]
6. La! shat swinging Lyes some People will tell. p. 21 [6 - Bessy Bell]
7. O press me not, Sir, to be Wise. p. 24 [7 - Tweed Side]
8. Dearest Charmer. p. 28 [8 - Dimi Caro]
9. Excuse me, Sir; Zounds, what d'ye mean. p. 29 [9 - Of all the simple, &c]
10. Did Mortal e'er see two such Fools. p. 30 [10 - Molly Mog]
11. Oh dear Papa! don't look so grum. p. 36 [11 - Bush of Boon]
12. Had your Daughter been physick'd well, Sir, as she ought. p. 38 [12 - The Yorkshire Ballad]



Commentary:

Almost all the songs in this play were scripted to be sung by the character Lucy, played in Sydney by Frances Parry. Whether some or all of the songs were in fact sung, and whether by Lucy or re-alloted to some other player, can never been known.





8 April 1800

The Theatre, Sydney, NSW


PARNELL, Daniel

PARRY, Frances

The Drunken Swiss

Documentation:

[Playbill] By permission of His Excellency, at the Theatre, Sydney ... On Tuesday April 8 1800 will be presented the favourite play Henry the Fourth ... ; SL-NSW

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/31450663 

By permission of His Excellency, at the Theatre, Sydney ... On Tuesday April 8 1800 will be presented the favourite play Henry the Fourth ... End of the Play a new Dance called The Drenken Swiss By D. Parnell and Mrs. Parry. To which will be added The Irish Widow ...


Bibliography:

Fred. W. Weirter, "SYDNEY'S FIRST THEATRE", The Sydney Morning Herald (29 May 1926), 11

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16295309 

... On Tuesday, April 8, Shakespeare's "Henry Fourth" is advertised, the cast being composed of W. Smith (Prince of Wales), J. Davison (Hotspur), I. Payne (King Henry), H. Parsons (Douglas), J. Cox (Blunt), W. Richards (Bardolph), B. Smith (Poins), J. White (Falstaff), Mrs. Barnes (Hostess), and Mrs. Parry (Lady Percy). It was announced on this programme that at the end of the play a new dance called "The Drunken Swiss" would be given by D. Parnell and Mrs. Parry, to which would be added "The Irish Widow." ...

Jordan 2002, 51 (playbill), 103, 238-39, 243


Commentary:

"The Drunken Swiss', dance performed by Frances Parry and Daniel Parnell, between the plays, at Sydney theatre, on 8 April 1800


References:

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eL8PAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA22




24 June 1800

Theatre, Sydney, NSW

The Devil to pay; or, The wives metamorphosed

Documentation:

"PRECISE FORM OF A BOTANY-BAY PLAY-BILL, As there published June 23, 1800"

Sporting Magazine 20 (January 1802), 225-26 (also reproduced at Jordan 2002, 52)

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=JK0aAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA225 (DIGITISED)

For the BENEFIT of Mrs. PARRY. By permission of his Excellency. At the THEATRE, SYDNEY, This Evening will be presented the favourite Comedy of, She Stoops to Conquer; or, The Mistakes of a Night ... End of the Play, the Interlude of Miss in her Teens.

To which will be added, a Musical Entertainment, called

The Devil to Pay; or, The Wives Metamorphosed.

Sir John Loverule. G. Hughes
Magician. J. White
Jobson. D. Parnell
Lady Loverule. Mrs. Radley
Lucy. Mrs. Barnes
Lettice. Mrs. Charlton; and
Nell. Mrs. Parry ...

Boxes, 5s. Front Boxes, 3s. 6d. Pit 2s. 6d. Gallery, 1s. Doors open at Half past Five, begin at Half past Six. No person will be admitted without a Ticket; and it is requested that no person will attempt to smoak; or bring spirits into the Theatre. No Money will be returned. Tickets tq be had of Serj.-Major Jamieson, D. Bevan, S. Lord, M. Kearns, Mrs. Parry, Serj. Field, S. Forster, and J. Mackey, next door to the Theatre.

[Editorial comment] More recent advices from that Settlement say, that a smart altercation had just taken place in the Green-room of their Theatre, in consequence of the Beggar's Opera having been given out by the Manager. It was agreed, on all hands, that the play was very strongly cast. Mackheath observed, that as he had acted, on all occasions, like a Gentleman in his profession, he should have no objection to the performance of the character. Polly and Lucy remained passive - Bagshsot expressed some scruples - the rest of the gang were divided in opinion. At length, from a suggestion of Filch, how far the representation of the piece might tend to wound the feelings of both audience and performers, the matter was postponed for further consideration.


Bibliography:

Jordan 2002, 52


Music concordances (song with tunes):

The devil to pay; or, The wives metamorphos'd. An opera. As it is perform'd at the Theatre-Royal in Drury-Lane, by His Majesty's servants. With the musick prefix'd to each song

(London: Printed for J. Watts, 1732)

https://archive.org/details/deviltopayorwive00coff 

TABLE of the SONGS

1.He that has the best Wife. p. 2; [AIR 1 - The Twitcher]
2. Come, jolly Bacchus, God of Wine. p. 4 [AIR 2 - Charles of Sweden]
3. Here's a good Health to the King, p. 5 [AIR 3 - ? ]
4. Ye Gods! you gave to me a Wife. p. 6 [AIR 4 - Set by Mr. Seedo]
5. Of the States in Life so various. p. 8 [AIR 5 - Of all Comforts I miscarry'd]
6. Grant me ye Pow'rs! but this Request. p. 9 [AIR 6 - Contented Country Farmer]
7. My swelling Heart now leaps with Joy. p. 11 [AIR 7 - Send home my long-stray'd Eyes]
8. My little Spirits now appear. p. 12 [AIR 8 - The Spirit's Song in Macbeth] [Locke's]
9. Of all the Trades from East to West. p. 14 [AIR 9 - Charming Sally]
10. In Bath a wanton Wife did dwell. p. 15 [AIR 10 - Now ponder well, ye parents dear]
11. Let Matters of State. p. 17 [AIR 11 - Come, let us prepare]
12. Tho' late I was a Cobler's Wife. p. 20 [AIR 12 - What tho' I am a Country Lass]
13. Fine Ladies with an artful Grace. p. 22 [AIR 13 - When I was a Dame of Honour]
14. O charming Cunning-Man! thou hast been wond'rous kind. p. 23 [AIR 14 - 'Twas within a Furlong, &c]
15. Was ever Man possest of. p. 25 [AIR 15 - Duetto ?]
16. Let every Face with Smiles appear. p. 31 [AIR 16 - Hey Boys up go we]


Commentary:

The music for Charles Coffey's ballad opera The devil to pay, or, The wives metamorphosed was selected, and in a couple of case composed especially, by Samuel Peter Sidow (Mr. Seedo). The lenghty first version of the play included 42 songs, but these were reduced to just 16 in the much shorter final version that then became a perennially popular afterpiece.





15 August 1800

Sydney, NSW

Musical instrument maker

Documentation:

Result of general muster of all the inhabitants in his majesty's territory of New South Wales ... from the 18th day of July to the 15th of August, 1800, previous to governor Hunter giving up the command; from HRA, I, 2, 616, 750 note 258

https://archive.org/stream/historicalrecord00v2aust#page/616/mode/2up 

DISTRIBUTION of free men and male convicts not holding ground by grant or lease, and supported by the Crown.

[616] VARIOUS EMPLOYMENTS ... Musical instrument maker ...

https://archive.org/stream/historicalrecord00v2aust#page/750/mode/2up 

[750] The musical instrument maker was employed repairing the instruments belonging to the band of the New South Wales Corps.


Bibliography:

Jordan 2012, 198





7 October 1800

Sydney, NSW


GALVIN, Patrick

HOLT, Joseph (reporter)

You shall have no music out of my mouth

Documentation:

Holt (Crofton Croker ed.) 1838, volume 2, 121-22

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=wvI5AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA121

The next prisoner who was tied up was Paddy Galvin, a young lad about twenty years of age; he was also sentenced to receive three hundred lashes. The first hundred were given on his shoulders, and he was cut to the bone between the shoulder-blades, which were both bare. The doctor then directed the next hundred to be inflicted lower down, which reduced his flesh to such a jelly that the doctor ordered him to have the remaining hundred on the calves of his legs. During the whole time Galvin never even whimpered or flinched, if, indeed, it had been possible for him to have done so. He was asked, "where the pikes were [122] Galvin answered, that he did not know, and that, if he did, he would not tell. "You may hang me," said he, "if you like; but you shall have no music out of my mouth to make others dance upon nothing." He was put into the cart and sent to the hospital. Three other men then received each one hundred lashes, and they sung out lustily, from first to last. The name of one of these men was Michael Fitzgerald, a shoemaker by trade. They were all from the county of Cork ...


Bibliography:

-





27 October 1800

Sydney, NSW

Entertaining on a liquor license, from tap-too until the following noon

Documentation:

"Extract from the Royal Additional Instructions dated Aug. 20, 1789, respecting the First Detachment of Marines being allowed to settle, at the Relief of that Detachment", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (26 March 1803), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625479 

"General Orders", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (3 February 1805), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626609 

IT having appeared to a Bench of Magistrates that much improper conduct had taken place in the distribution of the Spirits allowed to be landed from the Aeolus American ship, by some of the Permits granted to Settlers having been fraudulently obtained by those who were not meant to receive that indulgence ...

As these collusions must not be allowed, and which would not have happened had the Governor's strict Orders on that head been attended to by the person who had the charge of that distribution, it is hereby ordered and directed, that all collusive frauds respecting Permits will, on conviction before a Bench of Magistrales be punished, by the parties (if free and licensed) being sentenced one year's hard labour with the loss of such License ...

As this Regulation does not supersede any pay part of the former General Orders, His Excellency has directed those of the following dates to be repeated and enforced, viz. ...

OCT. 27th, 1800

Licenses to Sell and Vend Exciseable Liquors by Retail will be granted to those recommended by the magistrates to the GOVERNOR ... Persons licensed as victualers or retailers of spirituous liquors, or other strong drinks, entertaining any person from the beating of the Tap-too until the following noon, or during divine service, will be deprived of their license, and incur the penalty of £5 half to the informer and half to the Orphan Fund.


Bibliography:

Karskens 2009





1800

Sydney area, NSW


PRICE, John Washington (reporter)

Corrobborra

Documentation:

Journal kept on board the Minerva transport, from Ireland to New South Wales and Bengal, by John Washington Price, Surgeon, May 1798-June 1800; London, BL Add MS 13880; transcribed Fulton 2000, 176

Frequently engagements take place between the different tribes, the night preceding it, they assemble on a plain in great numbers male & female, they have larrge fires round which they dance and make the most frantick and hideous gestures and attitudes, and spend the night in various amusements. This is called a Corrobborra. On the morning the parties meet, all armed, the battle begins, the shrieks, shouts and howlings of the women echo thro the rocks and woods, the spears fly and the plains the night before scenes of festivity and joy ...


Bibliography:

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