Prof M Gee Chapman

Gee Chapman

Note: Professor Chapman Retired in 2009. Mail to her can be forwarded care of the centre. This information is provided for reference only.

Qualifications and Employment History

Research Interests

Scientific Communication

Research Output


Qualifications and Employment History

Educational Attainments

B.Sc. Hon. University of Natal in 1969;
M.Sc. University of Sydney in 1980;
Ph.D. University of Sydney in 1992;
D.Sc. University of Sydney in 2009;

Employment History

  • Professional Officer in the School of Biological Sciences 1975 - 1989;
  • Appointed to Institute of Marine Ecology as Research Assistant (1989), Research Fellow (1993), Senior Research Fellow (1996);
  • Director, Institute of Marine Ecology 1997-2001; Associate Director,
  • Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, 1997-1999; Deputy Director, Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, 1999-2008

Research Interests

My first interest in marine ecology was on the processes that determine patterns of distribution of intertidal animals and plants on rocky shores, particularly the importance of behaviour of animals. Many animals influence ecological patterns through their behavioural responses to other animals, plants or features of habitat. I have, over many years, developed procedures and protocols for experimentally studying and analyzing many aspects of animal behaviour in the field, particularly effects of any experimental manipulations themselves on behaviour and the analysis of movement of animals in complex environments.

Many species of rare intertidal animals live in habitats that are subject to many different disturbances from human activities. It is important to understand the effects disturbances may have on these populations if we are to manage coastal systems responsibly

I also have a strong interest in many of the rare species of invertebrates that live on our shores. The ecology of invertebrates in general and marine organisms in particular has been largely ignored in the development of much of the theory about rarity. In addition, most Australians are not aware of the many unique, rare invertebrate animals living in our coastal habitats. There is therefore little or no "ethic" of conservation for these species and they are largely overlooked in legislation protecting biodiversity. My research interests are centred around testing whether current ecological theory about rarity is applicable for these types of organisms and, more practically, documenting and understanding the ecology of a group of rare species of snails and chitons that live in intertidal boulder fields. They show extremely strong preferences for different patches of habitat and, until we really understand these, management and conservation of these animals will be far more problematic. In recent years, much of my research and that of my students has concentrated on effects of urban structures – seawalls, wharves and their associated debris – on marine animals and plants. Replacement of natural of shorelines is one of the biggest changes that humans make to coasts, yet one that has been largely ignored. We are looking at what species can or cannot live in highly altered habitats and, more interestingly, can we build infrastructure to make it more “ecologically friendly”.

I have been and continue to be involved in many environmental consultancies and interactions with outside bodies on topics such as the effects of sewage on intertidal and subtidal populations, intertidal and subtidal baseline studies on rocky shores, mudflats and mangrove forests, effects of seawalls and the effects of reduced tidal flushing in urban wetlands.

As an outcome from some of these consultancies, I have developed a strong interest in restoration of habitat. Restoration of damaged habitat is going to be extremely important in future, especially around cities where there are no remaining patches of pristine habitats. Much of the theory of restoration does not easily apply to marine systems with interconnections via planktonic larval stages. There is also little in common among what scientists, managers, government authorities and community groups mean by restoration. This lack of understanding and communication is an important hole to fill.

Scientific Communication

I have a long-standing concern about the lack of scientific information in debates about environmental issues. I believe that this is, in part, due to social pressures and interests which exclude "unpopular" information, but also to a lack on the part of many scientists to provide such information in an accessible form. An important part of my role as a scientist is to learn new ways to deliver relevant science to the general public, so that they are in a position to make informed decisions about ecological and environmental issues.

Research Output

Bishop, M. J. and M. G. Chapman (2004). "Managerial decisions as experiments: an opportunity to determine the ecological impact of boat-generated waves on macrobenthic infauna." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 61: 613-622.

Blockley, D. J. and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Recruitment determine differences between assemblages on shaded or unshaded seawalls." Marine Ecology Progress Series 327: 27-36.

Blockley, D. J. and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Exposure of seawalls to waves within an urban estuary: effects on intertidal assemblages." Austral Ecology 33: 168-183.

Bulleri, F. and M. G. Chapman (2004). "Intertidal assemblages on artificial and natural habitats in marinas on the north-west coast of Italy." Marine Biology 145: 381-391.

Bulleri, F., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Patterns of movement of the limpet Cellana tramoserica on rocky shores and retaining seawalls." Marine Ecology Progress Series 281: 121-129.

Bulleri, F., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Intertidal assemblages on seawalls and vertical rocky shores in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Austral Ecology 30: 655-667.

Chapman, M. G. (1997). "Developments in hydrobiology. Advances in littorinid biology, 23rd Edition, edited by P.J. Mill and C.J. McQuaid." Journal of Biogeography 24: 119-121.

Chapman, M. G. (1997). "Relationships between shell shape, water reserves, survival and growth of highshore littorinids under experimental conditions in New South Wales, Australia." Journal of Molluscan Studies 63: 511-529.

Chapman, M. G. (1998). "Relationships between spatial patterns of benthic assemblages in a mangrove forest using different levels of taxonomic resolution." Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 71-78.

Chapman, M. G. (1998). "Variability in trail-following and aggregation in Littorina unifasciata Gray." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224: 49-71.

Chapman, M. G. (1999). "Are there adequate data to assess how well theories of rarity apply to marine invertebrates?" Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1295-1318.

Chapman, M. G. (1999). "Assessment of variability in responses of intertidal periwinkles to experimental transplantations." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 236: 171-190.

Chapman, M. G. (1999). "Improving sampling designs for measuring restoration in aquatic habitats." Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 6: 235-251.

Chapman, M. G. (2000). "A comparative study of differences among species and patches of habitat on movements of three species of intertidal gastropods." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 244: 181-201.

Chapman, M. G. (2000). "Poor design of behavioural experiments gets poor results: examples from intertidal habitats." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 77-95.

Chapman, M. G. (2000). "Variability of foraging in highshore habitats: dealing with unpredictability." Hydrobiologia 246: 75-87.

Chapman, M. G. (2002). "Early colonization of shallow subtidal boulders in two habitats." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 235: 95-116.

Chapman, M. G. (2002). "Patterns of spatial and temporal variation of macrofauna under boulders in a sheltered boulder field." Austral Ecology 27: 211-228.

Chapman, M. G. (2003). "Paucity of mobile species on constructed seawalls: effects of urbanization on biodiversity." Marine Ecology Progress Series 264: 21-29.

Chapman, M. G. (2003). "The use of sandstone blocks to test hypotheses about colonization of intertidal boulders." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 83: 415-423.

Chapman, M. G. (2005). "Molluscs and echinoderms under boulders: tests of generality of patterns of occurrence." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 325: 65-83.

Chapman, M. G. (2006). "Intertidal seawalls as habitats for molluscs." Journal of Molluscan Studies 72: 247-257.

Chapman, M. G. (2007). "Colonization of novel habitat: tests of generality of patterns in a diverse invertebrate assemblage." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 348: 97-110.

Chapman, M. G. and D. G. Blockley (2009). "Engineering novel habitats on urban infrastrucure to increase intertidal biodiversity." Oecologia 161: 625-635.

Chapman, M. G. and F. Bulleri (2003). "Intertidal seawalls: new features of landscape in intertidal environments." Landscape and Urban Planning 62: 159-172.

Chapman, M. G. and B. Clynick (2006). "Experiments testing the use of waste material in estuaries as habitat for subtidal organisms." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 338: 164-178.

Chapman, M. G. and J. Gray (2006). "Tony Underwood: A short biography." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 338: 153-163.

Chapman, M. G., K. Michie and T. Lasiak (2005). "Responses of gastropods to changes in amounts of leaf litter and algae in mangrove forests." Journal of the Marine Biological Association (UK) 85: 1481-1488.

Chapman, M. G., J. People and D. Blockley (2005). "Intertidal assemblages associated with natural Corallina turf and invasive mussel beds." Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 1761-1776.

Chapman, M. G. and D. E. Roberts (2004). "Use of seagrass wrack in restoring disturbed Australian saltmarshes." Ecological Management & Restoration 5: 183-190.

Chapman, M. G. and T. Tolhurst (2004). "The relationship between invertebrate assemblages and bio-dependant properties of sediment in urbanized temperate mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 304: 51-73.

Chapman, M. G. and T. J. Tolhurst (2007). "Relationships between benthic macrofauna and biogeochemical properties of sediments at different spatial scales and among different habitats in mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 343: 96-109.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Inconsistency and variation in the development of rocky intertidal algal assemblages." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224: 265-289.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1999). "Ecological patterns in multivariate assemblages: information and interpretation of negative values in ANOSIM tests." Marine Ecology Progress Series 180: 257-265.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2000). "The need for a practical scientific protocol to measure successful restoration." Wetlands (Australia) 19: 28-49.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Scales of variation of densities of gastropods over multiple spatial scales: comparison of common and rare species." Marine Ecology Progress Series 354: 147-160.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Evaluating accuracy and precision of species-area relationships for multiple estimators and different marine assemblages." Ecology 90(3): 754-766.

Chapman, M. G., A. J. Underwood and D. Blockley (2008). "Effects of methods of deployment of artificial units of habitat on microgastropods colonization " Marine Ecology Progress Series 366: 49-57.

Chapman, M. G., A. J. Underwood and K. R. Clarke (2009). "New indices for ranking conservation sites using 'relative endemism'." Biological Conservation 142(12): 3154-3162.

Clarke, K. R., M. G. Chapman, P. J. Somerfield and H. R. Needham (2006). "Dispersion-based weighting of species counts in assemblage analyses." Marine Ecology Progress Series 320: 11-27.

Clarke, K. R., P. J. Somerfield and M. G. Chapman (2006). "On resemblance measures for ecological studies, including taxonomic dissimilarities and a zero-adjusted Bray-Curtis coefficient for denuded assemblages." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 55-80.

Clynick, B., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Fish assemblages associated with urban structures and natural reefs in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Austral Ecology 33: 140-150.

Clynick, B. G. and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Assemblages of small fish in patchy mangrove forests in Sydney Harbour." Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 669-677.

Clynick, B. G. and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Characteristics of an urban fish assemblage." Marine Environmental Research 65: 18-33.

Clynick, B. G., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Effects of epibiota on assemblages of fish associated with urban structures." Marine Ecology Progress Series 332: 201-210.

Cole, V. J. and M. G. Chapman (2007). "Patterns of distribution of annelids: taxonomic and spatial inconsistencies between two biogeographic provinces and across multiple spatial scales." Marine Ecology Progress Series 346: 235-241.

Cole, V. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Landscape and life-histories influence colonisation of polychaetes to intertidal biogenic habitats." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 348: 191-199.

Coleman, R. A., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2004). "Absence of costs of foraging excursions in relation to limpet aggregation." Journal of Animal Ecology 73: 577-584.

Cruz-Motta, J. J., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and F. Rossi (2003). "Benthic assemblages in sediments associated with intertidal boulder-fields." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 285-286: 383-401.

Forrest, R. E., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Quantification of radular marks as a method for estimating grazing of intertidal gastropods on rocky shores." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 258: 155 - 171.

Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Differences between biota in anthropogenically fragmented habitats and in naturally patchy habitats." Marine Ecology Progress Series 351: 15-23.

Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Evidence necessary for taxa to be reliable indicators of environmental conditions or impacts." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 323-331.

Goodsell, P. J., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and M. P. Heasman (2006). "Seeding small numbers of cultured black-lip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) to match natural densities of wild populations." Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 747-756.

Gray, C. A., D. Rotherham, M. G. Chapman, A. J. Underwood and D. D. Johnson (2009). "Spatial scales of variation of assemblages of fish in coastal lakes sampled with multi-mesh gillnets: implications for designing research surveys." Fisheries Research 96: 58-63.

Grayson, J. E. and M. G. Chapman (2004). "Patterns of distribution and abundance of chitons of the genus Ischnochiton in intertidal boulder-fields." Austral Ecology 29: 363-373.

Grayson, J. E., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (1999). "The assessment of restoration of habitat in urban wetlands." Landscape and Urban Planning 43: 227-236.

Ivesa, L., M. G. Chapman, A. J. Underwood and R. M. Murphy (In Press). "Differential patterns of distribution of limpets on intertidal seawalls: Experimental investigations of the roles of recruitment, survival and competition." Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Jackson, A. C., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Ecological interactions in the provision of habitat by urban development: whelks and engineering by oysters on artificial seawalls." Austral Ecology 33: 307-316.

Kelaher, B. P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228: 291-307.

Kelaher, B. P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Spatial patterns of diverse macrofaunal assemblages in coralline turf and their associations with environmental variables." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 917-930.

Kelaher, B. P., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (1998). "Effects of boardwalks on the semaphore crab Heloecius cordiformis in temperate urban mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 227: 281-300.

Kelaher, B. P., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2003). "Experimental transplantations of coralline algal turf to demonstrate causes of differences in macrofauna at different tidal heights." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 282: 23-41.

Knott, N. A., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and T. M. Glasby (2004). "Epibiota on vertical and on horizontal surfaces on natural reefs and on artificial structures." Journal of the Marine Biological Association (UK) 84: 1117-1130.

Knott, N. A., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and T. M. Glasby (2006). "Growth of the encrusting sponge Tedania anhelans (Lieberkuhn) on vertical and on horizontal surfaces of temperate subtidal reefs." Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 95-104.

Lindegarth, M. and M. G. Chapman (2001). "Testing hypotheses about management to enhance habitat for feeding birds in a freshwater wetland." Journal of Environmental Management 62: 375-388.

Marzinelli, E. M., C. J. Zagal, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Do modified habitats have direct or indirect effects on epifauna?" Ecology 90: 2948-2955.

Monteiro, S. M., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2002). "Erratum to "Patches of the ascidian Pyura stolonifera (Heller, 1878): structure of habitat and associated intertidal assemblages"." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 275: 83-85.

Monteiro, S. M., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2002). "Patches of the ascidian Pyura stolonifera (Heller, 1878): structure of habitat and associated intertidal assemblages." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 270: 171-189.

Moreira, J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2006). "Seawalls do not sustain viable populations of limpets." Marine Ecology Progress Series 322: 179-188.

Moreira, J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Maintenance of chitons on seawalls using crevices on sandstone blocks as habitat in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 347: 134-143.

Murphy, R. J., M. G. Chapman, T. J. Tolhurst and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Spatial variation of chlorophyll on estuarine mudflats determined by field-based remote sensing." Marine Ecology Progress Series 365: 45-55.

Murphy, R. J., T. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Estimation of surface chlorophyll on an exposed mudflat using digital colour-infrared (CIR) photography." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 59: 625-638.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Estimation of surface chlorophyll-a on an emersed mudflat using field spectrometry: accuracy of ratios and derivative-based approaches." International Journal of Remote Sensing 26: 1835-1859.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Remote-sensing of benthic chlorophyll: should ground-truth data be expressed in units of area or mass?" Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 316: 69-77.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Seasonal distribution of microphytobenthos on mudflats in New South Wales, Australia measured by field spectrometry and PAM." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84(1): 108-118.

Murphy, R. J., A. J. Underwood, T. J. Tolhurst and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Field-based remote sensing for experimental intertidal ecology: case studies using hyperspatial and hyperspectral data for New South Wales Australia." Remote Sensing of Environment Special Issue 112: 3353-3365.

Negrello, O., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Recolonization of infauna on a tidal flat: An experimental analysis of modes of dispersal." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 328: 240-250.

Olabarria, C. and M. G. Chapman (2001). "Comparison of patterns of spatial variation of microgastropods between two contrasting intertidal habitats." Marine Ecology Progress Series 220: 201-211.

Olabarria, C. and M. G. Chapman (2001). "Habitat-associated variability in survival and growth of three species of microgastropods." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 961-966.

Olabarria, C. and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Inconsistency in short-term temporal variability of microgastropods within and between two different intertidal habitats." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 269: 85-100.

Olabarria, C., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Appropriate experimental design to evaluate preferences for microhabitat: an example of preferences by species of microgastropods." Oecologia 132: 159-166.

Palomo, M. G., J. People, A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2007). "Separating the effects of physical and biological aspects of mussel-beds on their associated assemblages." Marine Ecology Progress Series 344: 131-142.

Range, P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Field experiments with "cageless" methods to manipulate grazing gastrapods on intertidal rocky shores." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 365: 23-30.

Roberts, D. E., S. P. Cummins, A. R. Davis and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Structure and dynamics of sponge-dominated assemblages on exposed and sheltered temperate reefs." Marine Ecology Progress Series 321: 19-30.

Rossi, F. and M. G. Chapman (2003). "Influence of sediment on burrowing by the soldier crab Mictyris longicarpus Latreille." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 289: 181-195.

Rotherham, D., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and C. A. Gray (2007). "A strategy for developing scientific sampling tools for fishery-independent surveys of estuarine fish in NSW, Australia." ICES Journal of Marine Science - Proceedings of the ICES Symposium, Boston, 2006 64: 1512-1516.

Smoothey, A. F. and M. G. Chapman (2007). "Small-scale variability in the dispersion of the sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma among boulders." Marine Ecology Progress Series 340: 89-99.

Tolhurst, T. J. and M. G. Chapman (2005). "Spatial and temporal variation in the sediment properties of an intertidal mangrove forest: implications for sampling." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 317: 213-222.

Tolhurst, T. J. and M. G. Chapman (2007). "Patterns in biogeochemical properties of sediments and benthic animals among different habitats in mangrove forests." Austral Ecology 32: 775-788.

Tolhurst, T. J., A. J. Underwood, R. G. Perkins and M. G. Chapman (2005). "Content versus concentration: Effects of units on measuring the biogeochemical properties of soft sediments." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 63: 665-673.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1997). "Subtidal assemblages on rocky reefs at a cliff-face sewage outfall (North Head, Sydney, Australia): what happened when the outfall was turned off?" Marine Pollution Bulletin (1996) 33: 293-302.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "A method for analysing spatial scales of variation in composition of assemblages." Oecologia 117: 570-578.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "Spatial analyses of intertidal assemblages on sheltered rocky shores." Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 138-157.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "Variation in algal assemblages on wave-exposed rocky shores in New South Wales." Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 241-254.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2000). "Variation in abundances of intertidal populations: consequences of extremities of environment." Hydrobiologia 426: 25-36.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2003). "Power, precaution, Type II error and sampling design in assessment of environmental impacts." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 296: 49-70.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Early development of subtidal macrofaunal assemblages: relationships to period and timing of colonization." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 221-233.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and S. D. Connell (2000). "Observations in ecology: you can't make progress on processes without understanding the patterns." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 97-115.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and T. Crowe (2004). "Identifying and understanding ecological preferences for habitat or prey." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300: 161-187.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and D. E. Roberts (2003). "A practical protocol to assess impacts of unplanned disturbance: a case study in Tuggerah Lakes estuary, NSW." Ecological Management and Restoration 4: S4-S11.

Underwood, A. J., V. J. Cole, M. G. Palomo and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Numbers and density of species as measures of biodiversity on rocky shores along the coast of New South Wales." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366: 175-183.

Widmer, W. M., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Public perception of potential environmental impacts of recreational boating on Sydney Harbour." Natural Resource Management 5: 22-27.

Invited Chapters

Chapman, M. G. (1997). Scientific and community roles in intertidal conservation. Conservation outside nature reserves. P. Hale and D. Lamb. Brisbane, Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland: 249-254.

Chapman, M. G., D. Blockley, J. People and B. Clynick (2009). Effect of urban structures on diversity of marine species. Ecology of Cities and Towns: A Comparative Approach. M. McDonnell. Melbourne, Cambridge University Press: 156-176.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Frontiers in ecology: building the links. N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Oxford, Elsevier Science: 103-114.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2009). Comparative effects of urbanization in terrestrial and marine habitats. Ecology of Cities and Towns: A Comparative Approach. M. McDonnell. Melbourne, Cambridge University Press: 51-70.

Clynick, B. G., D. J. Blockley and M. G. Chapman (2009). Anthropogenic changes in patterns of diversity on hard substrata: An overview. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer Verlag: 247-256.

Goodsell, P. J. and M. G. Chapman (2009). Rehabilitation of habitat and the value of artificial reefs. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer Verlag: 333-344.

Jackson, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2009). Introduction: Changes biodiversity. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer Verlag: 241-245.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). Problems and practical solutions for quantitative assessment of biodiversity of invertebrates in coastal habitats. The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Mosman, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 19-25.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). The role of ecology in coastal zone management: perspectives from south-east Australia. Perspectives on integrated coastal zone management. W. Salomons, R. K. Turner, L. D. de Lacerda and S. Ramachandran. Berlin, Springer: 99-128.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2001). Intertidal ecosystems. The encyclopedia of biodiversity, Volume 3. S. A. Levin. San Diego, Academic Press: 485-500.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2002). Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism not community "monitoring". A Clash of Paradigms. Community and Research-Based Consevation. D. Lunney, C. R. Dickman and S. Burgin. Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 20-37.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2003). Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Conserving marine environments. Out of sight out of mind. P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Mosman, NSW, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 103-107.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2005). Design and analysis in benthic surveys. Methods for the study of marine benthos. A. Eleftheriou and A. D. McIntyre. Oxford, Blackwell Science: 1-42.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2007). Intertidal temperate rocky shores. Marine Ecology. S. D. Connell and B. M. Gillanders. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 402-427.

Reports

Barnes, P. B. and M. G. Chapman (1998). Effects of the larvicide (Vectobac) on assemblages of benthic invertebrates in Bicentennial Park.

Barnes, P. B. and M. G. Chapman (2001). Changes to benthic fauna in the Newington mangroves in response to restoration of tidal flushing.

Barnes, P. B., M. G. Chapman and P. J. C. Honkoop (2000). Preliminary investigation of potential impacts of existing stormwater treatment zones (STZs) on benthic invertebrates in Lake Budgewoi-SUTLE Project.

Barnes, P. B., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2000). Intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats in Chowder Bay.

Barnes, P. B., J. E. Grayson and M. G. Chapman (2002). Rock Platform 2001. Survey of recreational use of Sydney's intertidal rocky shores.

Chapman, M. G. (1999). Examination of the taxonomic resolution needed to evaluate changes to the benthos at Budgewoi - SUTLE project.

Chapman, M. G. (2003). Development of valid methods for SoE reporting of changes to coastal diversity.

Chapman, M. G. (2004). Macro-algal growth and nurtients in degraded wetlands in the Sydney Olympic Park.

Chapman, M. G. (2004). A preliminary survey of macrofauna adjacent to seawalls in Lake Macquarie.

Chapman, M. G. (2004). Review of The Port Botany Expansion: Aquatic Ecology, Conservation and Fisheries.

Chapman, M. G. (2007). Quakers Hat seawall.

Chapman, M. G. (2008). Proceedings of a scientific meeting to consider replenishment of abalone stock in Western Victoria.

Chapman, M. G. and P. B. Barnes (1997). Recreational use of Careel Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and P. B. Barnes (2001). Potential effects of construction of a channel through the wetlands at Hyles St on the benthos and seagrasses in Tuggerah Bay.

Chapman, M. G.., P. B. Barnes and P. J. C. Honkoop (2001). Potential impacts of development in the Tuggerah Lakes on the green alga, Chaetomorpha linum and the mussel Xenostrobus securis.

Chapman, M. G. and D. Blockley (1999). Intertidal assemblages on seawalls at Berry Island and Blues Point before and after the oil spill, August 1999.

Chapman, M. G. and R. Reinfrank (2003). Preliminary survey for vulnerable marine species - Mosman Seawall.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetland habitats in Careel Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 1: Assemblages in Bicentennial Park and reference locations.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 3: Remediation to improve tidal flushing adjacent to Haslam's Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Testing the effectiveness of Intertidal Protected Areas in New South Wales.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2003). Effects of removal of urchins from crevices on associated invertebrate assemblages.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2003). Variable growth of the green alga, Chaetomorpha linum in the Tuggerah Lakes.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2004). Macrofauna in artifical units of habitat in Kogarah Bay: preliminary report.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Benthic macrofauna colonizing artificial units of habitat in Kogarah Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in artificial units of habitat in Berowra Creek, Cowan Creek and Mooney Mooney Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in artificial units of habitat on intertidal shores of Berowra Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in mangroves in Berowra Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2007). Detecting environmental impacts in the Hawkesbury River using invertebrate assemblages.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2007). Transplanting invertebrate assemblages among intertidal rocky shores in the Hawkesbury River to detect environmental impacts.

Chapman, M. G. , A. J. Underwood and S. McCune (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 2: Assemblages in patchy and isolated mangrove forests.

Coleman, R. A. and M. G. Chapman (2005). Ecological monitoring of waterbird refuge phase-1.

Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). Experimental assessment of the survival of cultured abalone (Habiotis rubra) seeded in small numbers to natural habitat at Port Stephens, NSW.

Lindegarth, M., P. B. Barnes and M. G. Chapman (1999). Changes to benthic fauna in Wharf Marsh in response to water-drainage to provide habitat for the Japanese Snipe (Gallinago hardwickii).

Roberts, D. E. and M. G. Chapman (2003). Ecologically sustainable management of estuarine foreshores and saltmarsh.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). The environment: an ideas paper on environmental issues for DUAP's Forum 'Sydney's Harbour Planning Strategy'.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). Alteration of outfall at Penguin Head: calculation of power to detect impacts as altered concentrations of nutrients or heavy metals.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2000). Comparisons of animals and plants in Intertidal Protected Areas and reference locations around Sydney.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2002). Biological monitoring in Berowra Creek Estuary.

D.Sc.

Chapman, M. G. (2009). Experimental coastal ecology leading to practical outcomes. Sydney, University of Sydney.