Emeritus Professor Tony Underwood

Tony Underwood

Note: Professor Underwood Retired in 2009. Mail to him can be forwarded care of the centre. This information is provided for reference only.

Qualifications and Employment History

Research Interests

Projects

Latest Findings

Research Output


Qualifications and Employment History

Educational Attainments

Ph.D. University of Bristol (UK) in 1971;
D. Sc. University of Bristol in 1984;

Employment History and Professional Affliations

  • Postdoctoral Fellow and then a lecturer in Biology, University of Sydney; Awarded Doctor of Science degree in 1984;
  • Promoted Professor of Experimental Ecology (a personal chair) in 1992;
  • Awarded Eureka Prize for Environmental Research in 1993;
  • Elected Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 1994;
  • Founding Director of the Institute of Marine Ecology, 1984 - 1996;
  • Promoted University Professor in 2004; Director, Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, 1997 - 2008;

Research Interests

My major research is experimental analyses of processes affecting numbers of and interactions among species in shallow coastal habitats, particularly rocky shores, mangrove forests, kelp-beds and soft sediments. I have published extensively on competition for food, grazing, predation, processes of recruitment, patterns of dispersion in relation to microhabitat, the role of disturbances and studies of patterns of movement of animals.

Ecological processes are complex and need careful experiments before we can understand them (see Underwood (1997) Experiments in ecology. Cambridge University Press. pp 118-123)
The studies have resulted in strong interests and expertise in experimental design. I have developed the design and analysis of biological and ecological sampling and experiments. Second, because long-term experimental studies are still fairly rare in ecology, I have been invited to write numerous broad reviews on ecological topics. Third, I have been increasingly involved in research on the effects of human environmental impact, patterns of foraging by humans on rocky shores, the role of monitoring in environmental management, etc. This work has led to overviews of the relationship between ecological theory, sampling and experimental design and practicalities of environmental work.

As a result, I am regularly invited to teach these topics to regulatory agencies and in Universities abroad such as New Zealand Department of Conservation, University of Maine, Scandinavian Universities, ACIAR Programme Indonesia, UNEP Black Sea Environmental Programme, Odessa. I am also Vice Chairman of the United Nations Environmental Program Group of Experts on Effects of Pollution.

Projects

Our research is increasing the spatial scales at which we study ecological processes. We are concerned about processes of urbanization and how they affect patterns of diversity of species in assemblages (collections of species) in coastal habitats.

Urban development does not just alter habitat by destroying some patches (e.g. a so-called reclamation of wetlands) or creation of different habitats (e.g. building a sea-wall). Urban processes also change the orientation of hard surfaces. Natural surfaces tend to be horizontal; built ones are vertical. As a result, there are substantial changes to the fauna that dominate areas of urban waterways.

We need much better understanding of how these processes work, what are the usual mechanisms maintaining diversity in natural places and how these are altered in urban locations. These studies require rigorous science, development of new methods and carefully designed experimental evaluation. Without professional science, we shall not be able to manage our environments, conserve habitats and species and sustain the diversity of coastal ecological processes.

Latest Findings

I developed novel sampling methods to detect environmental impacts in variable habitats. These have led to increased capacity to understand disturbances in coastal regions. In collaboration with Gee Chapman, we have found considerable small-scale patchiness in many coastal populations, leading to increased attention to the ways we measure natural changes in time. A book on the logic, design, analysis and interpretation of ecological studies has been published (by the University of Cambridge Press) in 1997 and has sold out 3 times in its first 3 years.

Research Output

Anderson, M. J. and A. J. Underwood (1997). "Effects of gastropod grazers on recruitment and succession of an estuarine assemblage: a multivariate and univariate approach." Oecologia 109: 442-453.

Archambault, P., K. Banwell and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Temporal variation in the structure of intertidal assemblages following the removal of sewage." Marine Ecology Progress Series 222: 51-62.

Barros, F., A. J. Underwoodand P. Archambault (2004). "The influence of troughs and crests of ripple marks on the structure of subtidal benthic assemblages around rocky reefs." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 60: 781-790.

Barros, F., A. J. Underwoodand M. Lindegarth (2001). "The influence of rocky reefs on assemblages of benthic macrofauna in nearby soft-sediments." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 52: 191-199.

Barros, F., A. J. Underwoodand M. Lindegarth (2002). "A preliminary analysis of the structure of benthic assemblages of surf-zones on two morphodynamic types of beach." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82: 353-357.

Bishop, M. J., A. J. Underwoodand P. Archambault (2002). "Sewage and environmental impacts on rocky shores: necessity of identifying relevant spatial scales." Marine Ecology Progress Series 236: 121-128.

Bulleri, F., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Patterns of movement of the limpet Cellana tramoserica on rocky shores and retaining seawalls." Marine Ecology Progress Series 281: 121-129.

Bulleri, F., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Intertidal assemblages on seawalls and vertical rocky shores in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Austral Ecology 30: 655-667.

Bulleri, F., A. J. Underwoodand L. Benedetti-Cecchi (2008). "The analyses of ecological impacts in human-dominated environments: reply to Stewart-Oaten (2008)." Environmental Conservation 35(1): 11-13.

Bulleri, F., A. J. Underwoodand L. Benedetti-Cecchi (2008). "The assessment and interpretation of ecological impacts in human-dominated environments." Environmental Conservation 34(3): 181-182.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Inconsistency and variation in the development of rocky intertidal algal assemblages." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 224: 265-289.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1999). "Ecological patterns in multivariate assemblages: information and interpretation of negative values in ANOSIM tests." Marine Ecology Progress Series 180: 257-265.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2000). "The need for a practical scientific protocol to measure successful restoration." Wetlands (Australia) 19: 28-49.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Scales of variation of densities of gastropods over multiple spatial scales: comparison of common and rare species." Marine Ecology Progress Series 354: 147-160.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Evaluating accuracy and precision of species-area relationships for multiple estimators and different marine assemblages." Ecology 90(3): 754-766.

Chapman, M. G., A. J. Underwoodand D. Blockley (2008). "Effects of methods of deployment of artificial units of habitat on microgastropods colonization " Marine Ecology Progress Series 366: 49-57.

Chapman, M. G., A. J. Underwoodand K. R. Clarke (2009). "New indices for ranking conservation sites using 'relative endemism'." Biological Conservation 142(12): 3154-3162.

Clynick, B., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Fish assemblages associated with urban structures and natural reefs in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Austral Ecology 33: 140-150.

Clynick, B. G., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Effects of epibiota on assemblages of fish associated with urban structures." Marine Ecology Progress Series 332: 201-210.

Cole, V. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Landscape and life-histories influence colonisation of polychaetes to intertidal biogenic habitats." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 348: 191-199.

Coleman, R. A., A. J. Underwood, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, P. Aberg, F. Arenas, J. Arrontes, J. Castro, R. G. Hartnoll, S. Jenkins, J. Paula, P. Della Santina and J. Hawkins (2006). "A continental scale evaluation of the role of limpet grazing on rocky shores." Oecologia 147: 556-564.

Coleman, R. A., A. J. Underwoodand M. G. Chapman (2004). "Absence of costs of foraging excursions in relation to limpet aggregation." Journal of Animal Ecology 73: 577-584.

Crowe, T. P. and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Testing behavioural 'preference' for suitable microhabitat." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 225: 1-11.

Crowe, T. P. and A. J. Underwood (1999). "Differences in dispersal of an intertidal gastropod in two habitats: the need for and design of repeated experimental transplantation." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 237: 31-60.

Cruz-Motta, J. J., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and F. Rossi (2003). "Benthic assemblages in sediments associated with intertidal boulder-fields." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 285-286: 383-401.

Cummins, S. P., D. E. Roberts, P. Ajani and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Comparisons of assemblages of phytoplankton between openwater and seagrass habitats in a shallow coastal lagoon." Marine and Freshwater Research 55: 447-456.

Fletcher, D. J. and A. J. Underwood (2002). "How to cope with negative estimates of components of variance in ecological field studies." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 273: 89-95.

Forrest, R. E., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Quantification of radular marks as a method for estimating grazing of intertidal gastropods on rocky shores." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 258: 155 - 171.

Glasby, T. M. and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Determining positions for control locations in environmental studies of estuarine marinas." Marine Ecology Progress Series 171: 1-14.

Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Differences between biota in anthropogenically fragmented habitats and in naturally patchy habitats." Marine Ecology Progress Series 351: 15-23.

Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Evidence necessary for taxa to be reliable indicators of environmental conditions or impacts." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 323-331.

Goodsell, P. J. and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Complexity and idiosyncrasy in the responses of algae to disturbance in mono- and multi-species assemblages." Oecologia 157(3): 509-519.

Goodsell, P. J., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and M. P. Heasman (2006). "Seeding small numbers of cultured black-lip abalone (Haliotis rubra Leach) to match natural densities of wild populations." Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 747-756.

Gray, C. A., D. Rotherham, M. G. Chapman, A. J. Underwoodand D. D. Johnson (2009). "Spatial scales of variation of assemblages of fish in coastal lakes sampled with multi-mesh gillnets: implications for designing research surveys." Fisheries Research 96: 58-63.

Grayson, J. E., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (1999). "The assessment of restoration of habitat in urban wetlands." Landscape and Urban Planning 43: 227-236.

Honkoop, P. J. C., B. L. Bayne, A. J. Underwoodand S. Svensson (2003). "Appropriate experimental design for transplanting mussels (Mytilus sp.) in analyses of environmental stress: an example in Sydney Harbour (Australia)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 297: 253-268.

Ivesa, L., M. G. Chapman, A. J. Underwoodand R. M. Murphy (In Press). "Differential patterns of distribution of limpets on intertidal seawalls: Experimental investigations of the roles of recruitment, survival and competition." Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Jackson, A. C., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Ecological interactions in the provision of habitat by urban development: whelks and engineering by oysters on artificial seawalls." Austral Ecology 33: 307-316.

Jackson, A. C., R. J. Murphy and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Patiriella exigua: grazing by a starfish in an overgrazed intertidal system." Marine Ecology Progress Series 376: 153-163.

Jackson, A. C. and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Application of new techniques for the accurate analysis of choice of prey." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 341: 1-9.

Jeffery, C. J. and A. J. Underwood (2000). "Consistent spatial patterns of arrival of larvae of the honeycomb barnacle Chamaesipho tasmanica Foster and Anderson in New South Wales." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 252: 109-127.

Jeffery, C. J. and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Longevity determines sizes of an adult intertidal barnacle." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 256: 85-97.

Kelaher, B. P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (1998). "Changes in benthic assemblages near boardwalks in temperate urban mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228: 291-307.

Kelaher, B. P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2001). "Spatial patterns of diverse macrofaunal assemblages in coralline turf and their associations with environmental variables." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 917-930.

Kelaher, B. P., A. J. Underwoodand M. G. Chapman (1998). "Effects of boardwalks on the semaphore crab Heloecius cordiformis in temperate urban mangrove forests." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 227: 281-300.

Kelaher, B. P., A. J. Underwoodand M. G. Chapman (2003). "Experimental transplantations of coralline algal turf to demonstrate causes of differences in macrofauna at different tidal heights." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 282: 23-41.

Knott, N. A., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and T. M. Glasby (2004). "Epibiota on vertical and on horizontal surfaces on natural reefs and on artificial structures." Journal of the Marine Biological Association (UK) 84: 1117-1130.

Knott, N. A., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and T. M. Glasby (2006). "Growth of the encrusting sponge Tedania anhelans (Lieberkuhn) on vertical and on horizontal surfaces of temperate subtidal reefs." Marine and Freshwater Research 57: 95-104.

Lasiak, T. A., A. J. Underwoodand M. Hoskin (2006). "An experimental assessment of the potential impacts of longline mussel farming on the infauna of an open coastal embayment." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 16: 289-300.

Lindegarth, M. and A. J. Underwood (1999). "Technical note: using an experimental manipulation of contaminants in intertidal sediments." Ecotoxicology 8: 495-501.

Lindegarth, M. and A. J. Underwood (2002). "A manipulative experiment to evaluate predicted changes in intertidal, macro-faunal assemblages after contamination by heavy metals." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 274: 41-64.

Marzinelli, E. M., C. J. Zagal, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Do modified habitats have direct or indirect effects on epifauna?" Ecology 90: 2948-2955.

Matias, M., A. J. Underwoodand R. A. Coleman (In Press). "Effects of structural diversity and identity of components of habitat on diversity of benthic assemblages." Austral Ecology.

Matias, M. G., A. J. Underwoodand R. A. Coleman (2007). "Interactions of components of habitats alter composition and variability of assemblages." Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 986–994.

Monteiro, S. M., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2002). "Erratum to "Patches of the ascidian Pyura stolonifera (Heller, 1878): structure of habitat and associated intertidal assemblages"." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 275: 83-85.

Monteiro, S. M., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2002). "Patches of the ascidian Pyura stolonifera (Heller, 1878): structure of habitat and associated intertidal assemblages." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 270: 171-189.

Moreira, J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2006). "Seawalls do not sustain viable populations of limpets." Marine Ecology Progress Series 322: 179-188.

Moreira, J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2007). "Maintenance of chitons on seawalls using crevices on sandstone blocks as habitat in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 347: 134-143.

Murphy, R. J., M. G. Chapman, T. J. Tolhurst and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Spatial variation of chlorophyll on estuarine mudflats determined by field-based remote sensing." Marine Ecology Progress Series 365: 45-55.

Murphy, R. J., T. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Estimation of surface chlorophyll on an exposed mudflat using digital colour-infrared (CIR) photography." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 59: 625-638.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Estimation of surface chlorophyll-a on an emersed mudflat using field spectrometry: accuracy of ratios and derivative-based approaches." International Journal of Remote Sensing 26: 1835-1859.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). "Remote-sensing of benthic chlorophyll: should ground-truth data be expressed in units of area or mass?" Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 316: 69-77.

Murphy, R. J., T. J. Tolhurst, M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2009). "Seasonal distribution of microphytobenthos on mudflats in New South Wales, Australia measured by field spectrometry and PAM." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84(1): 108-118.

Murphy, R. J. and A. J. Underwood (2006). "Novel use of digital colour-infrared imagery to test hypotheses about grazing by intertidal herbivorous gastropods." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 437-447.

Murphy, R. J., A. J. Underwoodand A. C. Jackson (2009). "Field-based remote sensing of epilithic chlorophyll: techniques using specialized and conventional digital cameras." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 380(1-2): 68-76.

Murphy, R. J., A. J. Underwoodand M. H. Pinkerton (2006). "Quantitative imaging to measure photosynthetic biomass on an intertidal rock-platform." Marine Ecology Progress Series 312: 45-55.

Murphy, R. J., A. J. Underwood, M. H. Pinkerton and P. Range (2005). "Field spectrometry: new methods to investigate epilithic micro-algae on rocky shores." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 325: 111-124.

Murphy, R. J., A. J. Underwood, T. J. Tolhurst and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Field-based remote sensing for experimental intertidal ecology: case studies using hyperspatial and hyperspectral data for New South Wales Australia." Remote Sensing of Environment Special Issue 112: 3353-3365.

Negrello, O., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Recolonization of infauna on a tidal flat: An experimental analysis of modes of dispersal." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 328: 240-250.

Olabarria, C., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Appropriate experimental design to evaluate preferences for microhabitat: an example of preferences by species of microgastropods." Oecologia 132: 159-166.

Palomo, M. G., J. People, A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2007). "Separating the effects of physical and biological aspects of mussel-beds on their associated assemblages." Marine Ecology Progress Series 344: 131-142.

Range, P., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2008). "Field experiments with "cageless" methods to manipulate grazing gastropods on intertidal rocky shores." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 365: 23-30.

Ross, P. M. and A. J. Underwood (1997). "The distribution and abundance of barnacles in a mangrove forest." Australian Journal of Ecology 22: 37-47.

Rossi, F. and A. J. Underwood (2002). "Small-scale disturbance and increased nutrients as influences on intertidal macrobenthic assemblages: experimental burial of wrack in different intertidal environments." Marine Ecology Progress Series 241: 29-39.

Rotherham, D., A. J. Underwood, M. G. Chapman and C. A. Gray (2007). "A strategy for developing scientific sampling tools for fishery-independent surveys of estuarine fish in NSW, Australia." ICES Journal of Marine Science - Proceedings of the ICES Symposium, Boston, 2006 64: 1512-1516.

Scandol, J. P., A. J. Underwoodand M. J. Broadhurst (2006). "Experiments in gear configuration to reduce bycatch in an estuarine squid-trawl fishery." Fishery Bulletin 104: 533-541.

Schreider, M. J., T. M. Glasby and A. J. Underwood (2003). "Effects of height on the shore and complexity of habitat on abundances of amphipods on rocky shores in New South Wales, Australia." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 293: 57-71.

Tolhurst, T. J., A. J. Underwood, R. G. Perkins and M. G. Chapman (2005). "Content versus concentration: Effects of units on measuring the biogeochemical properties of soft sediments." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 63: 665-673.

Underwood, A. J. (1997). "Environmental decision-making and the precautionary principle: what does this principle mean in environmental sampling practice?" Landscape and Urban Planning 37: 137-146.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). "Grazing and disturbance: an experimental analysis of patchiness in recovery from a severe storm by the intertidal alga Hormosira banksii on rocky shores in New South Wales." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 231: 291-306.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). "Marine rocky shore and community ecology: an experimentalist's perspective, by R.T. Paine." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 220: 156-158.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). "Relationships between ecological research and environmental management." Landscape and Urban Planning 40: 123-130.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). "Physical disturbances and their direct effect on an indirect effect: responses of an intertidal assemblage to a severe storm." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 232: 125-140.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). "Pro-active ecological measurements for better environmental outcomes of management of stormwater: it's time to abandon non-productive monitoring and regulation." Proceedings IV Stormwater Conference 1999 1: 1-26.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). "Publication of so-called 'negative' results in marine ecology." Marine Ecology Progress Series 191: 307-309.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). "Using science for management." Proceedings of the Georges River and Botany Bay Symposium Southern Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils (SSROC) 1: 75-79.

Underwood, A. J. (2000). "Experimental ecology of rocky intertidal habitats: what are we learning?" Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 51-76.

Underwood, A. J. (2000). "Importance of experimental design in detecting and measuring stresses in marine populations." Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stresses and Recovery 7: 3-24.

Underwood, A. J. (2002). "Research techniques in animal ecology: controversies and consequences, edited by L. Boitani and T.K. Fuller." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 268: 115-116.

Underwood, A. J. (2004). "It would be better to create and maintain quality rather than worrying about its measurement." Marine Ecology Progress Series 270: 283-287.

Underwood, A. J. (2004). "Landing on one's foot: small-scale topographic features of habitat and the dispersion of juvenile intertidal gastropods." Marine Ecology Progress Series 268: 173-182.

Underwood, A. J. (2005). "Intertidal ecologists work in the 'gap' between marine and terrestrial ecology." Marine Ecology Progress Series 304: 271-307.

Underwood, A. J. (2006). "Why overgrowth of intertidal encrusting algae does not always cause competitive exclusion." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 448-454.

Underwood, A. J. (2007). "Logic, design, analyses, interpretation: essentials of ecological experiments." British Ecological Society Bulletin 38: 24-30.

Underwood, A. J. (2009). "Components of design of ecological field experiments." Annales Zoologici Fennici 46: 93-111.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1997). "Subtidal assemblages on rocky reefs at a cliff-face sewage outfall (North Head, Sydney, Australia): what happened when the outfall was turned off?" Marine Pollution Bulletin (1996) 33: 293-302.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "A method for analysing spatial scales of variation in composition of assemblages." Oecologia 117: 570-578.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "Spatial analyses of intertidal assemblages on sheltered rocky shores." Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 138-157.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). "Variation in algal assemblages on wave-exposed rocky shores in New South Wales." Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 241-254.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2000). "Variation in abundances of intertidal populations: consequences of extremities of environment." Hydrobiologia 426: 25-36.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2003). "Power, precaution, Type II error and sampling design in assessment of environmental impacts." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 296: 49-70.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2006). "Early development of subtidal macrofaunal assemblages: relationships to period and timing of colonization." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 221-233.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and S. D. Connell (2000). "Observations in ecology: you can't make progress on processes without understanding the patterns." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 250: 97-115.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and T. Crowe (2004). "Identifying and understanding ecological preferences for habitat or prey." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 300: 161-187.

Underwood, A. J., M. G. Chapman and D. E. Roberts (2003). "A practical protocol to assess impacts of unplanned disturbance: a case study in Tuggerah Lakes estuary, NSW." Ecological Management and Restoration 4: S4-S11.

Underwood, A. J. and K. R. Clarke (2005). "Solving some statistical problems in analyses of experiments on choices of food and on associations with habitat." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 318: 227-237.

Underwood, A. J. and K. R. Clarke (2006). "Response on a proposed method for analysing experiments on food choice." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 335: 151-153.

Underwood, A. J. and K. R. Clarke (2007). "More response on a proposed method for analysing experiments on food choice." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 344: 113-115.

Underwood, A. J., V. J. Cole, M. G. Palomo and M. G. Chapman (2008). "Numbers and density of species as measures of biodiversity on rocky shores along the coast of New South Wales." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 366: 175-183.

Underwood, A. J. and R. J. Murphy (2008). "Unexpected patterns in facilitatory grazing revealed by quantitative imaging." Marine Ecology Progress Series 358: 85-94.

Underwood, A. J., J. Vernberg and R. M. Warwick (1997). "Towards the new millennium." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 17: R7-R8.

Widmer, W. M. and A. J. Underwood (2004). "Factors affecting traffic and anchoring patterns of recreational boats in Sydney Harbour, Australia." Landscape and Urban Planning 66: 173-183.

Widmer, W. M., A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman (2002). "Public perception of potential environmental impacts of recreational boating on Sydney Harbour." Natural Resource Management 5: 22-27.

Books

Underwood, A. J. (1997). Experiments in ecology: their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K.,

Invited Chapters

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Frontiers in ecology: building the links. N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Oxford, Elsevier Science: 103-114.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2009). Comparative effects of urbanization in terrestrial and marine habitats. Ecology of Cities and Towns: A Comparative Approach. M. McDonnell. Melbourne, Cambridge University Press: 51-70.

Goodsell, P. J. and A. J. Underwood (2009). Protection of biota and the value of marine protected areas. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer Verlag: 345-358.

Jackson, A. C. and A. J. Underwood (2009). Field and research methods in marine ecology. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Berlin, Springer-Verlag: 425-436.

Sugden, H. E., A. J. Underwood and S. J. Hawkins (2009). The aesthetic value of littoral hard substrata and consideration of ethical frameworks for their investigation and conservation. Ecological Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer-Verlag: 409-424.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). Design, implementation and analysis of ecological and environmental experiments: pitfalls in the maintenance of logical structures. Experimental ecology: issues and perspectives. W. R. Resetarits and J. Bernardo. New York, Oxford University Press: 325-349.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). Molluscs on rocky shores. Mollusca: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia Vol. 5 Part A. P. L. Beesley, J. G. B. Ross and A. Wells. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing: 29-32.

Underwood, A. J. (1998). Quantitative ecological sampling of molluscs. Mollusca: the southern synthesis. Fauna of Australia Vol. 5 Part A. P. L. Beesley, J. G. B. Ross and A. Wells. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing: 104-105.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). History and recruitment in structure of intertidal assemblages on rocky shores: an introduction to problems for interpretation of natural change. Aquatic life cycle strategies. M. Whitfield. London, Institute of Biology: 79-96.

Underwood, A. J. (1999). Precautionary principles require changes in thinking about and planning environmental sampling. Perspectives on the precautionary principle. R. Harding and E. Fisher. Sydney, The Federation Press: 254-266.

Underwood, A. J. (2000). Trying to detect impacts in marine habitats: comparisons with suitable reference areas. Statistics in ecotoxicology. T. Sparks. Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.: 279-308.

Underwood, A. J. (2007). Ecology of marine macro-algae. Algae of Australia. Volume 1. A. George. Canberra, Australian Biological Resources Study: 374-404.

Underwood, A. J. (2007). Monitoring: overview. Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores. M. W. Denny and S. D. Gaines. Berkeley, University of California Press: 380-381.

Underwood, A. J. (2007). Monitoring: Statistics. Encyclopedia of tidepools and rocky shores. D. M. W. and G. S. D. Berkeley, University of California Press: 385-390.

Underwood, A. J. (2007). Negative Interactions: an overview of competition among marine organisms. Marine Ecology. S. D. Connell and B. M. Gillanders. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 101-109.

Underwood, A. J. (2008). General ecology: community. Encyclopedia of Ecology, Volume 1, General Ecology. S. E. Jorgensen and B. D. Fath. Oxford, U.K., Elsevier: 689-694.

Underwood, A. J. (2008). Grazing. Encyclopedia of Ecology, Volume 3, Ecological Processes. S. E. Jorgensen and B. D. Fath. Oxford, Elsevier: 1765-1773.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). Problems and practical solutions for quantitative assessment of biodiversity of invertebrates in coastal habitats. The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Mosman, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 19-25.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). The role of ecology in coastal zone management: perspectives from south-east Australia. Perspectives on integrated coastal zone management. W. Salomons, R. K. Turner, L. D. de Lacerda and S. Ramachandran. Berlin, Springer: 99-128
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Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2001). Intertidal ecosystems. The encyclopedia of biodiversity, Volume 3. S. A. Levin. San Diego, Academic Press: 485-500.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2002). Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism not community "monitoring". A Clash of Paradigms. Community and Research-Based Consevation. D. Lunney, C. R. Dickman and S. Burgin. Sydney, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 20-37.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2003). Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Conserving marine environments. Out of sight out of mind. P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Mosman, NSW, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 103-107.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2005). Design and analysis in benthic surveys. Methods for the study of marine benthos. A. Eleftheriou and A. D. McIntyre. Oxford, Blackwell Science: 1-42.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2007). Intertidal temperate rocky shores. Marine Ecology. S. D. Connell and B. M. Gillanders. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 402-427.

Underwood, A. J. and A. C. Jackson (2009). Appropriate research methods. Ecolgical Studies: Hard Bottom Communities. M. Wahl. Germany, Springer Verlag: 425-435.

Underwood, A. J. and M. J. Keough (2001). Supply-side ecology: the nature and consequences of variations in recruitment of intertidal organisms. Marine community ecology. M. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay. Sunderland, Maine, Sinauer Associates, Inc.: 183-200.

Reports

Barnes, P. B., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2000). Intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats in Chowder Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetland habitats in Careel Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 1: Assemblages in Bicentennial Park and reference locations.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 3: Remediation to improve tidal flushing adjacent to Haslam's Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (1997). Testing the effectiveness of Intertidal Protected Areas in New South Wales.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2003). Effects of removal of urchins from crevices on associated invertebrate assemblages
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Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2003). Variable growth of the green alga, Chaetomorpha linum in the Tuggerah Lakes.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2004). Macrofauna in artifical units of habitat in Kogarah Bay: preliminary report.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Benthic macrofauna colonizing artificial units of habitat in Kogarah Bay.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in artificial units of habitat in Berowra Creek, Cowan Creek and Mooney Mooney Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in artificial units of habitat on intertidal shores of Berowra Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2005). Biological monitoring of macrofauna in mangroves in Berowra Creek.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2007). Detecting environmental impacts in the Hawkesbury River using invertebrate assemblages.

Chapman, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2007). Transplanting invertebrate assemblages among intertidal rocky shores in the Hawkesbury River to detect environmental impacts.

Chapman, M. G., A. J. Underwood and S. McCune (1997). Environmental studies of benthic assemblages in wetlands in Homebush Bay, Report No. 2: Assemblages in patchy and isolated mangrove forests
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Goodsell, P. J., M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood (2005). Experimental assessment of the survival of cultured abalone (Habiotis rubra) seeded in small numbers to natural habitat at Port Stephens, NSW
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Hoskin, M. G. and A. J. Underwood (2001). Manipulative experiments to assess potential ecological effects of offshore snapper farming in Providence Bay, NSW.

Hoskin, M. G., A. J. Underwood and P. Archambault (2001). Properties of naturally-degrading sorbents for potential use in the clean-up of oil-spills in sensitive and remote coastal habitats.

Lasiak, T. A. and A. J. Underwood (2002). Baseline survey of the benthic invertebrate assemblages associated with fringing mangroves in the Brooklyn region of the Hawkesbury River.

Lasiak, T. A. and A. J. Underwood (2002). Experimental assessment of potential ecological impacts of longline mussel farming in Twofold Bay, Eden.

Lasiak, T. A. and A. J. Underwood (2002). A survey of the benthic invertebrate assemblages in the proposed remediation area off Rhodes Peninsula, Homebush Bay.

Lasiak, T. A., A. J. Underwood and P. Honkoop (2003). Effects of the new biological treatment process at the Caltex Refinery on subtidal fauna in the vicinity of Yena Gap.

Lindegarth, M., A. J. Underwood and K. Small (1999). Assemblages of animals in intertidal sediments before and after the oil spill in August 1999 in Gore Cove (Sydney Harbour) and nearby reference locations.

Underwood, A. J. (1997). Marine ecological issues.

Underwood, A. J. (2000). Assessment of some possible ecological impacts of disposal of soil from the Parramatta rail link on barges along the Lane Cove River.

Underwood, A. J. (2001). Report on intertidal habitats at Pickering Point.

Underwood, A. J. (2005). Report on Tuggerah Lakes Estuary Management Study.

Underwood, A. J. and M. J. Anderson (1997). Project Anchor: managing environmental impacts of recreational boating.

Underwood, A. J. and M. J. Anderson (1999). Review of documentation: Coffs Harbour sewerage strategy EIS report.

Underwood, A. J. and P. B. Barnes (1999). Marine flora and fauna in the vicinity of Davis Marina, Sydney Harbour.

Underwood, A. J., B. L. Bayne, P. J. C. Honkoop and J. P. Scandol (2001). Optimal stocking density for Sydney and Pacific oyster cultivation (Project No. 99/307).

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1998). The environment: an ideas paper on environmental issues for DUAP's Forum 'Sydney's Harbour Planning Strategy'.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (1999). Alteration of outfall at Penguin Head: calculation of power to detect impacts as altered concentrations of nutrients or heavy metals.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2000). Comparisons of animals and plants in Intertidal Protected Areas and reference locations around Sydney.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Chapman (2002). Biological monitoring in Berowra Creek Estuary.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Hoskin (1999). Ecological sampling for assessment of potential environmental impacts of the trial snapper farm at Port Stephens, NSW.

Underwood, A. J. and M. G. Hoskin (1999). Examination of potential ecological effects of mussel culture in Twofold Bay, NSW.

Underwood, A. J. and J. People (2001). Fouling by mussels in the inlet pipe of the cooling system.

Underwood, A. J., J. P. Scandol and I. W. Montgomery (2001). Quantitative Training Unit for Fisheries (QTUF), Phase II. (Project No. 98/348).