Bush stone curlew


North Head view
  • Tortosa, F.S., Barrio, I.C., Carthey, A.J., Banks, P.B. (in press) No longer naïve? Generalized responses of rabbits to marsupial predators in Australia. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (accepted 14 July 2015).
  • Stutz, R.S., Banks, P.B., Dexter, N., and McArthur, C. (2015) Herbivore search behaviour drives associational plant refuge. Acta Oecologica 67:1-7.
  • Stutz, R.S., Banks, P.B., Dexter, N., and McArthur, C. (2015) Associational refuge in practice: can existing vegetation facilitate woodland restoration? Oikos 124:571-580.
  • Carthey, A.J.R. and Banks, P.B. (2015) Foraging in groups affects giving-up densities: solo foragers quit sooner. Oecologia 178:707-713.
  • Mella, V.S.A., Ward, A.J.W., Banks, P.B., and McArthur, C. (2015) Personality affects the foraging response of a mammalian herbivore to the dual costs of food and fear. Oecologia 177:293-303.
Cath weighing LNB


  • Smith, H.M. and Banks, P.B. (2014) Disease and competition, not just predation, as drivers of impacts of the black rat (Rattus rattus) on island mammals. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23:1485-1488.
  • McArthur, C., Banks, P.B., Boonstra, R., and Forbey, J.S. (2014) The dilemma of foraging herbivores: dealing with food and fear. Oecologia 176:677-689.
  • Ruffino, L., Salo, P., Koivisto, E., Banks, P.B., and Korpimäki, E. (2014) Reproductive responses of birds to experimental food supplementation: a meta-analysis. Frontiers in Zoology 11:1-13.
  • Bedoya-Pérez, M.A., Issa, D.D., Banks, P.B., and McArthur, C. (2014) Quantifying the response of free-ranging mammalian herbivores to the interplay between plant defense and nutrient concentrations. Oecologia 175:1167-1177.
  • Bedoya-Pérez, M.A., Isler, I., Banks, P.B., and McArthur, C. (2014) Roles of the volatile terpene, 1, 8-cineole, in plant–herbivore interactions: a foraging odor cue as well as a toxin. Oecologia 174:827-837.
LNB foot
  • Carthey, A.J.R. and Banks, P.B. (2014) Naïveté in novel ecological interactions: lessons from theory and experimental evidence. Biological Reviews 89:932-949.
  • Heavener, S.J., Carthey, A.J.R., and Banks, P.B. (2014) Competitive naïveté between a highly successful invader and a functionally similar native species. Oecologia 175:73-84.
  • Mella, V.S.A., Banks, P.B., and McArthur, C. (2014) Negotiating multiple cues of predation risk in a landscape of fear: what scares free-ranging brushtail possums? Journal of Zoology 294:22-30.
  • Guy, A.J., Curnoe, D., and Banks, P.B. (2014) Welfare based primate rehabilitation as a potential conservation strategy: does it measure up? Primates 55:139-147
  • Banks, P.B., Bytheway, J.P., Carthey, A.J.R., Hughes, N.K., and Price, C.J. (2014) Olfaction and predator-prey interactions amongst mammals in Australia. In Carnivores of Australia: Past, Present and Future (Glen, A.S. and Dickman, C.R., eds), pp. 389-404, CSIRO publishing.
  • Meek, P.D., Fleming, P.J.S., Ballard, G., Banks, P.B., Claridge, A.W., Sanderson, J., and Swann, D.E. eds (2014) Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research, CSIRO publishing.
  • Weerakoon, M.K., Ruffino, L., Cleary, G.P., Heavener, S., Bytheway, J.P., and Banks, P.B. (2014) Can cameras be used to estimate small mammal population size? Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research (Meek, P., et al., eds), pp. 307-316, CSIRO publishing.
  • Meek, P.D., Fleming, P.J.S., Ballard, G., Banks, P.B., Claridge, A.W., McMahon, S., Sanderson, J., and Swann, D.E. (2014) Putting contemporary camera trapping in focus. Camera Trapping: Wildlife Management and Research
    (Meek, P., et al., eds), pp. 349-356, CSIRO publishing.


Rat cage


zoo bush rat
  • Banks, P.B., Dickman, C.R., and Lunney, D. eds (2012) Science Under Siege. Royal Zoological Society of NSW.
  • Lunney, D., Dickman, C.R., and Banks, P.B. (2012) Zoology under threat: a distressing case of science under siege. In Science Under Siege (Banks, P.B., et al., eds), pp. 173-185, Royal Zoological Society of NSW.
  • Threlfall, C.G. Law, B.S. Banks, P.B. (2012) Influence of Landscape Structure and Human Modifications on Insect Biomass and Bat Foraging Activity in an Urban Landscape. PLoSOne 7:e38800. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038800.
  • Nersesian, C., Banks, P.B., Simpson, S.J., and McArthur, C. (2012) Mixing nutrients mitigates the intake constraints of a plant toxin in a generalist herbivore. Behavioral Ecology doi: 10.1093/beheco/ars049.
  • Cristescu, R., Frere, C., and Banks, P.B.. (2012) A review of fauna in mine rehabilitation in Australia: Current state and future directions. Biological Conservation 149:60-72.
woylie trapped


egg shells
  • Carthey, A.J.R., Bytheway,J.P., and Banks, P.B. (2011) Negotiating a noisy, information-rich environment in search of cryptic prey: olfactory predators need patchiness in prey cues. Journal of Animal Ecology 80:742-752.
  • Nersesian, C. L., Banks, P.B., and McArthur, C. (2011) Titrating the cost of plant toxins against predators: determining the tipping point for foraging herbivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 80:753-760.
  • Hamer, R., Lemckert, F.L., and Banks, P.B. (2011) Adult frogs are sensitive to the predation risks of olfactory communication. Biology Letters 7:361-363.
  • Threlfall, C., Law, B., Penman, T., and Banks, P.B. (2011) Ecological processes in urban landscapes: mechanisms influencing the distribution and activity of insectivorous bats. Ecography 34:814-826.
  • Weerakoon, M.K. and Banks, P.B. (2011) Not just a matter of taste: palatability of bait markers is influenced by the need to search for alternative food. Wildlife Research 38:596-602.
  • Banks, P.B., Cleary, G.P., and Dickman, C.R. (2011) Sydney’s bubonic plague outbreak 1900-1910: A disaster for foreshore wildlife? Australian Zoologist 35:1033-1039.
  • Cristescu, R., Ellis,W., de Villiers, D., Lee, K., Woosnam-Merchez,O., Frere, O., Banks, P.B., Dique, D., Hodgkison, S., Carrick, H., Carter, D., Smith, P., and Carrick, F. (2011) North Stradbroke Island: An island ark for Queensland's koala population? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 117:309-333.
  • Basham, R., Law, B., and Banks, P.B. (2011) Microbats in a 'leafy' urban landscape: are they persisting, and what factors influence their presence? Austral Ecology 36:663-678.


rat with a cut in its ear
  • Hughes, N.K., Korpimäki, E., and Banks, P.B. (2010) The predation risks of interspecific eavesdropping: weasel-vole interactions. Oikos 119:1210-1216.
  • Hughes, N.K. and Banks, P.B. (2010) Heading for greener pastures? Defining the foraging preferences of urban long-nosed bandicoots. Australian Journal of Zoology 58:341-349.
  • Fey, K., Banks, P.B., Ylonen, H., and Korpimäki, E. (2010) Behavioural responses of voles to simulated risk of predation by a native and an alien mustelid: an odour manipulation experiment. Wildlife Research 37: 273-282.
  • Fey, K., Banks, P.B., and Korpimäki, E. (2010) Alien mink predation and colonisation processes of rodent prey on small islands of the Baltic Sea: does prey naïveté matter? International Journal of Ecology. Article ID 984396, 7 pages, 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/984396.


  • Stokes, V.L., Banks, P.B., Pech,R.P., and Spratt, D.M. (2009) Competition in an invaded rodent community reveals black rats as a threat to native bush rats in littoral rainforest of south-eastern Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1239-1247.
  • Fey, K., Banks, P.B., Oksanen, L., and Korpimäki, E. (2009) Does removal of an alien predator from small islands in the
    Baltic Sea induce a trophic cascade? Ecography 32:546-552.
  • Hughes, N.K., Kelley, J.L., and Banks, P.B. (2009) Receiving behaviour is sensitive to risks from eavesdropping predators. Oecologia 160:609-617.
  • Young, C.M., Kimpton, K.A., Cohen, H.M., Burns, P.T., McLaughlin, K. and Banks, P.B. (in press). Factors affecting bird attacks on small mammal traps. Australian Zoologist accepted 2009.
  • Stokes, V.L., Banks, P.B., Pech, R.P., and Williams, R.L. (2009) Invasion by Rattus rattus into native coastal forests of south-eastern Australia: are native small mammals at risk? Austral Ecology 34:395-408.


in the bush
  • Miller, R.W., Stuart, A.M., Joshi, R.C., Banks, P.B., and Singleton, G.R. (2008) Biology and management of rodent communities in complex agroecosystems - rice terraces. Pages 25-36 in G. R. Singleton, R. C. Joshi, andL. S. Sebastian, editors. Philippine Rats: Ecology and Management. Philippines Rice Research Institute, Science City of Munoz.
  • Lovasz, T.J., Banks, P.B., and Croft, D. (2008) Establishing tourism guidelines for viewing Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea, at Seal Bay Conservation Park, South Australia. In D. Lunney, A. Munn, andW. Meikle, editors. Too Close for Comfort. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman pp. 225-232.
  • Hochuli, D.F., and Banks, P.B. (2008) Selection pressures on zoology teaching in Australian universities: student perceptions of zoological education and how to improve it. Australian Zoologist 34:548-553.
  • Fey, K., Banks, P.B., and Korpimäki, E. (2008) Voles on small islands: effects of food limitation and alien predation. Oecologia 157: 419-428.
  • Banks, P. B., Nordström, M., Ahola, M., Salo, P., Fey, K., and Korpimäki, E. (2008) Impacts of alien mink predation on
    island vertebrate communities of the Baltic Sea Archipelago: review of a long-term experimental study.
    Boreal Environmental Research 13:3-16.


rat black and white
  • Stokes, V.L., Spratt, D.M., Banks, P.B., Pech, R.P., and Williams, R.L. (2007) Occurrence of Angiostrongylus species (Nematoda) in populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus fuscipes in coastal forests of south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 55:177-184.
  • Salo, P., Korpimäki, E., Banks, P.B., Nordström, M., and Dickman, C.R. (2007) Alien predators are more dangerous than native predators to prey populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 274:1237-1243.
  • Russell, B.G. and Banks, P.B. (2007) Do Australian small mammals respond to native and introduced predator odours? Austral Ecology 32: 277-286.
  • Rose, T.R. and Banks, P.B. (2007) Impacts of black rats (Rattus rattus) across an urban/bushland interface at Sydney's North Head. Pages 66-75 in D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings, andS. Burgin, editors. Pest or Guest: The Zoology of Overabundance. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
picutre of the bush
  • Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., Dillon, M.J., and Banks, P.B. (2007) Predicting the occurrence of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae : Marsupialia), in Western Australia's northern jarrah forest. Wildlife Research 34: 194-199.
  • Brown, P.R., Huth, N.I., Banks, P.B., and Singleton, G.R. (2007) Relationship between abundance of rodents and damage to agricultural crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 120:405-415.
  • Banks, P.B. and Dickman, C.R. (2007) Alien predation and the effects of multiple levels of prey naïveté. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 229-230.
  • Banks, P.B. and Bryant, J.V. (2007) Four-legged friend or foe? Dog walking displaces native birds from natural areas. Biology Letters 3:611-613.
  • Banks, P.B. (2007) Guest or pest? Animal rights activism at the RZS Annual Forum. Pages 249-250 in D. Lunney, P. Eby, P. Hutchings, andS. Burgin, editors. Pest or Guest: The Zoology of Overabundance. Royal Zoological Society of NSW,


bat photo


wendy in lantana
  • Russell, B.G. and Banks, P.B. (2005) Responses of four Critical Weight Range (CWR) marsupials to the odours of native and introduced predators. Australian Zoologist 33:217-222.
  • Mitchell, B.D. and Banks, P.B. (2005) Do wild dogs exclude foxes? Evidence for competition from dietary and spatial overlaps. Austral Ecology 30:581-591.
  • Korpimäki, E., Oksanen, L., Oksanen, T., Klemola, T., Norrdahl, K., and Banks, P.B. (2005) Vole cycles and predation in temperate and boreal zones of Europe. Journal of Animal Ecology 74: 1150-1159.
  • Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., Dillon, M.J., Fox, B.J., and Banks, P.B. (2005) Using faecal pellet counts along transects to estimate quokka (Setonix brachyurus) population density. Wildlife Research 32:503-507.
  • Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., and Banks, P.B. (2005) Habitat use of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae : Marsupialia), in the northern jarrah forest of Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 84:683-688.
  • Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., Augee, M.L., and Banks, P.B. (2005) Mortality and survivorship of the quokka (Setonix brachyurus) (Macropodidae : Marsupialia) in the northern jarrah forest of Western Australia. Wildlife Research 32: 715-722.
  • Brown, P.R., Tuan, N.P., and Banks, P.B. (2005) Movements, habitat use and response of ricefield rats to removal in an intensive cropping system in Vietnam. Belgian Journal of Zoology 135: 145-152.
  • Banks, P. B. (2005) Animal-rights zealots put wildlife welfare at risk. Nature 438:559.


  • Hayward, M.W., de Tores, P.J., Augee, M.L., Fox, B.J., and Banks, P.B. (2004) Home range and movements of the quokka Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae : Marsupialia), and its impact on the viability of the metapopulation on the Australian mainland. Journal of Zoology, London 263:219-228.
  • Banks, P.B. and Powell, F. (2004) Does maternal condition or predation risk influence small mammal population dynamics? Oikos 106:176-184.
  • Banks, P.B., Norrdahl, K., Nordström, M., and Korpimäki, E. (2004) Dynamic impacts of feral mink predation on vole metapopulations in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea. Oikos 105:79-88.
  • Banks, P.B. (2004) Population viability analysis in urban wildlife management: Modelling management options for Sydney's quarantined bandicoots. Pages 70-77 in S. Burgin, and D. Lunney, editors. Urban Wildlife. Royal Zoological Society, Mosman.


  • Penn, A.M., Sherwin, W.B., Lunney, D., and Banks, P.B. (2003) The effects of a low-intensity fire on small mammals and lizards in a logged, burnt forest. Wildlife Research 30:477-486.
  • Korpimäki, E., Klemola, T., Norrdahl, K., Oksanen, L., Oksanen, T., Banks, P.B., Batzli, G.O., and Henttonen, H. (2003) Vole cycles and predation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:494-495.
  • Banks, P.B., Hughes, N.K., and Rose, T.A. (2003) Do Australian native small mammals avoid faeces of domestic dogs? Australian Zoologist 32:406-409.
  • Banks, P.B. (2003) Book review "The story of rats". Australian Zoologist 32:271.


  • Banks, P.B. and Powell, F. (2002) An analysis of the NSW NPWS North Head long-nosed bandicoot monitoring program: A report for the NPWS Central Directorate Threatened Species Unit.
  • Banks, P.B., Norrdahl, K., and Korpimaki, E. (2002) Mobility decisions and the predation risks of reintroduction. Biological Conservation 103:133-138.


  • Spencer, R.J., Thompson, M.B., and Banks, P.B. (2001) Hatch or wait? A dilemma in reptilian incubation. Oikos 93:401-406.
  • Banks, P.B. (2001) Predation-sensitive grouping and habitat use by eastern grey kangaroos: a field experiment. Animal Behaviour 61:1013-1021.



  • Banks, P.B., Hume, I.D., and Crowe, O. (1999) Behavioural, morphological and dietary response of rabbits to predation risk from foxes. Oikos 85:247-256.
  • Banks, P.B. (1999) Predation by introduced foxes on native bush rats in Australia: do foxes take the doomed surplus? Journal of Applied Ecology 36:1063-1071.



  • Newsome, A.E., Pech, R.P., Banks, P.B., Dickman, C.R., and Smythe, R. (1997) Potential Impacts of Releasing Rabbit Calicivirus Disease on Australian Native Fauna. Australian Government Publishers, Canberra, Australia.

sandy road
CP collectiing sand
CP setting up camera