Root Structure

Root exposure
When we examine the soil near the mangrove stand it is found to be completely interpenetrated with roots to a depth of 50 cm or more. In the upper part of the soil, roots can make up 30% of the total volume. Live mangrove roots all have a white outer layer of aerenchyma immediately below the root surface and all roots have frequent connection to the air by means of pneumatophores. The root systems of mangroves are very extensive and live mangrove roots can by found far out in the salt marsh, up to 30 metres from the base of the nearest tree!
The electron micrograph of segments of pneumatophore (LH) and horizontal root (RH) show the tubular structure of the aerenchyma (at)