About This Resource

Since 1998, phylogenetic analysis of the angiosperms resulted in the demise of the two-group classification of monocotyledonous plants and dicotyledonous plants. Monocotyledonous plants are still recognised as a monophyletic group, however, dicotyledonous plants are a paraphyletic group containing the monophyletic group, the eudicotyledous plants, the “true” dicots (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group APG, 1998) and several basal groups of Angiosperms (e.g. Laurales, Magnoliales, Piperales).

These Anatomy revision modules were created before these phylogenetic analyses and for reasons of convenience and historical perspective, the terms ‘monocot’ and ‘dicot’ persist. These modules are yet to be revised to align the content with APG I and as, applicable, APG II and III.


The overall layout of these modules was based on the Botany resources designed Dr Ilma Brewer, and we, the Biological Sciences, wish to acknowledge her here. The principal features of Dr Brewer's unit have been retained with modifications and updates being made by members of the Biological Sciences to bring these resources to life in the virtual environment (Robyn Overall, Siegfried Krauss, Mark Curran, Nicholas Skelton, Laurence Cantrell, Rosanne Quinnell, with photography by Malcolm Ricketts).

The School acknowledges the support of the Faculty of Science Teaching Development Grant to develop On-line learning modules in plant structure and function awarded to Bill Allaway, Robyn Overall and Rosanne Quinnell in 2000 and continued support of the School's eResources Unit. Please cite as:

Brewer, I., Overall, R., Skelton, N., Curran, M., Krauss, S., Cantrell, L. & Quinnell, R. (2000). Revision modules in plant anatomy. Available: http://sydney.edu.au/science/biology/learning/plant_form_function/revision_modules/2003A_Pmodules/


The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 1998. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden85 (4): 531–553. doi:10.2307/2992015.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society141(4): 399-436.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society161: 105–121.