Shine Lab

Scientific Papers in Refereed Journals 1991-1999

Where available the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) numbers) have been listed after each paper. To view the Abstract or Full Text of the paper at the journal website, copy the DOI and paste it into the DOI Resolver.

As pdfs become available they will be linked to the paper. Alternately, to request a reprint please contact

Northern death adder and cane toad

Northern death adder and cane toad.


1991

90. Shine, R. 1991. Strangers in a strange land: ecology of the Australian colubrid snakes. Copeia 1991:120-131.

91. Shine, R. 1991. Intersexual dietary divergence and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in snakes. American Naturalist 138:103-122. DownloadAdobe pdf document

92. Shine, R. 1991. Why do larger snakes eat larger prey? Functional Ecology 5:493-502.

93. Shine, R., and A. E. Greer. 1991. Why are clutch sizes more variable in some species than in others? Evolution 45:1696-1706.

94. Schwarzkopf, L., and R. Shine. 1991. Thermal biology of reproduction in viviparous skinks, Eulamprus tympanum: why do gravid females bask more? Oecologia 88:562-569.


1992

95. Shine, R., and L. Schwarzkopf. 1992. The evolution of reproductive effort in lizards and snakes. Evolution 46:62-75.

96. Shine, R., and E. L. Charnov. 1992. Patterns of survival, growth and maturation in snakes and lizards. American Naturalist 139: 1257-1269. DownloadAdobe pdf document

97. Harlow, P. S., and R. Shine. 1992. Food habits and reproductive biology of the Pacific island boas (Candoia). Journal of Herpetology 26:60-66. DownloadAdobe pdf document

98. Shine, R. 1992. Relative Clutch Mass and body shape in lizards and snakes: is reproductive investment constrained or optimised? Evolution 46:828-833.

99. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1992. To find an ant: trail-following behaviour in the eastern Australian blindsnake Rhamphotyphlops nigrescens. Animal Behaviour 43:941-948.

100. Schwarzkopf, L., and R. Shine. 1992. Costs of reproduction in lizards: escape tactics and susceptibility to predation. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31:17-25.

101. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1992. A rapid, sexually-selected shift in mean body sizes in a population of snakes. Evolution 46:1220-1224.

102. Madsen, T., R. Shine, J. Loman, and T. HÃ¥kansson. 1992. Why do female adders copulate so frequently? Nature 355:440-441.

103. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1992. Determinants of reproductive success in female adders, Vipera berus. Oecologia 92:40-47.

104. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1992. Sexual competition among brothers may influence offspring sex ratio in snakes. Evolution 46:1549-1552.


1993

105. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1993. Male mating success and body size in European grass snakes. Copeia 1993:561-564.

106. Madsen, T., R. Shine, J. Loman, and T. HÃ¥kansson. 1993. Determinants of mating success in male adders, Vipera berus. Animal Behaviour 45:491-499.

107. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1993. Temporal variability in sexual selection on reproductive tactics and body size in male snakes. American Naturalist 141: 167-171. DownloadAdobe pdf document

108. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1993. Phenotypic plasticity in body sizes and sexual dimorphism in European grass snakes. Evolution 47:321-325.

109. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1993. Costs of reproduction in a population of European adders. Oecologia 94:488-495.

110. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1993. Prey-size selection, gape limitation and predator vulnerability in Australian blindsnakes (Typhlopidae). Animal Behaviour 45:1117-1126.

111. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1993. Dietary habits of Australian blindsnakes. Copeia 1993:762-770.

112. Torr, G. A., and R. Shine. 1993. An experimental analysis of thermally-dependent behavior patterns in the scincid lizard Lampropholis guichenoti. Copeia 1993:850-854.

113. Houston, D. L., and R. Shine. 1993. Sexual dimorphism and niche divergence: feeding habits of the Arafura filesnake. Journal of Animal Ecology 62:737-749.

114. Fairbairn, J., and R. Shine. 1993. Patterns of sexual size dimorphism in seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere. Oikos 68:139-145.

115. Lemckert, F. L., and R. Shine. 1993. Costs of reproduction in a population of the frog Crinia signifera (Anura: Myobatrachidae) from south-eastern Australia. Journal of Herpetology 27:420-425. DownloadAdobe pdf document

116. Shine, R., and P. Harlow. 1993. Maternal thermoregulation influences offspring viability in a viviparous lizard. Oecologia 96:122-127.

117. Charnov, E. L., D. Berrigan, and R. Shine. 1993. The M/k ratio is the same for fish and reptiles. American Naturalist 142:707-711. DownloadAdobe pdf document


1994

118. Torr, G., and R. Shine. 1994. An ethogram for the small scincid lizard Lampropholis guichenoti. Amphibia-Reptilia 15:21-34. DownloadAdobe pdf document

119. Schlesinger, C. A., and R. Shine. 1994. Choosing a rock: perspectives of a bush-rock collector and a saxicolous lizard. Biological Conservation 67:49-56.

120. Schlesinger, C. A., and R. Shine. 1994. Selection of diurnal retreat sites by the nocturnal gekkonid lizard Oedura lesueurii. Herpetologica 50:156-163.

121. Webb, J., and R. Shine. 1994. Feeding habits and reproductive biology of Australian pygopodid lizards of the genus Aprasia. Copeia 1994:390-398.

122. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1994. Components of lifetime reproductive success in adders (Vipera berus). Journal of Animal Ecology 63:561-568.

123. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1994. Toxicity of a tropical Australian frog, Litoria dahlii, to sympatric snakes. Wildlife Research 21:21-25.

124. Shine, R., and T. Madsen. 1994. Sexual dichromatism in snakes of the genus Vipera: a review and a new evolutionary hypothesis. Journal of Herpetology 28:114-117. DownloadAdobe pdf document

125. Shine, R. 1994. Sexual size dimorphism in snakes revisited. Copeia 1994:326-346.

126. Houston, D., and R. Shine. 1994. Low growth rates and delayed maturation in Arafura filesnakes (Serpentes: Acrochordidae) in tropical Australia. Copeia 1994:726-731.

127. Houston, D., and R. Shine. 1994. Movements and activity patterns of Arafura filesnakes (Serpentes: Acrochordidae) in tropical Australia. Herpetologica 50:349-357.

128. Houston, D., and R. Shine. 1994. Population demography of Arafura filesnakes (Serpentes: Acrochordidae) in tropical Australia. Journal of Herpetology 28:273-280. DownloadAdobe pdf document

129. Shine, R. 1994. Allometric patterns in the ecology of Australian snakes. Copeia 1994:851-867.

130. Shine, R. 1994. National peculiarities, scientific traditions and research directions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:309.

131. Olsson, M., A. Gullberg, H. Tegelström, T. Madsen, and R. Shine. 1994. Scientific correspondence ('Promiscuous' matings enhance maternal fitness in lizards). Nature 369:528.

132. Olsson, M., T. Madsen, R. Shine, A. Gullberg, and H. Tegelström. 1994. Rewards of promiscuity. Nature 372:230.

133. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1994. Costs of reproduction influence the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in snakes. Evolution 48:1389-1397.

134. Barden, G., and R. Shine. 1994. Effects of sex and reproductive mode on dietary composition of the reproductively bimodal scincid lizard, Lerista bougainvillii. Australian Zoologist 29:225-228. DownloadAdobe pdf document


1995

135. Shine, R. 1995. A new hypothesis for the evolution of viviparity in reptiles. American Naturalist 145:809-823. DownloadAdobe pdf document

136. Doughty, P., and R. Shine. 1995. Life in two dimensions: Natural history of the southern leaf-tailed gecko, Phyllurus platurus. Herpetologica 51:193-201.

137. Qualls, C. P., R. Shine, S. Donnellan, and M. Hutchinson. 1995. The evolution of viviparity within the Australian scincid lizard Lerista bougainvillii. Journal of Zoology (London) 237:13-26.

138. Shine, R., and J. B. Iverson. 1995. Patterns of survival, growth and maturation in turtles. Oikos 72:343-348.

139. Rummery, C., R. Shine, D. L. Houston, and M. B. Thompson. 1995. Thermal biology of the Australian forest dragon, Hypsilurus spinipes (Agamidae). Copeia 1995:818-827.

140. Shine, R., P. Harlow, J. S. Keogh, and Boeadi. 1995. Biology and commercial utilization of acrochordid snakes, with special reference to karung (Acrochordus javanicus). Journal of Herpetology 29:352-360. DownloadAdobe pdf document

141. Forsman, A., and R. Shine. 1995. Sexual size dimorphism in relation to frequency of reproduction in turtles (Testudines: Emydidae). Copeia 1995:727-729.

142. Qualls, C. P., and R. Shine. 1995. Maternal body-volume as a constraint on reproductive output in lizards: evidence from the evolution of viviparity. Oecologia 103:73-78.

143. Forsman, A., and R. Shine. 1995. The adaptive significance of colour pattern polymorphism in the Australian scincid lizard Lampropholis delicata. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 55:273-291.

144. Shine, R., and M. Fitzgerald. 1995. Variation in mating systems and sexual size dimorphism between populations of the Australian python Morelia spilota (Serpentes: Pythonidae). Oecologia 103:490-498.

145. Shine, R., M. J. Elphick, and P. S. Harlow. 1995. Sisters like it hot (Advantages of temperature-determined sex; Scientific Correspondence). Nature 378:451-452.

146. Shine, R., and J. Fairbairn. 1995. Sexual size dimorphism in seabirds: a reply to Croxall. Oikos 74:146-148.

147. White, B. S., J. S. Keogh, and R. Shine. 1995. Reproductive output in two species of small elapid snakes. Herpetofauna 25:20-22. DownloadAdobe pdf document

148. Madsen, T., B. Stille, and R. Shine. 1995. Inbreeding depression in an isolated population of adders (Vipera berus). Biological Conservation 75:113-118.

149. Branch, W. R., G. V. Haagner, and R. Shine. 1995. Is there an ontogenetic shift in mamba diet? Taxonomic confusion and dietary records for black and green mambas (Dendroaspis: Elapidae). Herpetological Natural History 3:171-178.

150. Forsman, A., and R. Shine. 1996. Parallel geographic variation in body shape and reproductive life history within the Australian scincid lizard Lampropholis delicata. Functional Ecology 9:818-828.


1996

151. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1996. Determinants of reproductive output in female water pythons (Liasis fuscus: Pythonidae). Herpetologica 52:146-159.

152. Shine, R., and T. Madsen. 1996. Is thermoregulation unimportant for most reptiles? An example using water pythons (Liasis fuscus) in tropical Australia. Physiological Zoology 69:252-269. DownloadAdobe pdf document

153. Firmage, M., and R. Shine. 1996. Battles for mates and food: intraspecific combat in island tigersnakes (Notechis ater) from southern Australia. Amphibia-Reptilia 17:55-65. DownloadAdobe pdf document

154. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1996. Seasonal migration of predators and prey: pythons and rats in tropical Australia. Ecology 77:149-156. DownloadAdobe pdf document

155. Shine, R., P. S. Harlow, W. R. Branch, and J. K. Webb. 1996. Life on the lowest branch: sexual dimorphism, diet and reproductive biology of an African twig snake, Thelotornis capensis (Serpentes, Colubridae). Copeia 1996:290-299.

156. Shine, R., and M. Fitzgerald. 1996. Large snakes in a mosaic rural landscape: the ecology of carpet pythons, Morelia spilota (Serpentes: Pythonidae) in coastal eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 76:113-122.

157. Olsson, M. M., and R. Shine. 1996. How and why does reproductive success increase with age? A case study using sand lizards (Lacerta agilis). Oecologia 105:175-178.

158. Olsson, M. M., A. Gullberg, R. Shine, T. Madsen, and H. Tegelström. 1996. Paternal genotype influences incubation period, offspring size, and offspring shape in an oviparous reptile. Evolution 50:1328-1333.

159. Shine, R., W. R. Branch, P. S. Harlow, and J. K. Webb. 1996. Sexual dimorphism, reproductive biology and food habits of two species of African filesnakes (Mehelya, Colubridae). Journal of Zoology (London) 240:327-340.

160. Shine, R., and J. S. Keogh. 1996. Food habits and reproductive biology of the endemic Melanesian elapids: are tropical snakes really different? Journal of Herpetology 30:238-247. DownloadAdobe pdf document

161. Luiselli, L., M. Capula, and R. Shine. 1996. Reproductive output, costs of reproduction, and ecology of the smooth snake, Coronella austriaca, in the eastern Italian Alps. Oecologia 106:100-110.

162. Shine, R., P. S. Harlow, J. S. Keogh, and Boeadi. 1996. Commercial harvesting of giant lizards: the biology of water monitors, Varanus salvator, in southern Sumatra. Biological Conservation 77:125-134.

163. Shine, R., and P. S. Harlow. 1996. Maternal manipulation of offspring phenotypes via nest-site selection in an oviparous lizard. Ecology 77:1808-1817. DownloadAdobe pdf document

164. Torr, G. A., and R. Shine. 1996. Patterns of dominance in the small scincid lizard Lampropholis guichenoti. Journal of Herpetology 30:230-237. DownloadAdobe pdf document

165. Luiselli, L., M. Capula, and R. Shine. 1996. Food habits, growth rates and reproductive biology of grass snakes, Natrix natrix (Colubridae) in the Italian Alps. Journal of Zoology (London) 241:371-380.

166. Shine, R., G. V. Haagner, W. R. Branch, P. S. Harlow, and J. K. Webb. 1996. Natural history of the African shieldnose snake Aspidelaps scutatus (Serpentes, Elapidae). Journal of Herpetology 30:361-366. DownloadAdobe pdf document

167. Shine, R., L. Schwarzkopf, and M. J. Caley. 1996. Energy, risk and reptilian reproductive effort: a reply to Niewiarowski and Dunham. Evolution 50:2111-2114.

168. Shine, R., and R. Seigel. 1996. A neglected life-history trait: clutch-size variance in snakes. Journal of Zoology (London) 239:209-223.

169. Shine, R. 1996. Life-history evolution in Australian snakes: a path analysis. Oecologia 107:484-489.

170. Olsson, M., R. Shine, A. Gullberg, T. Madsen, and H. Tegelström. 1996. Female lizards control paternity of their offspring by selective use of sperm. Nature 383:585.

171. Qualls, C. P., and R. Shine. 1996. Reconstructing ancestral reaction norms: an example using the evolution of reptilian viviparity. Functional Ecology 10:688-697.


1997

172. Katsikaros, K., and R. Shine. 1997. Sexual dimorphism in the tusked frog, Adelotus brevis (Anura: Myobatrachidae): the roles of natural and sexual selection. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 60:39-51.

173. Olsson, M., and R. Shine. 1997. The limits to reproductive output: offspring size versus number in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis). American Naturalist 149:179-188. DownloadAdobe pdf document

174. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1997. Out on a limb: conservation implications of tree hollow use by a threatened snake species (Hoplocephalus bungaroides: Serpentes, Elapidae). Biological Conservation 81:21-33.

175. Shine, R., and T. Madsen. 1997. Prey abundance and predator reproduction: rats and pythons on a tropical Australian floodplain. Ecology 78:1078-1086. DownloadAdobe pdf document

176. Olsson, M., and R. Shine. 1997. The seasonal timing of oviposition in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis): why earlier clutches are better. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 10:369-381.

177. Ayers, D. Y., and R. Shine. 1997. Thermal influences on foraging ability: body size, posture and cooling rate of an ambush predator, the python Morelia spilota. Functional Ecology 11:342-347.

178. Doughty, P. D., and R. Shine. 1997. Detecting life-history tradeoffs: measuring energy stores in "capital" breeders reveals costs of reproduction. Oecologia 110:508-513.

179. Shine, R., T. R. L. Madsen, M. J. Elphick, and P. S. Harlow. 1997. The influence of nest temperatures and maternal brooding on hatchling phenotypes of water pythons. Ecology 78:1713-1721. DownloadAdobe pdf document

180. Olsson, M., T. Madsen, and R. Shine. 1997. Is sperm really so cheap? Costs of reproduction in male adders, Vipera berus. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 264:455-459.

181. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1997. A field study of spatial ecology and movements of a threatened snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Biological Conservation 82:203-217.

182. Shine, R., M. J. Elphick, and P. S. Harlow. 1997. The influence of natural incubation environments on the phenotypic traits of hatchling lizards. Ecology 78:2559-2568. DownloadAdobe pdf document

183. Olsson, M. M., and R. Shine. 1997. Advantages of multiple matings to females: a test of the infertility hypothesis using lizards. Evolution 51:1684-1688.]

184. Olsson, M., R. Shine, T. Madsen, A. Gullberg, and H. Tegelström. 1997. Sperm choice by females. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:445-446.

185. Smith, S., and R. Shine. 1997. Intraspecific variation in reproductive mode within the scincid lizard Saiphos equalis. Australian Journal of Zoology 45:435-445.


1998

186. Branch, W. R., R. Shine, P. S. Harlow, and J. K. Webb. 1998. Sexual dimorphism, diet and aspects of reproduction of the western keeled snake, Pythonodipsas carinata (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 46:89-97.

187. Qualls, F. J., and R. Shine. 1998. Geographic variation in "costs of reproduction" in the scincid lizard Lampropholis guichenoti. Functional Ecology 11:757-763.

188. Qualls, C. P., and R. Shine. 1998. Lerista bougainvillii, a case study for the evolution of viviparity in reptiles. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 11:63-78.

189. Forsman, A., and R. Shine. 1998. Rejection of non-adaptive hypotheses for intraspecific variation in trophic morphology in gape-limited predators. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 62:209-223.

190. Shine, R., P. S. Harlow, J. S. Keogh, and Boeadi. 1998. The influence of sex and body size on food habits of a giant tropical snake, Python reticulatus. Functional Ecology 12:248-258.

191. Keogh, J. S., R. Shine, and S. C. Donnellan. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of terrestrial Australo-Papuan elapid snakes (subfamily Hydrophiinae) based on cytochrome b and 16S rRNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10:67-81.

192. Shine, R., P. S. Harlow, J. S. Keogh, and Boeadi. 1998. The allometry of life-history traits: insights from a study of giant snakes (Python reticulatus). Journal of Zoology (London) 244:405-414.

193. Madsen, T., and R. Shine 1998. Spatial subdivision within a population of tropical pythons (Liasis fuscus) in a superficially homogeneous habitat. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 340-348.

194. Bonnet, X., R. Shine, G. Naulleau, and M. Vacher-Vallas. 1998. Sexual dimorphism in snakes: different reproductive roles favour different body plans. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 265:179-183.

195. Doughty, P. D., and R. Shine. 1998. Reproductive energy allocation and long-term energy stores in a viviparous lizard (Eulamprus tympanum). Ecology 79:1073-1083. DownloadAdobe pdf document

196. Shine, R., J. K. Webb, M. Fitzgerald, and J. Sumner. 1998. The impact of bush-rock removal on an endangered snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Serpentes: Elapidae). Wildlife Research 25:285-295.

197. Fairbairn, J., R. Shine, C. Moritz, and M. Frommer. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships between oviparous and viviparous populations of an Australian lizard (Lerista bougainvillii, Scincidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 10:95-103.

198. Shine, R., W. R. Branch, P. S. Harlow, and J. K. Webb. 1998. Reproductive biology and food habits of horned adders, Bitis caudalis (Viperidae) from southern Africa. Copeia 1998:391-401.

199. Downes, S., and R. Shine. 1998. Sedentary snakes and gullible geckos: predator-prey coevolution in nocturnal rock-dwelling reptiles. Animal Behaviour 55:1373-1385.

200. Downes, S., and R. Shine. 1998. Heat, safety or solitude? Using habitat selection experiments to identify a lizard's priorities. Animal Behaviour 55:1387-1396.

201. Elphick, M. J., and R. Shine. 1998. Longterm effects of incubation temperatures on the morphology and locomotor performance of hatchling lizards (Bassiana duperreyi, Scincidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:429-447.

202. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1998. Using thermal ecology to predict retreat-site selection by an endangered snake species. Biological Conservation 86:233-242.

203. Shine, R., P. Harlow, Ambariyanto, Boeadi, Mumpuni, and J. S. Keogh. 1998. Monitoring monitors: a biological perspective on the commercial harvesting of Indonesian reptiles. Mertensiella 9:61-68.

204. Boeadi, R. Shine, Sugardjito, M. Amir, and M. H. Sinaga. 1998. Biology of the commercially-harvested ratsnake (Ptyas mucosus) and cobra (Naja sputatrix) in central Java. Mertensiella 9:99-104.

205. Qualls, C., and R. Shine. 1998. Costs of reproduction in conspecific oviparous and viviparous lizards, Lerista bougainvillii. Oikos 82:539-551.

206. Shine, R., Ambariyanto, P. Harlow, and Mumpuni. 1998. Ecological traits of commercially harvested water monitors, Varanus salvator, in northern Sumatra. Wildlife Research 25:437-447.

207. Shine, R., J. S. Keogh, P. Doughty, and H. Giragossyan. 1998. Costs of reproduction and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a "flying lizard" (Draco melanopogon, Agamidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 246:203-213.

208. Shine, R., Ambariyanto, P. Harlow, and Mumpuni. 1998. Ecological divergence among sympatric colour morphs in blood pythons, Python brongersmai. Oecologia 116:113-119.

209. Qualls, F. J., and R. Shine. 1998. Geographic variation in lizard phenotypes: the importance of incubation temperatures. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 64:477-491.

210. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1998. Ecological characteristics of a threatened snake species, Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Serpentes, Elapidae). Animal Conservation 1:185-193.

211. Olsson, M., M. Pagel, R. Shine, T. Madsen, C. Doums, A. Gullberg, and H. Tegelström. 1998. Sperm choice and sperm competition: suggestions for field and laboratory studies. Oikos 84:172-175.

212. Webb, J. K., and R. Shine. 1998. Thermoregulation by a nocturnal elapid snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) in south-eastern Australia. Physiological Zoology 71:680-692. DownloadAdobe pdf document

213. Lee, M. S. Y., and R. Shine. 1998. Reptilian viviparity and Dollo's Law. Evolution 52:1441-1460.

214. Bonnet, X., S. D. Bradshaw, and R. Shine. 1998. Capital versus income breeding: an ectothermic perspective. Oikos 83:333-342.

215. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1998. Quantity or quality? Determinants of maternal reproductive success in tropical pythons (Liasis fuscus). Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 265:1521-1525.

216. Olsson, M., and R. Shine. 1998. Chemosensory mate recognition may facilitate prolonged mate guarding by male snow skinks, Niveoscincus microlepidotus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 43:359-364.

217. Olsson, M. M., and R. Shine. 1998. Timing of parturition as a maternal care tactic in an alpine lizard species. Evolution 52:1861-1864.


1999

218. Bonnet, X., G. Naulleau, and R. Shine. 1999. The dangers of leaving home: dispersal and mortality in snakes. Biological Conservation 89:39-50.

219. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1999. The adjustment of reproductive threshold to prey abundance in a capital breeder. Journal of Animal Ecology 68:571-580.

220. Harlow, P., and R. Shine. 1999. Temperature-dependent sex determination in the frillneck lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii (Agamidae). Herpetologica 55:205-212.

221. Scanlon, J. D., M. S. Y. Lee, M. W. Caldwell, and R. Shine. 1999. The paleoecology of the primitive snake Pachyrhachis. Historical Biology 13:127-152.

222. Shine, R., and M. S. Y. Lee. 1999. A reanalysis of the evolution of viviparity and egg-guarding in squamate reptiles. Herpetologica 55:538-549.

223. Olsson, M., T. Birkhead, and R. Shine. 1999. Can relaxed time constraints on sperm production eliminate protandry in an ectotherm? Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66:159-170.

224. Witzell, H., T. Madsen, T. Westerdahl, R. Shine, and T. von Schantz. 1999. MHC variation in birds and reptiles. Genetica 104:301-309.

225. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1999. Rainfall and rats: climatically-driven dynamics of a tropical rodent population. Australian Journal of Ecology 24:80-89.

226. Shine, R., Ambariyanto, P. S. Harlow, and Mumpuni. 1999. Reticulated pythons in Sumatra: biology, harvesting and sustainability. Biological Conservation 87:349-357.

227. Madsen, T., and R. Shine. 1999. Life-history consequences of nest-site variation in tropical pythons (Liasis fuscus). Ecology 80:989-997. DownloadAdobe pdf document

228. Shine, R., Ambariyanto, P. S. Harlow, and Mumpuni. 1999. Ecological attributes of two commercially-harvested python species in northern Sumatra. Journal of Herpetology 33:249-257. DownloadAdobe pdf document

229. Whitaker, P. B., and R. Shine. 1999. When, where and why do people encounter Australian brownsnakes (Pseudonaja textilis, Elapidae)? Wildlife Research 26:675-688.

230. Whitaker, P. B., and R. Shine. 1999. Responses of free-ranging brownsnakes (Pseudonaja textilis, Elapidae) to encounters with humans. Wildlife Research 26:689-704.

231. Elphick, M., and R. Shine. 1999. Sex differences in optimal incubation temperatures in a scincid lizard species. Oecologia 118:431-437.

232. Sues, L., and R. Shine. 1999. Morelia amethistina (Australian scrub python). Male-male combat. Herpetological Review 30:102. DownloadAdobe pdf document

233. Simon, P., R. Whittaker, and R. Shine. 1999. Morelia spilota (Australian carpet python) Caudal luring. Herpetological Review 30:102-103. DownloadAdobe pdf document

234. Shine, R., and S. J. Downes. 1999. Can pregnant lizards adjust their offspring phenotypes to environmental conditions? Oecologia 119:1-8.

235. Shine, R. 1999. Why is sex determined by nest temperature in many reptiles? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:186-189.

236. Sumner, J., C. Moritz, and R. Shine. 1999. Shrinking forest shrinks skink: morphological change in response to rainforest fragmentation in the Prickly Forest Skink, Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae. Biological Conservation 91:159-167.

237. How, R. A., and R. Shine. 1999. Ecological traits and conservation biology of five fossorial "sand-swimming" snake species (Simoselaps: Elapidae) in southwestern Australia. Journal of Zoology (London) 249:269-282.

238. Olsson, M., and R. Shine. 1999. Plasticity in frequency of reproduction in an alpine lizard, Niveoscincus microlepidotus. Copeia 1999:794-796.

239. Shine, R. 1999. Egg-laying reptiles in cold climates: determinants and consequences of nest temperatures in montane lizards. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12:918-926.

240. Naulleau, G., X. Bonnet, M. Vacher-Vallas, R. Shine, and O. Lourdais. 1999. Does less-than-annual production of offspring by female vipers (Vipera aspis) mean less-than-annual mating? Journal of Herpetology 33:688-691. DownloadAdobe pdf document

241. Bonnet, X., D. Bradshaw, R. Shine and D. Pearson. 1999. Why do snakes have eyes? The (non-) effect of blindness in island tigersnakes. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 46:267-272.

242. Shine, R. 1999. Reply to Girondot and Pieau (temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:360.

243. Madsen, T., R. Shine, M. Olsson, and H. Wittzell. 1999. Restoration of an inbred adder population. Nature 402:34-35.

244. Shine, R., M. M. Olsson, I. T. Moore, M. P. Lemaster, and R. T. Mason. 1999. Why do male snakes have longer tails than females? Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 266:2147-2151.

245. Olsson, M. M., and R. Shine. 1999. Locomotor impairment of gravid lizards: is the burden physical or physiological? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13:263-268.

246. Downes, S. J., and R. Shine. 1999. Do incubation-induced changes in a lizard's phenotype influence its vulnerability to predators? Oecologia 120:9-18.

247. Bonnet, X., R. Shine, G. Naulleau, and O. Lourdais. 1999. What is the appropriate timescale for measuring "costs of reproduction" in a typical capital breeder, the asp viper? Evolutionary Ecology 13:485-497.