Dr Marina Gottardo
PhD 2014, Cotutelle from Università Ca’ Foscari Venice and The University of Sydney
I have always been interested in physical science, in particular chemistry. After high school, I turned to chemistry, which seemed closer to my interests and more responsive to my attitudes. I have always been intrigued and fascinated by mathematics and science, because of their apparent complexity and of the multiplicity of implications that each possesses.
My PhD thesis focused on green and sustainable chemistry. This is the study and investigation of methods that can reduce or eliminate the impact of chemical technologies on human health and the environment.
Another interest of mine is expanding my experiences abroad. Indeed, I have always thought that a university experience is not complete unless it is accompanied by studies or research carried out in other countries to broaden one’s points of view. For example, in 2006, I was awarded an Erasmus scholarship which gave me the opportunity to carry out much of my final thesis research at Delft Technische University (TU Delft) in Holland. I carried out experimental work in the field of enzymatic catalysis in ionic liquids in the laboratory of Prof R. Sheldon. My thesis in industrial chemistry was based on this project.
The next step was the decision to orient my master degree in chemical technology for industry and environment. Again I was given the opportunity to broaden my experiences. Thanks to an international cultural exchange project, I spent three months studying photocatalytic processes for water purification at the MIT University College of Pune (India). I then went on to spend time at the University of Bristol (UK), working on the synthesis of a new Pt (II) complex under the supervision of Prof D. F. Wass, thanks to the British Council’s “British-Italian Partnership Programme For Early Career Researchers 2009-2010”.
To focus further on my interests in green and sustainable chemistry, in September 2010 I enrolled in a PhD course in chemical science at the University Ca’ Foscari of Venice. My research was aimed at investigating methods for the catalytic upgrading of levulinic acid (LA), an important biomass derived platform chemical. My thesis project focused on hydrogenation reactions of LA, and was developed within a cotutelle agreement between the University of Ca’ Foscari of Venice and the University of Sydney (Australia), under the supervision of Prof. M. Selva (Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Venice) and Prof. T. Maschmeyer (Laboratory for Advanced Catalysis and Sustainability, School of Chemistry, Sydney). Thanks to this agreement, I carried out more than one third of my PhD research activity at the University of Sydney, in addition to a few short stays at Monash University in Melbourne. An Endeavour Research Fellowship grant sponsored six months of this “down under” stay.
Sydney, in particular the district of Glebe, hosted me for a long time. I started to learn about this city slowly, discovering piece by piece and person to person. I came to know and appreciate the Aussie culture characterized by a strong multiculturalism; new friends from different countries and with different life stories; all members of my research group with different ways of doing research; new and different types of food we don’t have in Italy; fascinating landscapes and unusual animals. More than in other places, I felt in Australia as if I was at home, and like any other experience abroad, I have learned a lot about the world around me and also about myself.
On March 2013 I returned to Venice for the last part of PhD and on 16 December 2013 I defended the PhD thesis on “Green procedures for the selective aqueous-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived levulinic acid to g-valerolactone. Innovative design for catalytic recycle and regeneration”, in front of an international commission, through a video conference. Now, I am the first Doctor of Philosophy in history to have achieved a PhD degree in cotutelle from Università Ca’ Foscari Venice and The University of Sydney.
In the light of the experience gained, I want to emphasize that having experiences abroad is very important for everyone because I believe it is essential to observe the world around us, to be able to eventually understand ourselves.
Graduate: Dr Ojia Skaff
BSc (Hons) 2001; PhD 2005
My education and work journey have been an amazing roller-coaster ride! I first completed a Bachelor of Science degree and graduated with Honours at the University of Sydney. I then went on to complete a PhD in synthetic organic chemistry also at the University of Sydney, synthesizing a series of cross-linked peptides that have been shown to be markers of cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Following my PhD, I joined The Heart Research Institute as a Postdoctoral Fellow working on protein oxidation and the formation of cross-linked peptides. My research focused on why the oxidation of proteins, DNA, lipids etc. are major triggers for inflammatory diseases and diseases of the central nervous system. In 2010, I had the privilege of joining a well-known global pharmaceutical company, first as a Clinical Trial Assistant then as a Clinical Research Associate (CRA). As a CRA, I worked on phase I to IV clinical trials as well as non-interventional/observational studies in the therapeutics areas of oncology, rheumatology, haematology and diseases of the central nervous system. In addition, I also worked on a number of paediatric studies. Recently, I was promoted to Country Study Manager and will be responsible for managing clinical trials and CRAs in the Asia Pacific region. So in all these years, I have seen the life cycle of molecules firsthand, from synthesis to in-vitro testing, their progression into clinical trials and finally into marketed drugs.
Graduate: Dr Annabelle Blom
BSc(Hons) 2001; PhD 2005
I completed my PhD in Physical Chemistry with Prof Greg Warr in 2005 and enjoyed it so much I then stayed for a further 18 months as a PostDoc Researcher on an industry-supported project. In mid 2006, I moved to the Industrial sector through employment with BHPBilliton’s Newcastle Technology Centre. This was a nice transition role from the academic research environment I was exposed to at University and the nature of research undertaken within an Industrial operation. There was still a focus on deeper analysis and time was given to follow interesting avenues. I was also exposed to the early stages of leading and influencing people with small teams of support Technicians working with me. During this time I worked in a team on the development of a flow sheet that was later commercialised for the extraction of titanium dioxide from lower grade ilmenite ore.
After 18 months at NTC, I transferred to Olympic Dam. This is one of BHPBillitons larger operating assets with a very complex metallurgical operation resulting in the production of copper, uranium, gold and silver. I started here in a Project Metallurgist role working on improvements in thickening performance and flocculant consumption within their counter current decantation circuit, optimisation of the uranium leaching process and the construction and operation of a small scale pilot plant mimicking a uranium solvent extraction plant. I found the move fascinating and the interaction with a live, operating plant that I could make tangible changes to very rewarding. I was promoted to a Senior Project Metallurgical role in the middle of 2009 and took on projects to identify technologies that would be suitable to further filter and desaturate liquor streams and led a team of up to 7 metallurgists and an operating budget I was accountable for.
I then took on a more operationally focussed role when I transitioned to the role of Technical Superintendent for the Refinery in mid 2010. This is the part of the Olympic Dam plant that produces four of the operation’s five final products (Electro-refined copper, Electro-won copper, gold and silver bullion). Here I had up to 5 metallurgists reporting to me and was directly responsible for the purity, efficiency and recovery of the operating plant. Troubleshooting plant problems that were hindering production or cost control was now my focus with time being of the essence for an answer that could be executed now. The research undertaken in this environment is shallow and fast with a focus on easy to implement solutions within the available resources. The pace is fast and a key skill to rapidly develop is the ability to delegate and the ability to prioritise! This role was very enjoyable – I was in charge of a plant that I could change, modify (within reason) and get real time feedback on the decisions I was making.
Since March 2012, I have been a Production Superintendent and am now responsible for up to 64 reports with a focus on their safety, risk management, cost management, operating discipline and production. The output of copper metal is now one of my primary measures of performance. It has taught me different ways to solve problems – University taught me to think analytically, my work is now teaching me to think in “systems” and “behaviours”. How to standardise a process so operators can work efficiently and safely, how to influence people’s behaviours so they make safe choices and so forth.
I am one of only a handful of female production superintendents in the operation which has been interesting. I am in the mining sector and now in a role directly working with the plant operators and I am a female. I have found my team of operators very supportive and frankly have not been made to feel “female” or experienced any form of untoward behaviour from them. BHPBilliton has a strong code of conduct on what is acceptable behaviour and what is not which is enforced to the operator level with disciplinary consequences for inappropriate behaviours. Regardless of that however, I think that what the guys on the floor respond to is: being listened to, having their ideas/initiatives listened to and acted upon, having information that is relevant, useful or even plain interesting communicated to them, and of course responding with fair, constructive counselling if needed to breaches in performance. Whether this is something my gender plays a role in or not is debatable but being a female in this environment is not something I am finding a hindrance.
The career path I have taken has led me to the outback of Australia where I live with my young family and is a career move I have found incredibly interesting, challenging and rewarding. I would highly recommend this path for any other women who have a strong ability to learn for themselves, sense of adventure and solid work ethic!
Graduate: Dr Gemma Solomon
BSc(Hons) 2003; PhD 2007
Unlike many graduate students in chemistry at the University of Sydney I did not start my studies here. I completed my BSc majoring in chemical physics at the University of Western Australia and came to the University of Sydney for an honours project. I chose to come here because of the range of projects available and because I found the School of Chemistry to be very helpful and supportive in making my move possible.
I enjoyed my honours year immensely and could see the possibility of continuing was an exciting one, however, I found the decision to stay and do a PhD one of the hardest ones I have ever had to make. Thankfully, today I feel confident I made the right choice.
My PhD work was in single molecule electronics, an area experiencing explosive growth in recent times. This made it an exciting field to work in, but also a very challenging one. Professor Jeffrey Reimers and Emeritus Professor Noel Hush were exceptional in the advice and assistance they gave me over the course of my PhD, providing an open and supportive research environment for me to learn what it really was to do research.
During my PhD, we initiated collaborations with researchers in Denmark, Germany and Italy and each year I spent three to six months visiting these collaborators and attending international conferences in Europe and America. The opportunities for travel during a PhD program are great, in no small part due to the availability of funds through various scholarships and assistance schemes at both a school and university level. The opportunity to present work at international meetings, to speak with the "big names" in the field, to meet other young scientists and see how science was done in a number of universities got me well and truly hooked on the exciting world of research. Paradoxically, the isolated nature of Australia means that there are not the barriers to long-distance travel that exist for students in America and Europe. The perspective I gained form this travel made it clear to me that I wanted to continue to work in scientific research and experience what other institutions had to offer.
After my time in Sydney, I moved to the US as a postdoctoral fellow at Northwestern University, near Chicago. I worked with Professor Mark Ratner, one of the pioneers of molecular electronics and it was a fantastic experience. Northwestern University was an incredibly stimulating place to work, with world-leaders in a whole range of areas of nanoscience. I learned an enormous amount from my time there and also met some great friends and collaborators.
I am now working as an Associate Professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. there are great opportunities for young researchers starting their careers in Denmark (and Europe generally) with a range of "Starting Grants" worth A$1-2m, which provides a fantastic boost when building a research group. There are also exciting opportunities for collaboration across Europe through large projects and networks that bring researchers together. I am thoroughly enjoying life in Denmark, have managed to learn Danish (although I still teach in English), and am happy for all the adventures that a career in research has made possible.