Associate Professor Ashley Ward

A12 - Macleay Building
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9351 4778

Website Room 132, A12 - Macleay Building
Animal Behaviour Lab

Research interests

Runs the Animal Behaviour Lab- We consider a diverse range of topics within our research, and of course these topics very often overlap. In addressing our research questions, we primarily (though not exclusively) use fish as our model study species and we divide our time between the laboratory at the University of Sydney and various field sites including One Tree Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Narrabeen Lagoon in NSW, and even the estuaries of Lincolnshire in the UK. Below is a selection of our main research themes:

Social and Collective Behaviour of Animals

Thousands of animal species form into groups and in many cases, these groups are characterised by highly synchronised, co-ordinated collective behaviour. But how can a multitude of individuals act as though they were all of one mind? How do social animals make collective decisions? Should social animals, such as fish, lemmings or even humans, blindly follow their leaders, or should they risk isolation from the group by acting more independently?

Learning and Information Use by Animals

Animals constantly gather information which can then be used to make decisions. They can acquire information either directly, by sampling their environment and collecting their own information, or indirectly, by gathering information socially, usually from conspecifics. Acquiring direct, 'private' information is costly and time-consuming, but it does have the important benefit of accuracy. Social information by contrast is inexpensive to acquire but there is no guarantee of its accuracy. How then should animals balance their use of private and social information, when should they rely on private information and when on social? And can they adapt their behaviour so that they preferentially weight social information that comes from a reliable source, i.e. can they discriminate between conspecifics and the information that they provide?

Recognition and Communication

The ability to recognise and differentiate between conspecifics is crucial for structuring the interactions between animals and ultimately for their social organisation. In freshwater fishes, social recognition is known to be achieved using a combination of different sensory cues though recent findings suggest that chemical cues may be of greatest importance. These cues are strongly influenced by the fish's physiology, and its recent habitat and diet, hence not only do fish use these cues to recognise they can also gather information about each other which will influence their interactions. Far less is known about how marine fish recognise and communicate with each other and this remains an important topic for research.

Integrating Behaviour and Physiology

Physiology is the driver of animal behaviour and by combining behavioural and physiological approaches to research questions, we can gain fascinating insights into what makes animals 'tick'. For example, how do animal respond to stress? What determines fighting ability? Why do individuals vary in their willingness to accept risk in order to gain rewards, thereby occupying different positions on the so-called 'bold-shy continuum?'

These and many other areas of animal behaviour can benefit hugely from the adoption of a multi-disciplinary research perspective. While these four topics represent the bulk of our research, we do not restrict ourselves to these. In recent years we have also researched and published on allied topics, including predator-prey interactions, sexual and mate-choice behaviour, and aquatic toxicology.

Selected grants

2015

  • Linking animal 'personality' to metabolism; Godin J, Ward A; DVC Research/International Research Collaboration Award (IRCA).

2013

  • Leadership matters: the emergence of informed leaders and their influence on group movement; Ward A, Myerscough M, Buhl J, Krause J; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP).
  • From individual interactions to global patterns: understanding the basis of collective behaviour; Ward A, Sumpter D; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP).

2010

  • From individuals to collective behaviour; Ward A; DVC Research/Bridging Support Grant.

2009

  • ARC Linkage LP0989459 "Building sound ecological restoration strategies for endangered amphibians" (ARC Linkage - University of Newcastle Lead); Ward A, Dias T.
  • Social recognition and chemical communication in juvenille marine fishes; Ward A; Sea World Research and Rescue Foundation Inc./Research Project Scheme.

2008

  • Video analysis suite for the integrative analysis of resource acquisition behaviour in animals; Simpson S, Shine R, Thompson M, Seebacher F, Pile A, McArthur C, Coleman R, Beekman M, Ward A, Sword G, Brooks R, Poore A, Bonduriansky R, Cassis G, Olsson M, Booth D, Williams S; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities (LIEF).
  • Video analysis suite for the integrative analysis of resource acquisition behaviour in animals; Simpson S, Shine R, Thompson M, Seebacher F, Pile A, McArthur C, Coleman R, Beekman M, Ward A, Sword G, Brooks R, Poore A, Bonduriansky R, Cassis G, Olsson M, Williams S, Booth D; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities (LIEF).
  • Distribution and Ecology of Gambusia holrooki and Tanichthys albonubes throughtout the Gosford Local Government Area; Ward A; Gosford City Council (NSW)/Research Support.

2007

  • The inmportance of social recognition, social networks and human impacts on reef fishes; Ward A; University of Sydney/International Senior Research Fellow.

2006

  • Experimental evaluation of an evolutionary hypothesis concerning the adaptive specialisation of soci; Ward A; Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) /Research Grant.

2005

  • The effects of endocrine disputers on social recognition in fishes; Ward A; Fisheries Society of the British Isles (FSBI)/Research grant.

2003

  • The effects of a ubiquitous environment pollutant, 4-nonylphenol, on the behaviour of juvenile trout; Ward A; Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (ASAB)/Research Grant.

Selected publications

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Books

  • Ward, A. (2008). Questions and Answers on Saltwater Aquarium Fishes. New Jersey, United States: TFH Publications.
  • Ward, A. (2007). Questions and Answers on Freshwater Aquarium Fishes: Everything You Need to Know to Successfully Raise Healthy Fish. United States: TFH Publications.

Book Chapters

  • Hart, P., Webster, M., Ward, A. (2008). Fish Foraging Behaviour in Theory and Practice. In Carin Magnhagen, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Elisabet Forsgren, B.G. Kapoor (Eds.), Fish Behaviour. United States: Science Publishers Inc.
  • Krause, J., Ward, A., James, R., Croft, D. (2008). Group-Living and Social Networks. In Carin Magnhagen, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Elisabet Forsgren, B.G. Kapoor (Eds.), Fish Behaviour. United States: Science Publishers Inc.
  • Griffiths, S., Ward, A. (2006). Learned recognition of conspecifics. In Brown, Laland & Krause (Eds.), Fish Learning & Behaviour, (pp. 139-165). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Journals

  • Mann, R., Herbert-Read, J., Ma, Q., Jordan, L., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2014). A model comparison reveals dynamic social information drives the movements of humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(90). [More Information]
  • Sinclair, E., Ward, A., Seebacher, F., De Souza, C. (2014). Exercise changes behaviour. Behavioural Ecology, Article in Press. [More Information]
  • Wolf, M., Kurvers, R., Ward, A., Krause, S., Krause, J. (2013). Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: Collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 280(1756), 1-9. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Thistle, M., Ghandi, K., Currie, S. (2013). Copper interacts with nonylphenol to cancel the effect of nonylphenol on fish chemosensory behaviour. Aquatic Toxicology, 142-143, 203-209. [More Information]
  • Seebacher, F., Ward, A., Wilson, R. (2013). Increased aggression during pregnancy comes at a higher metabolic cost. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(5), 771-776. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Jordan, L., James, R., Krause, J., Ma, Q., Rubenstein, D., Sumpter, D., Morrell, L. (2013). Initiators, leaders, and recruitment mechanisms in the collective movements of damselfish. The American Naturalist, 181(6), 747-760. [More Information]
  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2013). Multi-scale Inference of Interaction Rules in Animal Groups Using Bayesian Model Selection. PLoS Computational Biology, 9(3), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Jordan, L., Herbert-Read, J., Ward, A. (2013). Rising costs of care make spiny chromis discerning parents. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(3), 449-455. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Currie, S. (2013). Shoaling fish can size-assort by chemical cues alone. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(4), 667-673. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., James, R., Wilson, A., Webster, M. (2013). Site fidelity and localised homing behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour, 150(14), 1689-1708. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Krause, S., Morrell, L., Schaerf, T., Krause, J., Ward, A. (2013). The role of individuality in collective group movement. Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences, 280(1752), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Seebacher, F., Holmes, S., Roosen, N., Nouvian, M., Wilson, R., Ward, A. (2012). Capacity for thermal acclimation differs between populations and phylogenetic lineages within a species. Functional Ecology, 26(6), 1418-1428. [More Information]
  • Burns, A., Herbert-Read, J., Morrell, L., Ward, A. (2012). Consistency of leadership in shoals of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in novel and in familiar environments. PLoS One, 7(5), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2012). Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using bayesian model selection. PLoS Computational Biology, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Krause, J., Sumpter, D. (2012). Quorum decision-making in foraging fish shoals. PLoS One, 7(3), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Ward, A. (2012). Social facilitation of exploration in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66(2), 223-230. [More Information]
  • Grigaltchik, V., Ward, A., Seebacher, F. (2012). Thermal acclimation of interactions: Differential responses to temperature change alter predator-prey relationship. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 279(1744), 4058-4064. [More Information]
  • Sinclair, E., Ward, A., Seebacher, F. (2011). Aggression-induced fin damage modulates trade-offs in burst and endurance swimming performance of mosquitofish. Journal of Zoology, 283(4), 243-248. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Simpson, S. (2011). Diets and decisions: The potential use of food protein cues in dietary, sexual and social decisions by mosquitofish. Animal Behaviour, 82(4), 783-790. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Krause, J. (2011). Fast and accurate decisions through collective vigilance in fish shoals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(6), 2312-2315. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Atton, N., Hart, P., Ward, A. (2011). Habitat-specific morphological variation among threespine sticklebacks (gasterosteus aculeatus) within a drainage basin. PLoS One, 6(6), e21060-1-e21060-10. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Perna, A., Mann, R., Schaerf, T., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2011). Inferring the rules of interaction of shoaling fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(46), 18726-18731. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A. (2011). Personality and social context. Biological Reviews, 86(4), 759-773. [More Information]
  • Ritz, D., Hobday, A., Montgomery, J., Ward, A. (2011). Social aggregation in the pelagic zone with special reference to fish and invertebrates. Advances in Marine Biology, 60, 161-227. [More Information]
  • Chen, T., Beekman, M., Ward, A. (2011). The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish. Biology Letters, 7(3), 343-345. [More Information]
  • Faria, J., Dyer, J., Clement, R., Couzin, I., Holt, N., Ward, A., Waters, D., Krause, J. (2010). A novel method for investigating the collective behaviour of fish: introducing 'Robofish'. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 1211-1218. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hensor, E., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2010). Behavioural thermoregulation in two freshwater fish species. Journal of Fish Biology, 76, 2287-2298. [More Information]
  • Wilson, A., Godin, J., Ward, A. (2010). Boldness and Reproductive Fitness Correlates in the Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. Ethology, 116, 96-104. [More Information]
  • Jordan, L., Avolio, C., Herbert-Read, J., Krause, J., Rubenstein, D., Ward, A. (2010). Group structure in a restricted entry system is mediated by both resident and joiner preferences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64(7), 1099-1106. [More Information]
  • Reid, A., Seebacher, F., Ward, A. (2010). Learning to hunt: the role of experience in predator success. Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 147, 223-233.
  • Ward, A., Mehner, T. (2010). Multimodal Mixed Messages: The Use of Multiple Cues allows Greater Accuracy in Social Recognition and Predator Detection Decisions in the Mosquitofish, Gambusia Holbrooki. Behavioral Ecology, 21(6), 1315-1320. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Logendran, D., Ward, A. (2010). Sensory ecology in a changing world: salinity alters conspecific recognition in an amphidromous fish, Pseudomugil signifer. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 1107-1115. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2009). Individual boldness affects interspecific interactions in sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63(4), 511-520. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Magurran, A., Currie, S., Krause, J. (2009). Species and population differences in social recognition between fishes: a role for ecology? Behavioral Ecology, 20(3), 511-516. [More Information]
  • Sumpter, D., Krause, J., James, R., Couzin, I., Ward, A. (2008). Consensus Decision Making by Fish. Current Biology, 18(22), 1773-1777. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Sumpter, D., Couzin, I., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2008). Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 105(19), 6948-6953. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Horsfall, J., Currie, S. (2008). Scents and scents-ability: pollution disrupts chemical social recognition and shoaling in fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 274(1630), 101-105. [More Information]
  • Chapman, B., Ward, A., Krause, J. (2008). Schooling and learning: early social environment predicts social learning ability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Animal Behaviour, 76, 923-929. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2008). Shoal and prey patch choice by co-occurring fishes and prawns: inter-taxa use of socially transmitted cues. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 275(1631), 203-208. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Boldness is influenced by social context in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 144(3), 351-371.
  • Webster, M., Goldsmith, J., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Habitat-specific chemical cues influence association preferences and shoal cohesion in fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62(2), 273-280. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2007). Social recognition in wild fish populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences.
  • Webster, M., Atton, N., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Turbidity and foraging rate in threespine sticklebacks: the importance of visual and chemical prey cues. Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 144(11), 1347-1360.
  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2006). Intraspecific food competition in fishes. Fish and Fisheries, 7, 231-261.
  • Wright, D., Ward, A., Croft, D., Krause, J. (2006). Social Organization, Grouping, and Domestication in Fish. Zebrafish, 3(2), 141-155.
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Currie, S. (2006). The effects of the endocrine disrupter, 4-nonylphenol, on the behaviour of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(2), 377-382. [More Information]
  • Croft, D., James, R., Ward, A., Botham, M., Mawdsley, D., Krause, J. (2005). Assortative interactions and social networks in fish. Oecologia, 143(2), 211-219. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hart, P. (2005). Foraging benefits of shoaling with familiars may be exploited by outsiders. Animal Behaviour, 69, 329-335. [More Information]
  • Coolen, I., Ward, A., Hart, P., Laland, K. (2005). Foraging nine-spined sticklebacks prefer to rely on public information over simpler social cues. Behavioral Ecology, 16(5), 865-870. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Krause, J., Barber, I. (2005). Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with a microsporidian parasite. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 72, 155-160. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Holbrook, R., Krause, J., Hart, P. (2005). Social recognition in sticklebacks: The role of direct experience and habitat cues. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57, 575-583. [More Information]
  • Krause, J., Ward, A., Jackson, A., Ruxton, G., James, R., Currie, S. (2005). The influence of differential swimming speeds on composition of multi-species fish shoals. Journal of Fish Biology, 67, 866-872. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). Assessment and assortment: how fishes use local and global cues to choose which school to go to. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 271(Supplement 5), S328-S330. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Thomas, P., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). Correlates of boldness in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 55(5), 561-568. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). The effects of habitat- and diet-based cues on association preferences in three-spined sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology, 15(6), 925-929.
  • Ward, A., Axford, S., Krause, J. (2003). Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 270, 1157-1161.
  • Ward, A., Hart, P. (2003). The effects of kin and familiarity on interactions between fish. Fish and Fisheries, 4(4), 348-358.
  • Ward, A., Botham, M., Hoare, D., James, R., Broom, M., Godin, J., Krause, J. (2002). Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 269, 2451-2455.
  • Ward, A., Axford, S., Krause, J. (2002). Mixed-species shoaling in fish: the sensory mechanisms and costs of shoal choice. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 52, 182-187.
  • Ward, A., Hoare, D., Couzin, I., Broom, M., Krause, J. (2002). The effects of parasitism and body length on positioning within wild fish shoals. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71(1), 10-14.
  • Hoare, D., Ward, A., Couzin, I., Croft, D., Krause, J. (2001). A grid-net technique for the analysis of fish positions within free-ranging shoals. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 1667-1672.
  • Ward, A., Krause, J. (2001). Body length assortative shoaling in the European minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus. Animal Behaviour, 62, 617-621.
  • Krause, J., Hoare, D., Croft, D., Lawrence, J., Ward, A., Ruxton, G., Godin, J., James, R. (2000). Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 267, 2011-2017.

Conferences

  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Sumpter, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Ward, A. (2012). Prawns and probability. 31st International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, Melville: American Institute of Physics (AIP). [More Information]

2014

  • Mann, R., Herbert-Read, J., Ma, Q., Jordan, L., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2014). A model comparison reveals dynamic social information drives the movements of humbug damselfish (Dascyllus aruanus). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(90). [More Information]
  • Sinclair, E., Ward, A., Seebacher, F., De Souza, C. (2014). Exercise changes behaviour. Behavioural Ecology, Article in Press. [More Information]

2013

  • Wolf, M., Kurvers, R., Ward, A., Krause, S., Krause, J. (2013). Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: Collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 280(1756), 1-9. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Thistle, M., Ghandi, K., Currie, S. (2013). Copper interacts with nonylphenol to cancel the effect of nonylphenol on fish chemosensory behaviour. Aquatic Toxicology, 142-143, 203-209. [More Information]
  • Seebacher, F., Ward, A., Wilson, R. (2013). Increased aggression during pregnancy comes at a higher metabolic cost. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 216(5), 771-776. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Jordan, L., James, R., Krause, J., Ma, Q., Rubenstein, D., Sumpter, D., Morrell, L. (2013). Initiators, leaders, and recruitment mechanisms in the collective movements of damselfish. The American Naturalist, 181(6), 747-760. [More Information]
  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2013). Multi-scale Inference of Interaction Rules in Animal Groups Using Bayesian Model Selection. PLoS Computational Biology, 9(3), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Jordan, L., Herbert-Read, J., Ward, A. (2013). Rising costs of care make spiny chromis discerning parents. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(3), 449-455. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Currie, S. (2013). Shoaling fish can size-assort by chemical cues alone. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 67(4), 667-673. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., James, R., Wilson, A., Webster, M. (2013). Site fidelity and localised homing behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour, 150(14), 1689-1708. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Krause, S., Morrell, L., Schaerf, T., Krause, J., Ward, A. (2013). The role of individuality in collective group movement. Royal Society of London. Proceedings B. Biological Sciences, 280(1752), 1-8. [More Information]

2012

  • Seebacher, F., Holmes, S., Roosen, N., Nouvian, M., Wilson, R., Ward, A. (2012). Capacity for thermal acclimation differs between populations and phylogenetic lineages within a species. Functional Ecology, 26(6), 1418-1428. [More Information]
  • Burns, A., Herbert-Read, J., Morrell, L., Ward, A. (2012). Consistency of leadership in shoals of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in novel and in familiar environments. PLoS One, 7(5), 1-6. [More Information]
  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2012). Multi-scale inference of interaction rules in animal groups using bayesian model selection. PLoS Computational Biology, 8(1), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Mann, R., Perna, A., Strombom, D., Sumpter, D., Garnett, R., Herbert-Read, J., Ward, A. (2012). Prawns and probability. 31st International Workshop on Bayesian Inference and Maximum Entropy Methods in Science and Engineering, Melville: American Institute of Physics (AIP). [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Krause, J., Sumpter, D. (2012). Quorum decision-making in foraging fish shoals. PLoS One, 7(3), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Ward, A. (2012). Social facilitation of exploration in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66(2), 223-230. [More Information]
  • Grigaltchik, V., Ward, A., Seebacher, F. (2012). Thermal acclimation of interactions: Differential responses to temperature change alter predator-prey relationship. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 279(1744), 4058-4064. [More Information]

2011

  • Sinclair, E., Ward, A., Seebacher, F. (2011). Aggression-induced fin damage modulates trade-offs in burst and endurance swimming performance of mosquitofish. Journal of Zoology, 283(4), 243-248. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Simpson, S. (2011). Diets and decisions: The potential use of food protein cues in dietary, sexual and social decisions by mosquitofish. Animal Behaviour, 82(4), 783-790. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Herbert-Read, J., Sumpter, D., Krause, J. (2011). Fast and accurate decisions through collective vigilance in fish shoals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(6), 2312-2315. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Atton, N., Hart, P., Ward, A. (2011). Habitat-specific morphological variation among threespine sticklebacks (gasterosteus aculeatus) within a drainage basin. PLoS One, 6(6), e21060-1-e21060-10. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Perna, A., Mann, R., Schaerf, T., Sumpter, D., Ward, A. (2011). Inferring the rules of interaction of shoaling fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(46), 18726-18731. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A. (2011). Personality and social context. Biological Reviews, 86(4), 759-773. [More Information]
  • Ritz, D., Hobday, A., Montgomery, J., Ward, A. (2011). Social aggregation in the pelagic zone with special reference to fish and invertebrates. Advances in Marine Biology, 60, 161-227. [More Information]
  • Chen, T., Beekman, M., Ward, A. (2011). The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish. Biology Letters, 7(3), 343-345. [More Information]

2010

  • Faria, J., Dyer, J., Clement, R., Couzin, I., Holt, N., Ward, A., Waters, D., Krause, J. (2010). A novel method for investigating the collective behaviour of fish: introducing 'Robofish'. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 1211-1218. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hensor, E., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2010). Behavioural thermoregulation in two freshwater fish species. Journal of Fish Biology, 76, 2287-2298. [More Information]
  • Wilson, A., Godin, J., Ward, A. (2010). Boldness and Reproductive Fitness Correlates in the Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. Ethology, 116, 96-104. [More Information]
  • Jordan, L., Avolio, C., Herbert-Read, J., Krause, J., Rubenstein, D., Ward, A. (2010). Group structure in a restricted entry system is mediated by both resident and joiner preferences. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64(7), 1099-1106. [More Information]
  • Reid, A., Seebacher, F., Ward, A. (2010). Learning to hunt: the role of experience in predator success. Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 147, 223-233.
  • Ward, A., Mehner, T. (2010). Multimodal Mixed Messages: The Use of Multiple Cues allows Greater Accuracy in Social Recognition and Predator Detection Decisions in the Mosquitofish, Gambusia Holbrooki. Behavioral Ecology, 21(6), 1315-1320. [More Information]
  • Herbert-Read, J., Logendran, D., Ward, A. (2010). Sensory ecology in a changing world: salinity alters conspecific recognition in an amphidromous fish, Pseudomugil signifer. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 64, 1107-1115. [More Information]

2009

  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2009). Individual boldness affects interspecific interactions in sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63(4), 511-520. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Magurran, A., Currie, S., Krause, J. (2009). Species and population differences in social recognition between fishes: a role for ecology? Behavioral Ecology, 20(3), 511-516. [More Information]

2008

  • Sumpter, D., Krause, J., James, R., Couzin, I., Ward, A. (2008). Consensus Decision Making by Fish. Current Biology, 18(22), 1773-1777. [More Information]
  • Hart, P., Webster, M., Ward, A. (2008). Fish Foraging Behaviour in Theory and Practice. In Carin Magnhagen, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Elisabet Forsgren, B.G. Kapoor (Eds.), Fish Behaviour. United States: Science Publishers Inc.
  • Krause, J., Ward, A., James, R., Croft, D. (2008). Group-Living and Social Networks. In Carin Magnhagen, Victoria A. Braithwaite, Elisabet Forsgren, B.G. Kapoor (Eds.), Fish Behaviour. United States: Science Publishers Inc.
  • Ward, A. (2008). Questions and Answers on Saltwater Aquarium Fishes. New Jersey, United States: TFH Publications.
  • Ward, A., Sumpter, D., Couzin, I., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2008). Quorum decision-making facilitates information transfer in fish shoals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 105(19), 6948-6953. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Horsfall, J., Currie, S. (2008). Scents and scents-ability: pollution disrupts chemical social recognition and shoaling in fish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 274(1630), 101-105. [More Information]
  • Chapman, B., Ward, A., Krause, J. (2008). Schooling and learning: early social environment predicts social learning ability in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Animal Behaviour, 76, 923-929. [More Information]
  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2008). Shoal and prey patch choice by co-occurring fishes and prawns: inter-taxa use of socially transmitted cues. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 275(1631), 203-208. [More Information]

2007

  • Webster, M., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Boldness is influenced by social context in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 144(3), 351-371.
  • Webster, M., Goldsmith, J., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Habitat-specific chemical cues influence association preferences and shoal cohesion in fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 62(2), 273-280. [More Information]
  • Ward, A. (2007). Questions and Answers on Freshwater Aquarium Fishes: Everything You Need to Know to Successfully Raise Healthy Fish. United States: TFH Publications.
  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2007). Social recognition in wild fish populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences.
  • Webster, M., Atton, N., Ward, A., Hart, P. (2007). Turbidity and foraging rate in threespine sticklebacks: the importance of visual and chemical prey cues. Behaviour: an international journal of behaviourial biology, 144(11), 1347-1360.

2006

  • Ward, A., Webster, M., Hart, P. (2006). Intraspecific food competition in fishes. Fish and Fisheries, 7, 231-261.
  • Griffiths, S., Ward, A. (2006). Learned recognition of conspecifics. In Brown, Laland & Krause (Eds.), Fish Learning & Behaviour, (pp. 139-165). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Wright, D., Ward, A., Croft, D., Krause, J. (2006). Social Organization, Grouping, and Domestication in Fish. Zebrafish, 3(2), 141-155.
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Currie, S. (2006). The effects of the endocrine disrupter, 4-nonylphenol, on the behaviour of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(2), 377-382. [More Information]

2005

  • Croft, D., James, R., Ward, A., Botham, M., Mawdsley, D., Krause, J. (2005). Assortative interactions and social networks in fish. Oecologia, 143(2), 211-219. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hart, P. (2005). Foraging benefits of shoaling with familiars may be exploited by outsiders. Animal Behaviour, 69, 329-335. [More Information]
  • Coolen, I., Ward, A., Hart, P., Laland, K. (2005). Foraging nine-spined sticklebacks prefer to rely on public information over simpler social cues. Behavioral Ecology, 16(5), 865-870. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Duff, A., Krause, J., Barber, I. (2005). Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with a microsporidian parasite. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 72, 155-160. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Holbrook, R., Krause, J., Hart, P. (2005). Social recognition in sticklebacks: The role of direct experience and habitat cues. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57, 575-583. [More Information]
  • Krause, J., Ward, A., Jackson, A., Ruxton, G., James, R., Currie, S. (2005). The influence of differential swimming speeds on composition of multi-species fish shoals. Journal of Fish Biology, 67, 866-872. [More Information]

2004

  • Ward, A., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). Assessment and assortment: how fishes use local and global cues to choose which school to go to. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 271(Supplement 5), S328-S330. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Thomas, P., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). Correlates of boldness in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 55(5), 561-568. [More Information]
  • Ward, A., Hart, P., Krause, J. (2004). The effects of habitat- and diet-based cues on association preferences in three-spined sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology, 15(6), 925-929.

2003

  • Ward, A., Axford, S., Krause, J. (2003). Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 270, 1157-1161.
  • Ward, A., Hart, P. (2003). The effects of kin and familiarity on interactions between fish. Fish and Fisheries, 4(4), 348-358.

2002

  • Ward, A., Botham, M., Hoare, D., James, R., Broom, M., Godin, J., Krause, J. (2002). Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 269, 2451-2455.
  • Ward, A., Axford, S., Krause, J. (2002). Mixed-species shoaling in fish: the sensory mechanisms and costs of shoal choice. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 52, 182-187.
  • Ward, A., Hoare, D., Couzin, I., Broom, M., Krause, J. (2002). The effects of parasitism and body length on positioning within wild fish shoals. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71(1), 10-14.

2001

  • Hoare, D., Ward, A., Couzin, I., Croft, D., Krause, J. (2001). A grid-net technique for the analysis of fish positions within free-ranging shoals. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 1667-1672.
  • Ward, A., Krause, J. (2001). Body length assortative shoaling in the European minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus. Animal Behaviour, 62, 617-621.

2000

  • Krause, J., Hoare, D., Croft, D., Lawrence, J., Ward, A., Ruxton, G., Godin, J., James, R. (2000). Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 267, 2011-2017.

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