Professor Edward Holmes

NHMRC Australia Fellow
Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, Sydney Medical School

A12 - Macleay Building
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9351 5591
Fax +61 2 9351 3890

Biographical details

I joined the University of Sydney in October 2012. Prior to moving here, I worked at Penn State University (2005-2012), the University of Oxford, where I was also a Fellow of New College (1993-2004), the University of Edinburgh (1991-1993), and the University of California, Davis (1990-1991). My Ph.D. is from the University of Cambridge (1990), and I also have an undergraduate degree from University College London (1986).

I have spent most of my scientific career undertaking research aimed at revealing the principle patterns and processes of viral evolution and emergence. Although I still find work of this type fascinating, and I will continue to explore these themes, I want the molecular evolution and epidemiology I pursue to have a more direct and measurable impact on public and animal health. This will be my primary goal at the University of Sydney.

Publication Summary:

• 379 peer-reviewed papers

• 22,831 total citations (28,285 in Google Scholar)

• H-index = 80 (91 in Google Scholar)

Research interests

I am an evolutionary biologist who has worked on viruses and other microbes for over 20 years. My main research theme has been to determine the mechanisms by which viruses emerge in new host species, their patterns and dynamics of spread through populations, and their major mechanisms of evolutionary change. My main research tool has been the evolutionary (largely phylogenetic) analysis of gene sequence data. As case studies I have worked on a number of important viruses of humans and other animals, such as HIV, influenza, dengue, rabies and myxoma. I have also published on a number of bacterial diseases. A good summary of my research and ideas can be found in my book on viral evolution.

Please email me if you are interested in joining my exciting research group or wish to discuss specific areas of my research program.

Associations

• American Society for Microbiology

Awards and honours

• 2011: Australia Fellow, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia.

• 2010: Fogarty International Center Director’s Merit Award to the Multinational Influenza Seasonal Mortality Study Team (MISMS). National Institutes of Health, USA.

• 2010: Faculty Scholars Medal in the Life and Health Sciences. The Pennsylvania State University, USA.

• 2008: Kavli Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, USA.

• 2003: Scientific Medal for achievement in research by a zoologist under the age of 40. Zoological Society of London, UK.

Other Afflilations:

• 2014-Present: Guest Professor, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

• 2009-Present: Member, The Center for Infection and Immunity, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Keywords

Epidemiology; Virology; Bacteriology

Selected grants

2014

  • Towards real time data sharing to support patient-centred care, quality health delivery, improvement programmes, performance management and research; Morris J, Roberts C, Simpson S, Kay J, Venkatesh S, Fazekas B, Arthur J, Feng D, Holmes E, James D, Yang J, Engel A; NSW Ministry of Health, Office for Health and Medical Research/Bioinformatics Collaborative Grants Program.
  • Defining the evolution of pathogen virulence to enhance rabbit biocontrol; Kerr P, Holmes E, Strive T; Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP).
  • Black Death genomics and the evolution of pathogen virulence; Holmes E, Poinar H, Iredell J; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2013

  • Genomic Sequencing Centers for Infectious Diseases; Wentworth D, Holmes E; National Institutes of Health (USA)/Research Support.
  • Genetic variability of non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus populations and host adaptation; Holmes E, Bourhy H; Agence Nationale de la Recherche/Research Grant.
  • Cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of facemasks in preventing influenza, corona and other respiratory viruses among Hajj pilgrims; Holmes E, Rashid H; The Qatar Foundation/Research Grant.

2012

  • The Evolutionary and Biological Bases of Host Switching in Viruses; Holmes E, Parrish C, Holmes E; National Institutes of Health (USA)/Research Support.
  • Genomic analysis of the canonical case of virulence evolution: myxomatosis in Australia; Holmes E, Read A, Kerr P; National Institutes of Health (USA)/Research Support.
  • Australia Fellowship; Holmes E; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Career Awards: Australian Fellowship.

Selected publications

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Books

  • Holmes, E. (2009). The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Journals

  • Qin, X., Shi, M., Tian, J., Lin, X., Gao, D., He, J., Wang, J., Li, C., Kang, Y., Yu, B., Holmes, E., et al (2014). A novel tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America.
  • Cui, J., Schlub, T., Holmes, E. (2014). An allometric relationship between the genome length and virion volume of viruses. Journal of Virology.
  • Duchene, S., Holmes, E., Ho, S. (2014). Analyses of evolutionary dynamics in viruses are hindered by a time-dependent bias in rate estimates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences.
  • Vasilakis, N., Castro-Llanos, F., Widen, S., Aguilar, P., Guzman, H., Guevara, C., Fernandez, R., Auguste, A., Wood, T., Popov, V., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru. The Journal of General Virology, 95(Pt4), 787-792. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Kevin, K., Philips, J., Cartoceti, A., Munk, B., Nemeth, N., Welsh, T., Thomas, J., Crum, J., Lichtenwalner, A., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: A neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen? Virology, 450-451, 2-12. [More Information]
  • Chen, Z., Qin, X., Song, R., Shen, Y., Chen, X., Wang, W., Zhao, Y., Zhang, J., He, J., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Co-Circulation of Multiple Hemorrhagic Fever Diseases with Distinct Clinical Characteristics in Dandong, China. PLoS One, 9(2), 187-11. [More Information]
  • Monne, I., Fusaro, A., Nelson, M., Bonfanti, L., Mulatti, P., Hughes, J., Murcia, P., Schivo, A., Valastro, V., Moreno, A., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Emergence of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus from a Low Pathogenic Progenitor. Journal of Virology, 88(8), 4375-4388. [More Information]
  • Trinidad, L., Blasdell, K., Albert, J., Davis, S., Melville, L., Kirkland, P., Coulibaly, F., Holmes, E., Walker, P. (2014). Evolution of Bovine ephemeral fever virus in the Australian episystem. Journal of Virology, 88(3), 1525-5514. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Mead, D., Palacios, G., Tesh, R., Holmes, E. (2014). Gene duplication and phylogeography of North American members of the Hart Park serogroup of avian rhabdoviruses. Virology, 448, 284-292. [More Information]
  • Kovaliski, J., Sinclair, R., Mutze, G., Peacock, D., Strive, T., Abrantes, J., Esteves, P., Holmes, E. (2014). Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: When one became many. Molecular Ecology, 23(2), 408-420. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Njouom, R., Viboud, C., Niang, M., Kadjo, H., Ampofo, W., Tarnagda, Z., Adebayo, A., Miller, M., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Multiyear Persistence of 2 Pandemic A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Lineages in West Africa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 210, 121-125. [More Information]
  • Devault, A., Golding, G., Waglechner, N., Enk, J., Kuch, M., Tien, J., Shi, M., Fisman, D., Dhody, A., Forrest, S., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Second-pandemic strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Philadelphia cholera outbreak of 1849. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370(4), 334-340. [More Information]
  • Eden, J., Hewitt, J., Lim, K., Boni, M., Merif, J., Greening, G., Ratcliff, R., Holmes, E., Tanaka, M., Rawlinson, W., et al (2014). The emergence and evolution of the novel epidemic norovirus GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. Virology.
  • Zhang, Y., Holmes, E. (2014). What is the time-scale of hantavirus evolution. Infection, Genetics and Evolution.
  • Wagner, D., Klunk, J., Harbeck, M., Devault, A., Waglechner, N., Sahl, J., Enk, J., Birdsell, D., Kuch, M., Lumibao, C., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Yersinia pestis and the Plague of Justinian 541-543 AD: a genomic analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 319-326. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Eden, J., Holmes, E., Wang, L. (2013). Adaptive evolution of bat dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (dpp4): Implications for the origin and emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Virology Journal, 10, 1-5. [More Information]
  • Wang, L., Yin, Q., He, G., Rossiter, S., Holmes, E., Cui, J. (2013). Ancient invasion of an extinct gammaretrovirus in cetaceans. Virology, 441(1), 66-69. [More Information]
  • Quan, P., Firth, C., Conte, J., Williams, S., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., Anthony, S., Ellison, J., Gilbert, A., Kuzmin, I., Niezgoda, M., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 110(20), 8194-8199. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Rogers, M., Fitch, A., DePasse, J., Cattadori, I., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Holmes, E., Ghedin, E. (2013). Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus reveals potential host adaptations. Journal of Virology, 87(22), 12080-12089. [More Information]
  • Viboud, C., Nelson, M., Tan, Y., Holmes, E. (2013). Contrasting the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza spatial transmission. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, 368(1614), 1-9.
  • Levitt, A., Singh, R., Cox-Foster, D., Rajotte, E., Hoover, K., Ostiguy, N., Holmes, E. (2013). Cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods. Virus Research, 176(1-2), 232-240. [More Information]
  • Rabaa, M., Simmons, C., Fox, A., Le, M., Nguyen, T., Le, H., Gibbons, R., Nguyen, X., Holmes, E., Aaskov, J. (2013). Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(12), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Tan, Y., Guan, W., Lam, T., Pan, S., Wu, S., Zhan, Y., Viboud, C., Holmes, E., Yang, Z. (2013). Differing epidemiological dynamics of influenza B lineages in Guangzhou, southern China, 2009-2010. Journal of Virology, 87(22), 12447-12456. [More Information]
  • Tao, Y., Shi, M., Conrardy, C., Kuzmin, I., Recuenco, S., Agwanda, B., Alvarez, D., Ellison, J., Gilbert, A., Moran, D., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Discovery of diverse polyomaviruses in bats and the evolutionary history of the Polyomaviridae. Journal of General Virology, 94(Part 4), 738-748. [More Information]
  • Chen, X., Tan, Y., He, M., Lam, T., Lu, X., Viboud, C., He, J., Zhang, S., Lu, J., Wu, C., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Epidemiological Dynamics and Phylogeography of Influenza Virus in Southern China. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207(1), 106-114. [More Information]
  • Murcia, P., Baillie, G., Stack, J., Jervis, C., Elton, D., Mumford, J., Daly, J., Kellam, P., Grenfell, B., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Journal of Virology, 87(8), 4768-4771. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Kohler, D., Fox, K., Brown, J., Gerhold, R., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Dubovi, E., Parrish, C., Holmes, E. (2013). Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts. Journal of Virology, 87(4), 2342-2347. [More Information]
  • Rabaa, M., Klungthong, C., Yoon, I., Holmes, E., Chinnawirotpisan, P., Thaisomboonsuk, B., Srikiatkhachorn, A., Rothman, A., Tannitisupawong, D., Aldstadt, J., et al (2013). Frequent In-Migration and Highly Focal Transmission of Dengue Viruses among Children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(1), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Simon-Loriere, E., Holmes, E. (2013). Gene duplication is infrequent in the recent evolutionary history of RNA viruses. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(6), 1263-1269. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Rogers, M., Fitch, A., DePasse, J., Cattadori, I., Twaddle, A., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Read, A., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Genome scale evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) reveals host-pathogen adaptation and rapid geographic spread. Journal of Virology, 87(23), 12900-12915. [More Information]
  • Nguyen, N., Kien, D., Tuan, T., Quyen, N., Tran, C., Thi, L., Thi, D., Nguyen, H., Farrar, J., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 110(22), 9072-9077. [More Information]
  • Hayward, J., Tachedjian, M., Cui, J., Field, H., Holmes, E., Wang, L., Tachedjian, G. (2013). Identification of diverse full-length endogenous betaretroviruses in megabats and microbats. Retrovirology, 10, 1-29. [More Information]
  • Stack, J., Murcia, P., Grenfell, B., Wood, J., Holmes, E. (2013). Inferring the inter-host transmission of influenza A virus using patterns of intra-host genetic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 280(1750), 20122173. [More Information]
  • Ghedin, E., Rogers, M., Widen, S., Guzman, H., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Wood, T., Fitch, A., Popov, V., Holmes, E., Walker, P., et al (2013). Kolenté virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea. Journal of General Virology, 94(PART 12), 2609-2615. [More Information]
  • Vasilakis, N., Widen, S., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Wood, T., Walker, P., Holmes, E., Tesh, R. (2013). Malpais spring virus is a new species in the genus vesiculovirus. Virology Journal, 10, 1-5. [More Information]
  • Tong, S., Zhu, X., Li, Y., Shi, M., Zhang, J., Bourgeois, M., Yang, H., Chen, X., Recuenco, S., Gomez, J., Holmes, E., et al (2013). New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses. PLoS Pathogens, 9(10), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Vasilakis, N., Widen, S., Mayer, S., Seymour, R., Wood, T., Popov, V., Guzman, H., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Ghedin, E., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Virology, 444(1-2), 80-89. [More Information]
  • Wang, W., Wang, R., Lin, X., Guo, W., Li, M., Mei, S., Li, Z., Cong, M., Jiang, R., Zhou, R., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Ongoing Spillover of Hantaan and Gou Hantaviruses from Rodents Is Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in China. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(10), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Ke, R., Aaskov, J., Holmes, E., Lloyd-Smith, J. (2013). Phylodynamic Analysis of the Emergence and Epidemiological Impact of Transmissible Defective Dengue Viruses. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Guo, W., Lin, X., Wang, W., Tian, J., Cong, M., Zhang, H., Wang, R., Zhou, R., Wang, J., Li, M., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Nougairede, A., de Fabritus, L., Aubry, F., Gould, E., Holmes, E., de Lamballerie, X. (2013). Random Codon Re-encoding Induces Stable Reduction of Replicative Fitness of Chikungunya Virus in Primate and Mosquito Cells. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-18. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Holmes, E., Brar, M., Leung, F. (2013). Recombination Is Associated with an Outbreak of Novel Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses in China. Journal of Virology, 87(19), 10904-10907. [More Information]
  • Saira, K., Lin, X., DePasse, J., Halpin, R., Twaddle, A., Stockwell, T., Angus, B., Cozzi-Lepri, A., Delfino, M., Dugan, V., Dwyer, D., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Sequence Analysis of In Vivo Defective Interfering-Like RNA of Influenza A H1N1 Pandemic Virus. Journal of Virology, 87(14), 8064-8074. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Chong, Y., Shi, M., Hon, C., Li, J., Martin, D., Tang, J., Mok, C., Shih, S., Yip, C., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Systematic phylogenetic analysis of influenza A virus reveals many novel mosaic genome segments. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 18, 367-378. [More Information]
  • Simon-Loriere, E., Holmes, E., Pagan, I. (2013). The Effect of Gene Overlapping on the Rate of RNA Virus Evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(8), 1916-1928. [More Information]
  • Bhatt, S., Lam, T., Lycett, S., Brown, A., Bowden, T., Holmes, E., Guan, Y., Wood, J., Brown, I., Kellam, P., et al (2013). The evolutionary dynamics of influenza A virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, 368(1614), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Salomoni, A., Angot, A., Trolese, M., Ferre, N., Mutinelli, F., Holmes, E., Capua, I., Lemey, P., et al (2013). The introduction of fox rabies into Italy (2008-2011) was due to two viral genetic groups with distinct phylogeographic patterns. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 17, 202-209. [More Information]
  • Pepperell, C., Casto, A., Kitchen, A., Granka, J., Cornejo, O., Holmes, E., Birren, B., Galagan, J., Feldman, M. (2013). The role of selection in shaping diversity of natural M.tuberculosis populations. PLoS Pathogens, 9(8), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Lemey, P., Brar, M., Suchard, M., Murtaugh, M., Carman, S., D'Allaire, S., Delisle, B., Lambert, M., Gagnon, C., Qu, Y., Holmes, E., et al (2013). The spread of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in North America: A phylogeographic approach. Virology, 447(1-2), 146-154. [More Information]
  • Holmes, E. (2013). What can we predict about viral evolution and emergence? Current Opinion in Virology, 3(2), 180-184. [More Information]
  • Simmons, H., Dunham, J., Zinn, K., Munkvold, G., Holmes, E., Stephenson, A. (2013). Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): Vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections. Virus Research, 176(1-2), 259-264. [More Information]
  • Nielsen, A., Ghyrs, M., Holmes, E., Cui, J. (2012). Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1694-1696.
  • Simmons, H., Dunham, J., Stack, J., Dickins, B., Pagan, I., Holmes, E., Stephenson, A. (2012). Deep sequencing reveals persistence of intra- and inter-host genetic diversity in natural and greenhouse populations of zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology, 93(8), 1831-1840. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses. Journal of Virology, 86(14), 7688-7691. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous Lentiviruses in the Ferret Genome. Journal of Virology, 86(6), 3383-3385. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes. Virology, 427(2), 77-79. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Evidence for an endogenous papillomavirus-like element in the platypus genome. Journal of General Virology, 93(6), 1362-1366. [More Information]
  • Murcia, P., Hughes, J., Battista, P., Lloyd, L., Baillie, G., Ramirez-Gonzalez, R., Ormond, D., Oliver, K., Elton, D., Mumford, J., et al (2012). Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs. PLoS Pathogens, 8(5), e1002730. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Vincent, A., Kitikoon, P., Holmes, E., Gramer, M. (2012). Evolution of novel reassortant A/H3N2 influenza viruses in North American swine and humans, 2009-2011. Journal of Virology, 86(16), 8872-8878. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Jagger, B., Wise, H., Digard, P., Holmes, E., Taubenberger, J. (2012). Evolutionary conservation of the PA-X open reading frame in segment 3 of influenza a virus. Journal of Virology, 86(22), 12411-12413. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Ghedin, E., DePasse, J., Fitch, A., Cattadori, I., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Read, A., Holmes, E. (2012). Evolutionary History and Attenuation of Myxoma Virus on Two Continents. PLoS Pathogens, 8(10), e1002950. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Detmer, S., Wentworth, D., Tan, Y., Schwartzbard, A., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Lin, X., Vincent, A., Gramer, M., et al (2012). Genomic reassortment of influenza A virus in North American swine, 1998-2011. Journal of General Virology, 93(12), 2584-2589. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Gramer, M., Vincent, A., Holmes, E. (2012). Global transmission of influenza viruses from humans to swine. Journal of General Virology, 93(10), 2195-2203. [More Information]
  • Thai, K., Henn, M., Zody, M., Tricou, V., Nguyet, N., Charlebois, P., Lennon, N., Green, L., De Vries, P., Hien, T., et al (2012). High-resolution analysis of intrahost genetic diversity in dengue virus serotype 1 infection identifies mixed infections. Journal of Virology, 86(2), 835-843. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Tachedjian, G., Tachedjian, M., Holmes, E., Zhang, S., Wang, L. (2012). Identification of diverse groups of endogenous gammaretroviruses in mega- and microbats. Journal of General Virology, 93(Pt 9), 2037-2045. [More Information]
  • Pagan, I., Holmes, E., Simon-Lorière, E. (2012). Level of gene expression is a major determinant of protein evolution in the viral order Mononegavirales. Journal of Virology, 86(9), 5253-5263. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Ip, H., Ghedin, E., Wentworth, D., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Spiro, D., Dusek, R., Bortner, J., Hoskins, J., et al (2012). Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds. Ecology Letters, 15(1), 24-33. [More Information]
  • Panzarin, V., Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Cappellozza, E., Patarnello, P., Bovo, G., Capua, I., Holmes, E., Cattoli, G. (2012). Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of betanodavirus in southern Europe. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 12(1), 63-70. [More Information]
  • Cook, S., Moureau, G., Kitchen, A., Gould, E., de Lamballerie, X., Holmes, E., Harbach, R. (2012). Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses. Journal of General Virology, 93(2), 223-234. [More Information]
  • Boni, M., Smith, G., Holmes, E., Vijaykrishna, D. (2012). No evidence for intra-segment recombination of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in swine. Gene, 494(2), 242-245. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Hon, C., Lemey, P., Pybus, O., Shi, M., Tun, H., Li, J., Jiang, J., Holmes, E., Leung, F. (2012). Phylodynamics of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia. Molecular Ecology, 21(12), 3062-3077. [More Information]
  • Bhardwaj, G., Ko, K., Hong, Y., Zhang, Z., Ho, N., Chintapalli, S., Kline, L., Gotlin, M., Hartranft, D., Patterson, M., et al (2012). Phyrn: A robust method for phylogenetic analysis of highly divergent sequences. PLoS One, 7(4), e34261. [More Information]
  • Ghedin, E., Holmes, E., DePasse, J., Pinilla, L., Fitch, A., Hamelin, M., Papenburg, J., Boivin, G. (2012). Presence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A/H1N1 minor variants before drug therapy with subsequent selection and transmission. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206(10), 1504-1511. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Harbison, C., Pagan, I., Stucker, K., Kaelber, J., Brown, J., Ruder, M., Keel, M., Dubovi, E., Holmes, E., et al (2012). Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus. Journal of Virology, 86(2), 865-872. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Holmes, E., Potgieter, A., Wright, I., Sailleau, C., Breard, E., Ruder, M., Stallknecht, D. (2012). Segmental configuration and putative origin of the reassortant orbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6, strain Indiana. Virology, 424(1), 67-75. [More Information]
  • Holt, K., Baker, S., Weill, F., Holmes, E., Kitchen, A., Yu, J., Sangal, V., Brown, D., Coia, J., Kim, D., et al (2012). Shigella sonnei genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicate recent global dissemination from Europe. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 1056-1059. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Zhu, H., Smith, D., Guan, Y., Holmes, E., Pybus, O. (2012). The recombinant origin of emerging human norovirus GII.4/2008: intra-genotypic exchange of the capsid P2 domain. Journal of General Virology, 93(4), 817-822. [More Information]
  • Stucker, K., Pagan, I., Cifuente, J., Kaelber, J., Lillie, T., Hafenstein, S., Holmes, E., Parrish, C. (2012). The role of evolutionary intermediates in the host adaptation of canine parvovirus. Journal of Virology, 86(3), 1514-1521. [More Information]
  • Hughes, J., Allen, R., Baguelin, M., Hampson, K., Baillie, G., Elton, D., Newton, J., Kellam, P., Wood, J., Holmes, E., et al (2012). Transmission of Equine Influenza Virus during an Outbreak Is Characterized by Frequent Mixed Infections and Loose Transmission Bottlenecks. PLoS Pathogens, 8(12), e1003081. [More Information]
  • Cattoli, G., Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Coven, F., Joannis, T., El-Hamid, H., Hussein, A., Cornelius, C., Amarin, N., Mancin, M., et al (2011). Evidence for differing evolutionary dynamics of A/H5N1 viruses among countries applying or not applying avian influenza vaccination in poultry. Vaccine, 29(50), 9368-9375. [More Information]
  • Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Salviato, A., Valastro, V., Schivo, A., Amarin, N., Gonzalez, C., Ismail, M., Al-Ankari, A., Al-Blowi, M., et al (2011). Phylogeography and evolutionary history of reassortant H9N2 viruses with potential human health implications. Journal of Virology, 85(16), 8413-8421. [More Information]
  • Bahl, J., Nelson, M., Chan, K., Chen, R., Vijaykrishna, D., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Lin, X., Wentworth, D., Ghedin, E., et al (2011). Temporally structured metapopulation dynamics and persistence of influenza A H3N2 virus in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(48), 19359-19364. [More Information]
  • Bhatt, S., Holmes, E., Pybus, O. (2011). The genomic rate of molecular adaptation of the human influenza A virus. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(9), 2443-2451. [More Information]
  • Ramsden, C., Holmes, E., Charleston, M. (2009). Hantavirus Evolution in Relation to Its Rodent and Insectivore Hosts: No Evidence for Codivergence. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26(1), 143-153.
  • Firth, C., Charleston, M., Duffy, S., Shapiro, B., Holmes, E. (2009). Insights into the Evolutionary History of an Emerging Livestock Pathogen: Porcine Circovirus 2. Journal of Virology, 83(24), 12813-12821.

2014

  • Qin, X., Shi, M., Tian, J., Lin, X., Gao, D., He, J., Wang, J., Li, C., Kang, Y., Yu, B., Holmes, E., et al (2014). A novel tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America.
  • Cui, J., Schlub, T., Holmes, E. (2014). An allometric relationship between the genome length and virion volume of viruses. Journal of Virology.
  • Duchene, S., Holmes, E., Ho, S. (2014). Analyses of evolutionary dynamics in viruses are hindered by a time-dependent bias in rate estimates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences.
  • Vasilakis, N., Castro-Llanos, F., Widen, S., Aguilar, P., Guzman, H., Guevara, C., Fernandez, R., Auguste, A., Wood, T., Popov, V., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Arboretum and Puerto Almendras viruses: two novel rhabdoviruses isolated from mosquitoes in Peru. The Journal of General Virology, 95(Pt4), 787-792. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Kevin, K., Philips, J., Cartoceti, A., Munk, B., Nemeth, N., Welsh, T., Thomas, J., Crum, J., Lichtenwalner, A., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: A neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen? Virology, 450-451, 2-12. [More Information]
  • Chen, Z., Qin, X., Song, R., Shen, Y., Chen, X., Wang, W., Zhao, Y., Zhang, J., He, J., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Co-Circulation of Multiple Hemorrhagic Fever Diseases with Distinct Clinical Characteristics in Dandong, China. PLoS One, 9(2), 187-11. [More Information]
  • Monne, I., Fusaro, A., Nelson, M., Bonfanti, L., Mulatti, P., Hughes, J., Murcia, P., Schivo, A., Valastro, V., Moreno, A., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Emergence of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus from a Low Pathogenic Progenitor. Journal of Virology, 88(8), 4375-4388. [More Information]
  • Trinidad, L., Blasdell, K., Albert, J., Davis, S., Melville, L., Kirkland, P., Coulibaly, F., Holmes, E., Walker, P. (2014). Evolution of Bovine ephemeral fever virus in the Australian episystem. Journal of Virology, 88(3), 1525-5514. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Mead, D., Palacios, G., Tesh, R., Holmes, E. (2014). Gene duplication and phylogeography of North American members of the Hart Park serogroup of avian rhabdoviruses. Virology, 448, 284-292. [More Information]
  • Kovaliski, J., Sinclair, R., Mutze, G., Peacock, D., Strive, T., Abrantes, J., Esteves, P., Holmes, E. (2014). Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: When one became many. Molecular Ecology, 23(2), 408-420. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Njouom, R., Viboud, C., Niang, M., Kadjo, H., Ampofo, W., Tarnagda, Z., Adebayo, A., Miller, M., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Multiyear Persistence of 2 Pandemic A/H1N1 Influenza Virus Lineages in West Africa. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 210, 121-125. [More Information]
  • Devault, A., Golding, G., Waglechner, N., Enk, J., Kuch, M., Tien, J., Shi, M., Fisman, D., Dhody, A., Forrest, S., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Second-pandemic strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Philadelphia cholera outbreak of 1849. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370(4), 334-340. [More Information]
  • Eden, J., Hewitt, J., Lim, K., Boni, M., Merif, J., Greening, G., Ratcliff, R., Holmes, E., Tanaka, M., Rawlinson, W., et al (2014). The emergence and evolution of the novel epidemic norovirus GII.4 variant Sydney 2012. Virology.
  • Zhang, Y., Holmes, E. (2014). What is the time-scale of hantavirus evolution. Infection, Genetics and Evolution.
  • Wagner, D., Klunk, J., Harbeck, M., Devault, A., Waglechner, N., Sahl, J., Enk, J., Birdsell, D., Kuch, M., Lumibao, C., Holmes, E., et al (2014). Yersinia pestis and the Plague of Justinian 541-543 AD: a genomic analysis. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(4), 319-326. [More Information]

2013

  • Cui, J., Eden, J., Holmes, E., Wang, L. (2013). Adaptive evolution of bat dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (dpp4): Implications for the origin and emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Virology Journal, 10, 1-5. [More Information]
  • Wang, L., Yin, Q., He, G., Rossiter, S., Holmes, E., Cui, J. (2013). Ancient invasion of an extinct gammaretrovirus in cetaceans. Virology, 441(1), 66-69. [More Information]
  • Quan, P., Firth, C., Conte, J., Williams, S., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., Anthony, S., Ellison, J., Gilbert, A., Kuzmin, I., Niezgoda, M., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 110(20), 8194-8199. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Rogers, M., Fitch, A., DePasse, J., Cattadori, I., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Holmes, E., Ghedin, E. (2013). Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus reveals potential host adaptations. Journal of Virology, 87(22), 12080-12089. [More Information]
  • Viboud, C., Nelson, M., Tan, Y., Holmes, E. (2013). Contrasting the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of influenza spatial transmission. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, 368(1614), 1-9.
  • Levitt, A., Singh, R., Cox-Foster, D., Rajotte, E., Hoover, K., Ostiguy, N., Holmes, E. (2013). Cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods. Virus Research, 176(1-2), 232-240. [More Information]
  • Rabaa, M., Simmons, C., Fox, A., Le, M., Nguyen, T., Le, H., Gibbons, R., Nguyen, X., Holmes, E., Aaskov, J. (2013). Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(12), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Tan, Y., Guan, W., Lam, T., Pan, S., Wu, S., Zhan, Y., Viboud, C., Holmes, E., Yang, Z. (2013). Differing epidemiological dynamics of influenza B lineages in Guangzhou, southern China, 2009-2010. Journal of Virology, 87(22), 12447-12456. [More Information]
  • Tao, Y., Shi, M., Conrardy, C., Kuzmin, I., Recuenco, S., Agwanda, B., Alvarez, D., Ellison, J., Gilbert, A., Moran, D., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Discovery of diverse polyomaviruses in bats and the evolutionary history of the Polyomaviridae. Journal of General Virology, 94(Part 4), 738-748. [More Information]
  • Chen, X., Tan, Y., He, M., Lam, T., Lu, X., Viboud, C., He, J., Zhang, S., Lu, J., Wu, C., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Epidemiological Dynamics and Phylogeography of Influenza Virus in Southern China. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207(1), 106-114. [More Information]
  • Murcia, P., Baillie, G., Stack, J., Jervis, C., Elton, D., Mumford, J., Daly, J., Kellam, P., Grenfell, B., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Journal of Virology, 87(8), 4768-4771. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Kohler, D., Fox, K., Brown, J., Gerhold, R., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Dubovi, E., Parrish, C., Holmes, E. (2013). Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts. Journal of Virology, 87(4), 2342-2347. [More Information]
  • Rabaa, M., Klungthong, C., Yoon, I., Holmes, E., Chinnawirotpisan, P., Thaisomboonsuk, B., Srikiatkhachorn, A., Rothman, A., Tannitisupawong, D., Aldstadt, J., et al (2013). Frequent In-Migration and Highly Focal Transmission of Dengue Viruses among Children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(1), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Simon-Loriere, E., Holmes, E. (2013). Gene duplication is infrequent in the recent evolutionary history of RNA viruses. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(6), 1263-1269. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Rogers, M., Fitch, A., DePasse, J., Cattadori, I., Twaddle, A., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Read, A., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Genome scale evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) reveals host-pathogen adaptation and rapid geographic spread. Journal of Virology, 87(23), 12900-12915. [More Information]
  • Nguyen, N., Kien, D., Tuan, T., Quyen, N., Tran, C., Thi, L., Thi, D., Nguyen, H., Farrar, J., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 110(22), 9072-9077. [More Information]
  • Hayward, J., Tachedjian, M., Cui, J., Field, H., Holmes, E., Wang, L., Tachedjian, G. (2013). Identification of diverse full-length endogenous betaretroviruses in megabats and microbats. Retrovirology, 10, 1-29. [More Information]
  • Stack, J., Murcia, P., Grenfell, B., Wood, J., Holmes, E. (2013). Inferring the inter-host transmission of influenza A virus using patterns of intra-host genetic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B Biological Sciences, 280(1750), 20122173. [More Information]
  • Ghedin, E., Rogers, M., Widen, S., Guzman, H., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Wood, T., Fitch, A., Popov, V., Holmes, E., Walker, P., et al (2013). Kolenté virus, a rhabdovirus species isolated from ticks and bats in the Republic of Guinea. Journal of General Virology, 94(PART 12), 2609-2615. [More Information]
  • Vasilakis, N., Widen, S., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Wood, T., Walker, P., Holmes, E., Tesh, R. (2013). Malpais spring virus is a new species in the genus vesiculovirus. Virology Journal, 10, 1-5. [More Information]
  • Tong, S., Zhu, X., Li, Y., Shi, M., Zhang, J., Bourgeois, M., Yang, H., Chen, X., Recuenco, S., Gomez, J., Holmes, E., et al (2013). New World Bats Harbor Diverse Influenza A Viruses. PLoS Pathogens, 9(10), 1-12. [More Information]
  • Vasilakis, N., Widen, S., Mayer, S., Seymour, R., Wood, T., Popov, V., Guzman, H., Travassos Da Rosa, A., Ghedin, E., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Virology, 444(1-2), 80-89. [More Information]
  • Wang, W., Wang, R., Lin, X., Guo, W., Li, M., Mei, S., Li, Z., Cong, M., Jiang, R., Zhou, R., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Ongoing Spillover of Hantaan and Gou Hantaviruses from Rodents Is Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in China. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(10), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Ke, R., Aaskov, J., Holmes, E., Lloyd-Smith, J. (2013). Phylodynamic Analysis of the Emergence and Epidemiological Impact of Transmissible Defective Dengue Viruses. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-11. [More Information]
  • Guo, W., Lin, X., Wang, W., Tian, J., Cong, M., Zhang, H., Wang, R., Zhou, R., Wang, J., Li, M., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Nougairede, A., de Fabritus, L., Aubry, F., Gould, E., Holmes, E., de Lamballerie, X. (2013). Random Codon Re-encoding Induces Stable Reduction of Replicative Fitness of Chikungunya Virus in Primate and Mosquito Cells. PLoS Pathogens, 9(2), 1-18. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Holmes, E., Brar, M., Leung, F. (2013). Recombination Is Associated with an Outbreak of Novel Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses in China. Journal of Virology, 87(19), 10904-10907. [More Information]
  • Saira, K., Lin, X., DePasse, J., Halpin, R., Twaddle, A., Stockwell, T., Angus, B., Cozzi-Lepri, A., Delfino, M., Dugan, V., Dwyer, D., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Sequence Analysis of In Vivo Defective Interfering-Like RNA of Influenza A H1N1 Pandemic Virus. Journal of Virology, 87(14), 8064-8074. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Chong, Y., Shi, M., Hon, C., Li, J., Martin, D., Tang, J., Mok, C., Shih, S., Yip, C., Holmes, E., et al (2013). Systematic phylogenetic analysis of influenza A virus reveals many novel mosaic genome segments. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 18, 367-378. [More Information]
  • Simon-Loriere, E., Holmes, E., Pagan, I. (2013). The Effect of Gene Overlapping on the Rate of RNA Virus Evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30(8), 1916-1928. [More Information]
  • Bhatt, S., Lam, T., Lycett, S., Brown, A., Bowden, T., Holmes, E., Guan, Y., Wood, J., Brown, I., Kellam, P., et al (2013). The evolutionary dynamics of influenza A virus adaptation to mammalian hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, 368(1614), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Salomoni, A., Angot, A., Trolese, M., Ferre, N., Mutinelli, F., Holmes, E., Capua, I., Lemey, P., et al (2013). The introduction of fox rabies into Italy (2008-2011) was due to two viral genetic groups with distinct phylogeographic patterns. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 17, 202-209. [More Information]
  • Pepperell, C., Casto, A., Kitchen, A., Granka, J., Cornejo, O., Holmes, E., Birren, B., Galagan, J., Feldman, M. (2013). The role of selection in shaping diversity of natural M.tuberculosis populations. PLoS Pathogens, 9(8), 1-14. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Lemey, P., Brar, M., Suchard, M., Murtaugh, M., Carman, S., D'Allaire, S., Delisle, B., Lambert, M., Gagnon, C., Qu, Y., Holmes, E., et al (2013). The spread of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) in North America: A phylogeographic approach. Virology, 447(1-2), 146-154. [More Information]
  • Holmes, E. (2013). What can we predict about viral evolution and emergence? Current Opinion in Virology, 3(2), 180-184. [More Information]
  • Simmons, H., Dunham, J., Zinn, K., Munkvold, G., Holmes, E., Stephenson, A. (2013). Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus): Vertical transmission, seed infection and cryptic infections. Virus Research, 176(1-2), 259-264. [More Information]

2012

  • Nielsen, A., Ghyrs, M., Holmes, E., Cui, J. (2012). Co-Circulation and Persistence of Genetically Distinct Saffold Viruses, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(10), 1694-1696.
  • Simmons, H., Dunham, J., Stack, J., Dickins, B., Pagan, I., Holmes, E., Stephenson, A. (2012). Deep sequencing reveals persistence of intra- and inter-host genetic diversity in natural and greenhouse populations of zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology, 93(8), 1831-1840. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous Hepadnaviruses in the Genome of the Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and the Evolution of Avian Hepadnaviruses. Journal of Virology, 86(14), 7688-7691. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous Lentiviruses in the Ferret Genome. Journal of Virology, 86(6), 3383-3385. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes. Virology, 427(2), 77-79. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Holmes, E. (2012). Evidence for an endogenous papillomavirus-like element in the platypus genome. Journal of General Virology, 93(6), 1362-1366. [More Information]
  • Murcia, P., Hughes, J., Battista, P., Lloyd, L., Baillie, G., Ramirez-Gonzalez, R., Ormond, D., Oliver, K., Elton, D., Mumford, J., et al (2012). Evolution of an Eurasian avian-like influenza virus in naïve and vaccinated pigs. PLoS Pathogens, 8(5), e1002730. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Vincent, A., Kitikoon, P., Holmes, E., Gramer, M. (2012). Evolution of novel reassortant A/H3N2 influenza viruses in North American swine and humans, 2009-2011. Journal of Virology, 86(16), 8872-8878. [More Information]
  • Shi, M., Jagger, B., Wise, H., Digard, P., Holmes, E., Taubenberger, J. (2012). Evolutionary conservation of the PA-X open reading frame in segment 3 of influenza a virus. Journal of Virology, 86(22), 12411-12413. [More Information]
  • Kerr, P., Ghedin, E., DePasse, J., Fitch, A., Cattadori, I., Hudson, P., Tscharke, D., Read, A., Holmes, E. (2012). Evolutionary History and Attenuation of Myxoma Virus on Two Continents. PLoS Pathogens, 8(10), e1002950. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Detmer, S., Wentworth, D., Tan, Y., Schwartzbard, A., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Lin, X., Vincent, A., Gramer, M., et al (2012). Genomic reassortment of influenza A virus in North American swine, 1998-2011. Journal of General Virology, 93(12), 2584-2589. [More Information]
  • Nelson, M., Gramer, M., Vincent, A., Holmes, E. (2012). Global transmission of influenza viruses from humans to swine. Journal of General Virology, 93(10), 2195-2203. [More Information]
  • Thai, K., Henn, M., Zody, M., Tricou, V., Nguyet, N., Charlebois, P., Lennon, N., Green, L., De Vries, P., Hien, T., et al (2012). High-resolution analysis of intrahost genetic diversity in dengue virus serotype 1 infection identifies mixed infections. Journal of Virology, 86(2), 835-843. [More Information]
  • Cui, J., Tachedjian, G., Tachedjian, M., Holmes, E., Zhang, S., Wang, L. (2012). Identification of diverse groups of endogenous gammaretroviruses in mega- and microbats. Journal of General Virology, 93(Pt 9), 2037-2045. [More Information]
  • Pagan, I., Holmes, E., Simon-Lorière, E. (2012). Level of gene expression is a major determinant of protein evolution in the viral order Mononegavirales. Journal of Virology, 86(9), 5253-5263. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Ip, H., Ghedin, E., Wentworth, D., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Spiro, D., Dusek, R., Bortner, J., Hoskins, J., et al (2012). Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds. Ecology Letters, 15(1), 24-33. [More Information]
  • Panzarin, V., Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Cappellozza, E., Patarnello, P., Bovo, G., Capua, I., Holmes, E., Cattoli, G. (2012). Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of betanodavirus in southern Europe. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 12(1), 63-70. [More Information]
  • Cook, S., Moureau, G., Kitchen, A., Gould, E., de Lamballerie, X., Holmes, E., Harbach, R. (2012). Molecular evolution of the insect-specific flaviviruses. Journal of General Virology, 93(2), 223-234. [More Information]
  • Boni, M., Smith, G., Holmes, E., Vijaykrishna, D. (2012). No evidence for intra-segment recombination of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in swine. Gene, 494(2), 242-245. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Hon, C., Lemey, P., Pybus, O., Shi, M., Tun, H., Li, J., Jiang, J., Holmes, E., Leung, F. (2012). Phylodynamics of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia. Molecular Ecology, 21(12), 3062-3077. [More Information]
  • Bhardwaj, G., Ko, K., Hong, Y., Zhang, Z., Ho, N., Chintapalli, S., Kline, L., Gotlin, M., Hartranft, D., Patterson, M., et al (2012). Phyrn: A robust method for phylogenetic analysis of highly divergent sequences. PLoS One, 7(4), e34261. [More Information]
  • Ghedin, E., Holmes, E., DePasse, J., Pinilla, L., Fitch, A., Hamelin, M., Papenburg, J., Boivin, G. (2012). Presence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A/H1N1 minor variants before drug therapy with subsequent selection and transmission. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206(10), 1504-1511. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Harbison, C., Pagan, I., Stucker, K., Kaelber, J., Brown, J., Ruder, M., Keel, M., Dubovi, E., Holmes, E., et al (2012). Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus. Journal of Virology, 86(2), 865-872. [More Information]
  • Allison, A., Holmes, E., Potgieter, A., Wright, I., Sailleau, C., Breard, E., Ruder, M., Stallknecht, D. (2012). Segmental configuration and putative origin of the reassortant orbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6, strain Indiana. Virology, 424(1), 67-75. [More Information]
  • Holt, K., Baker, S., Weill, F., Holmes, E., Kitchen, A., Yu, J., Sangal, V., Brown, D., Coia, J., Kim, D., et al (2012). Shigella sonnei genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicate recent global dissemination from Europe. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 1056-1059. [More Information]
  • Lam, T., Zhu, H., Smith, D., Guan, Y., Holmes, E., Pybus, O. (2012). The recombinant origin of emerging human norovirus GII.4/2008: intra-genotypic exchange of the capsid P2 domain. Journal of General Virology, 93(4), 817-822. [More Information]
  • Stucker, K., Pagan, I., Cifuente, J., Kaelber, J., Lillie, T., Hafenstein, S., Holmes, E., Parrish, C. (2012). The role of evolutionary intermediates in the host adaptation of canine parvovirus. Journal of Virology, 86(3), 1514-1521. [More Information]
  • Hughes, J., Allen, R., Baguelin, M., Hampson, K., Baillie, G., Elton, D., Newton, J., Kellam, P., Wood, J., Holmes, E., et al (2012). Transmission of Equine Influenza Virus during an Outbreak Is Characterized by Frequent Mixed Infections and Loose Transmission Bottlenecks. PLoS Pathogens, 8(12), e1003081. [More Information]

2011

  • Cattoli, G., Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Coven, F., Joannis, T., El-Hamid, H., Hussein, A., Cornelius, C., Amarin, N., Mancin, M., et al (2011). Evidence for differing evolutionary dynamics of A/H5N1 viruses among countries applying or not applying avian influenza vaccination in poultry. Vaccine, 29(50), 9368-9375. [More Information]
  • Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Salviato, A., Valastro, V., Schivo, A., Amarin, N., Gonzalez, C., Ismail, M., Al-Ankari, A., Al-Blowi, M., et al (2011). Phylogeography and evolutionary history of reassortant H9N2 viruses with potential human health implications. Journal of Virology, 85(16), 8413-8421. [More Information]
  • Bahl, J., Nelson, M., Chan, K., Chen, R., Vijaykrishna, D., Halpin, R., Stockwell, T., Lin, X., Wentworth, D., Ghedin, E., et al (2011). Temporally structured metapopulation dynamics and persistence of influenza A H3N2 virus in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, 108(48), 19359-19364. [More Information]
  • Bhatt, S., Holmes, E., Pybus, O. (2011). The genomic rate of molecular adaptation of the human influenza A virus. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(9), 2443-2451. [More Information]

2009

  • Ramsden, C., Holmes, E., Charleston, M. (2009). Hantavirus Evolution in Relation to Its Rodent and Insectivore Hosts: No Evidence for Codivergence. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26(1), 143-153.
  • Firth, C., Charleston, M., Duffy, S., Shapiro, B., Holmes, E. (2009). Insights into the Evolutionary History of an Emerging Livestock Pathogen: Porcine Circovirus 2. Journal of Virology, 83(24), 12813-12821.
  • Holmes, E. (2009). The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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