Dr Markus Hofer

Telephone +61 2 9351 2233
Fax +61 2 9351 5858

Biographical details

I studied medicine at the Albert-Ludwigs University in Freiburg, Germany, obtaining my medical doctorate (M.D. thesis) working on Borna disease virus. I was a postdoctoral fellow at both the Albert-Ludwigs University and the University of Sydney where I focused on the role of cytokine signalling in the CNS. I completed my speciality training in neuropathology and in 2010 became a senior consultant and the deputy head for the Department of Neuropathology at the University Hospital Marburg, Germany. In 2012, I was awarded "Habilitation and Venia legendi" from the Philipps University in Marburg.

Research interests

The brain is the most complex organ in the human body, containing over one hundred billion nerve cells. In contrast to other organs, the brain has a very limit capacity to regenerate and damage is often irreversible. One of the major ways the brain can become damaged is during inflammation. Inflammation is part of the process that the body uses to eliminate microbial infection but it also occurs during autoimmune disease and in response to external factors such as diet.

My research aims to understand the delicate balance of signalling factors that control inflammation in the brain and to explore the process of neurodegeneration. Part of my work focuses on how inflammation contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. To do this, my laboratory uses both in vivo and in vitro models including cell culture, transgenic and knock-out mice, as well as experimental infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for viral encephalitis.

In our lab, we offer research opportunities for undergraduate and postgraduate students. For more details see “Current Projects” and contact Markus directly.

Current projects

1. Effects of Interferon Regulatory Factor 9 (IRF9) deficiency on the function of virus-specific CD8+ T cells during viral encephalitis.

Type I interferons (IFN-Is) are a family of proteins that are produced by the body in response to infection with microorganisms such as viruses. The IFN-Is transmit their effects by activating three factors, termed signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT2 and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9). We have previously shown that absence of either factor has distinct effects on the response of cells to IFN-Is. This finding is of great relevance as it suggests that altering the activity of these three factors may improve the use of IFN-Is as drugs while maintaining their effectiveness. Nevertheless, the role of each of the factors remains unknown.

In this project we are investigating the role of IRF9 in anti-viral immune responses in the CNS using intracranial infection of mice with LCMV as a model. In normal or “wild-type” (WT) mice, LCMV causes a lethal encephalitis when injected into the brain. Mice that lack IRF9 (called IRF9 KO mice) do not die following infection with LCMV. However, survival comes at the cost of virus persistence and a chronic immune response in the brain and peripheral organs. The lethal disease in WT mice is caused by a subgroup of white blood cells, termed CD8+ T cells. One of our research foci is to determine the effects of IRF9-deficiency on these CD8+ T cells.

2. Transactivation of STAT1 in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system

Type I interferons (IFN-Is) play a seminal role in the activation of the innate immune response, linking it with the adaptive immune response. This large family of cytokines includes multiple subtypes of IFN-alpha and a single IFN-beta. By contrast, type II interferon consists only of a single member, IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma is a key mediator in the host defence against cerebral virus infections, but is also involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders including the debilitating autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS).

The biological effects of IFN-Is and IFN-gamma are mediated by two distinct signalling pathways. In both signalling pathways, activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is essential. This step occurs via phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 (PY-STAT1). However, additional phosphorylation of serine 727 in STAT1 (PS-STAT1) is also critical for the cellular responses to IFNs. In humans, PS-STAT1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumours. Furthermore, reduced PS-STAT1 levels correlate with more severe disease in patients with MS.

So far, most studies on PS-STAT1 have been donein vitrowith limited results obtainedin vivoand none concerning the CNS. Therefore, the aims of this project are to determine the contribution of S727 phosphorylation of STAT1 to neuroinflammatory diseases.

3. The contribution of diet to neurodegeneration

Diet is known to play an important role in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have also linked diet to the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Neurodegenerative diseases pose a significant challenge to Australia’s aging population and have no known cure. Understanding the impact of diet may lead to practical interventions to slow or prevent these diseases.

While the exact mechanisms that connect neurodegenerative diseases to diet remain unknown, several studies have revealed the potential for high-fat diets to trigger chronic inflammation and loss of nerve cells. In this project we explore this further by characterising the pathological responses of the brain that are induced by specific diets.

4. The role of the brain-gut axis in behavioural responses to diet-induced obesity(in collaboration with Prof. Andy Holmes, Dr. Claire Thompson and Prof. David Raubenheimer).

A network of nervous fibres, hormones and immune signals connects the brain and the gut. This network is collectively termed the gut-brain axis and is a key regulator of multiple systems in our body including brain development and normal functioning of the CNS. Changes to this axis, such as an altered diet or abnormal gut bacteria, have profound effects on the CNS. Together with several collaborators from different disciplines, we aim to better understand how diet influences our development and behaviour.

International links

Austria

(Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna) Prof. Mathias Mueller

Austria

(Max F. Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna) Prof. Thomas Decker

Germany

(Deutsches Rheumaforschungszentrum Berlin) Prof. Max Loehning

Germany

(Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, Philipps University Marburg.) PD. Dr. Magdalena Huber

Selected publications

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Journals

  • Teymoortash, A., Zieger, L., Hoch, S., Pagenstecher, A., Hofer, M. (2014). Distinct microscopic features of perineural invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Histopathology, 64(7), 1037-1039. [More Information]
  • Li, W., Hofer, M., Jung, S., Lim, S., Campbell, I. (2014). IRF7-Dependent Type I Interferon Production Induces Lethal Immune-Mediated Disease in STAT1 Knockout Mice Infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Journal of Virology, 88(13), 7578-7588. [More Information]
  • Nocon, A., Ip, J., Terry, R., Lim, S., Getts, D., Muller, M., Hofer, M., King, N., Campbell, I. (2014). The Bacteriostatic Protein Lipocalin 2 Is Induced in the Central Nervous System of Mice with West Nile Virus Encephalitis. Journal of Virology, 88(1), 679-689. [More Information]
  • Zimmermann, J., Krauthausen, M., Hofer, M., Heneka, M., Campbell, I., Muller, M. (2013). CNS-Targeted Production of IL-17A Induces Glial Activation, Microvascular Pathology and Enhances the Neuroinflammatory Response to Systemic Endotoxemia. PLoS One, 8(2), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Siegfried, A., Berchtold, S., Manncke, B., Deuschle, E., Reber, J., Ott, T., Weber, M., Kalinke, U., Hofer, M., Hatesuer, B., et al (2013). IFIT2 is an effector protein of type I IFN-mediated amplification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α secretion and LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Journal of Immunology, 191(7), 3913-3921. [More Information]
  • Li, W., Hofer, M., Nocon, A., Manders, P., Campbell, I. (2013). Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is required for the optimal initial control but not subsequent clearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. Virology, 439(2), 152-162. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Campbell, I. (2013). Type I interferon in neurological disease-The devil from within. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, 24(3), 257-267. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Riehmer, V., Kuhnt, D., Braun, V., Nimsky, C., Weber, R., Sommer, C., Pagenstecher, A. (2012). Genomic profiling to assess the clonal relationship between histologically distinct intracranial tumours. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology, 38(5), 500-504. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Li, W., Manders, P., Terry, R., Lim, S., King, N., Campbell, I. (2012). Mice deficient in STAT1 but not STAT2 or IRF9 develop a lethal CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Journal of Virology, 86(12), 6932-6946. [More Information]
  • Getts, D., Terry, R., Getts, M., Muller, M., Rana, S., Deffrasnes, C., Ashhurst, T., Radford, J., Hofer, M., Thomas, S., Campbell, I., King, N. (2012). Targeted blockade in lethal West Nile virus encephalitis indicates a crucial role for very late antigen (VLA)-4-dependent recruitment of nitric oxide-producing macrophages. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 9(1), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Vetter, M., Hofer, M., Roth, E., Pircher, H., Pagenstecher, A. (2011). Intracerebral interleukin 12 induces glioma rejection in the brain predominantly by CD8+ T cells and independently of interferon-gamma. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 68(5), 525-534. [More Information]
  • Ip, J., Nocon, A., Hofer, M., Lim, S., Müller, M., Campbell, I. (2011). Lipocalin 2 in the central nervous system host response to systemic lipopolysaccharide administration. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8(124), 1-15. [More Information]
  • Thompson, C., Hofer, M., Campbell, I., Holmes, A. (2010). Community Dynamics in the Mouse Gut Microbiota: A Possible Role for IRF9-Regulated Genes in Community Homeostasis. PLoS One, 5(4), e10335-1-e10335-9. [More Information]
  • Muller, M., Carter, S., Hofer, M., Campbell, I. (2010). Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity - a tale of conflict and conundrum. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 36(5), 368-387. [More Information]
  • Ellis, S., Gysbers, V., Manders, P., Li, W., Hofer, M., Muller, M., Campbell, I. (2010). The Cell-Specific Induction of CXC Chemokine Ligand 9 Mediated by IFN-{gamma} in Microglia of the Central Nervous System Is Determined by the Myeloid Transcription Factor PU.1. Journal of Immunology, 185(3), 1864-1877. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Li, W., Lim, S., Campbell, I. (2010). The type I interferon-alpha mediates a more severe neurological disease in the absence of the canonical signaling molecule interferon regulatory factor 9. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(3), 1149-1157. [More Information]
  • Campbell, I., Hofer, M., Pagenstecher, A. (2010). Transgenic models for cytokine-induced neurological disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease, 1802 (10), 903-917. [More Information]
  • Quintana, A., Muller, M., Frausto, R., Ramos, R., Getts, D., Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Krathausen, M., King, N., Hildago, J., Campbell, I. (2009). Site-Specific Production of IL-6 in the Central Nervous System Retargets and Enchances the Inflammatory Response in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Immunology, 183(3), 2079-2088. [More Information]
  • Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Unzeta, M., Campbell, I. (2008). Minimal Role for STAT1 in Interleukin-6 Signaling and Actions in the Murine Brain. Glia, 56(2), 190-199. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Carter, S., Muller, M., Campbell, I. (2008). Unaltered Neurological Disease and Mortality in CXCR3-Deficient Mice Infected Intracranially with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus-Armstrong. Viral Immunology, 21(4), 425-433. [More Information]
  • Muller, M., Carter, S., Hofer, M., Manders, P., Getts, D., Getts, M., Dreykluft, A., Lu, B., Gerard, C., King, N., Campbell, I. (2007). CXCR3 Signaling Reduces the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Controlling the Parenchymal Distribution of Effector and Regulatory T Cells in the Central Nervous System. Journal of Immunology, 179(5), 2774-2786. [More Information]
  • Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Unzeta, M., Campbell, I. (2007). STAT1 has a minimal role in interleukin-6 signalling and actions in the murine brain. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, 27(8), 722-722. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Schindler, A., Ehrensberger, F., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2006). Absence of Borna disease virus in the CNS of epilepsy patients. Journal Of Clinical Virology.
  • Hofer, M. (2006). Absence of Borna disease virus in the CNS of epilepsy patients. Journal Of Clinical Virology, 36(1), 84-85. [More Information]
  • Wacher, C., Muller, M., Hofer, M., Getts, D., Zabaras, R., Ousman, S., Terenzi, F., Sen, G., King, N., Campbell, I. (2006). Coordinated regulation and widespread cellular expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG)-49, ISG-54 and ISG-56 in the central nervous system following infection with distinct viruses. Journal of Virology, 81(2), 860-871. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Weber, A., Haffner, K., Berlis, A., Klingel, K., Kruger, M., Kandolf, R., Volk, B. (2005). Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst’s disease) linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acta Neuropathologica, 109(2), 226-230. [More Information]
  • Harloff, A., Rauer, S., Hofer, M., Klisch, J., Els, T. (2005). Fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking acute bacterial meningoencephalitis. European Journal of Neurology, 12(1), 67-69.
  • Hofer, M., Finger, C., Pagenstecher, A. (2005). Molecular genotyping of the murine H-2K MHC class I allele. Journal of Immunological Methods, 302(1-2), 168-171. [More Information]
  • Friedl, G., Hofer, M., Auber, B., Sauder, C., Hausmann, J., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2004). Borna Disease Virus Multiplication in Mouse Organotypic Slice Cultures Is Site-Specifically Inhibited by Gamma Interferon but Not by Interleukin-12. Journal of Virology, 78(3), 1212-1218.
  • Hofer, M., Hausmann, J., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2004). Cerebral Expression of Interleukin-12 Induces Neurological Disease via Differential Pathways and Recruits Antigen-Specific T Cells in Virus-Infected Mice. The American Journal of Pathology: cellular and molecular biology of disease, 165(3), 949-958.
  • Freude, S., Hausmann, J., Hofer, M., Pham-Mitchell, N., Campbell, I., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2002). Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system. Journal Of Clinical Virology, 76(23), 12223-122232.
  • Allmang, U., Hofer, M., Herzog, S., Bechter, K., Staeheli, P. (2001). Low avidity of human serum antibodies for Borna disease virus antigens questions their diagnostic value. Molecular Psychiatry, 6(3), 329-333.

Conferences

  • Hofer, M., Mueller, M., O'Sullivan, C., Manders, P., Campbell, I. (2007). Lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in STAT1 KO mice is associated with dysregulated PD-1/B7-H1 and a phenotypic switch in the T-cell response. International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, Interferon Anniversary Meeting (ISICR 2007), United Kingdom: Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Publishers.

2014

  • Teymoortash, A., Zieger, L., Hoch, S., Pagenstecher, A., Hofer, M. (2014). Distinct microscopic features of perineural invasion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Histopathology, 64(7), 1037-1039. [More Information]
  • Li, W., Hofer, M., Jung, S., Lim, S., Campbell, I. (2014). IRF7-Dependent Type I Interferon Production Induces Lethal Immune-Mediated Disease in STAT1 Knockout Mice Infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Journal of Virology, 88(13), 7578-7588. [More Information]
  • Nocon, A., Ip, J., Terry, R., Lim, S., Getts, D., Muller, M., Hofer, M., King, N., Campbell, I. (2014). The Bacteriostatic Protein Lipocalin 2 Is Induced in the Central Nervous System of Mice with West Nile Virus Encephalitis. Journal of Virology, 88(1), 679-689. [More Information]

2013

  • Zimmermann, J., Krauthausen, M., Hofer, M., Heneka, M., Campbell, I., Muller, M. (2013). CNS-Targeted Production of IL-17A Induces Glial Activation, Microvascular Pathology and Enhances the Neuroinflammatory Response to Systemic Endotoxemia. PLoS One, 8(2), 1-13. [More Information]
  • Siegfried, A., Berchtold, S., Manncke, B., Deuschle, E., Reber, J., Ott, T., Weber, M., Kalinke, U., Hofer, M., Hatesuer, B., et al (2013). IFIT2 is an effector protein of type I IFN-mediated amplification of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α secretion and LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Journal of Immunology, 191(7), 3913-3921. [More Information]
  • Li, W., Hofer, M., Nocon, A., Manders, P., Campbell, I. (2013). Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is required for the optimal initial control but not subsequent clearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice. Virology, 439(2), 152-162. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Campbell, I. (2013). Type I interferon in neurological disease-The devil from within. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, 24(3), 257-267. [More Information]

2012

  • Hofer, M., Riehmer, V., Kuhnt, D., Braun, V., Nimsky, C., Weber, R., Sommer, C., Pagenstecher, A. (2012). Genomic profiling to assess the clonal relationship between histologically distinct intracranial tumours. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology, 38(5), 500-504. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Li, W., Manders, P., Terry, R., Lim, S., King, N., Campbell, I. (2012). Mice deficient in STAT1 but not STAT2 or IRF9 develop a lethal CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Journal of Virology, 86(12), 6932-6946. [More Information]
  • Getts, D., Terry, R., Getts, M., Muller, M., Rana, S., Deffrasnes, C., Ashhurst, T., Radford, J., Hofer, M., Thomas, S., Campbell, I., King, N. (2012). Targeted blockade in lethal West Nile virus encephalitis indicates a crucial role for very late antigen (VLA)-4-dependent recruitment of nitric oxide-producing macrophages. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 9(1), 1-8. [More Information]

2011

  • Vetter, M., Hofer, M., Roth, E., Pircher, H., Pagenstecher, A. (2011). Intracerebral interleukin 12 induces glioma rejection in the brain predominantly by CD8+ T cells and independently of interferon-gamma. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 68(5), 525-534. [More Information]
  • Ip, J., Nocon, A., Hofer, M., Lim, S., Müller, M., Campbell, I. (2011). Lipocalin 2 in the central nervous system host response to systemic lipopolysaccharide administration. Journal of Neuroinflammation, 8(124), 1-15. [More Information]

2010

  • Thompson, C., Hofer, M., Campbell, I., Holmes, A. (2010). Community Dynamics in the Mouse Gut Microbiota: A Possible Role for IRF9-Regulated Genes in Community Homeostasis. PLoS One, 5(4), e10335-1-e10335-9. [More Information]
  • Muller, M., Carter, S., Hofer, M., Campbell, I. (2010). Review: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 in neuroimmunity - a tale of conflict and conundrum. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 36(5), 368-387. [More Information]
  • Ellis, S., Gysbers, V., Manders, P., Li, W., Hofer, M., Muller, M., Campbell, I. (2010). The Cell-Specific Induction of CXC Chemokine Ligand 9 Mediated by IFN-{gamma} in Microglia of the Central Nervous System Is Determined by the Myeloid Transcription Factor PU.1. Journal of Immunology, 185(3), 1864-1877. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Li, W., Lim, S., Campbell, I. (2010). The type I interferon-alpha mediates a more severe neurological disease in the absence of the canonical signaling molecule interferon regulatory factor 9. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30(3), 1149-1157. [More Information]
  • Campbell, I., Hofer, M., Pagenstecher, A. (2010). Transgenic models for cytokine-induced neurological disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease, 1802 (10), 903-917. [More Information]

2009

  • Quintana, A., Muller, M., Frausto, R., Ramos, R., Getts, D., Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Krathausen, M., King, N., Hildago, J., Campbell, I. (2009). Site-Specific Production of IL-6 in the Central Nervous System Retargets and Enchances the Inflammatory Response in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Immunology, 183(3), 2079-2088. [More Information]

2008

  • Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Unzeta, M., Campbell, I. (2008). Minimal Role for STAT1 in Interleukin-6 Signaling and Actions in the Murine Brain. Glia, 56(2), 190-199. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Carter, S., Muller, M., Campbell, I. (2008). Unaltered Neurological Disease and Mortality in CXCR3-Deficient Mice Infected Intracranially with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus-Armstrong. Viral Immunology, 21(4), 425-433. [More Information]

2007

  • Muller, M., Carter, S., Hofer, M., Manders, P., Getts, D., Getts, M., Dreykluft, A., Lu, B., Gerard, C., King, N., Campbell, I. (2007). CXCR3 Signaling Reduces the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Controlling the Parenchymal Distribution of Effector and Regulatory T Cells in the Central Nervous System. Journal of Immunology, 179(5), 2774-2786. [More Information]
  • Hofer, M., Mueller, M., O'Sullivan, C., Manders, P., Campbell, I. (2007). Lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in STAT1 KO mice is associated with dysregulated PD-1/B7-H1 and a phenotypic switch in the T-cell response. International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, Interferon Anniversary Meeting (ISICR 2007), United Kingdom: Mary Ann Liebert Inc. Publishers.
  • Sanz, E., Hofer, M., Unzeta, M., Campbell, I. (2007). STAT1 has a minimal role in interleukin-6 signalling and actions in the murine brain. Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, 27(8), 722-722. [More Information]

2006

  • Hofer, M., Schindler, A., Ehrensberger, F., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2006). Absence of Borna disease virus in the CNS of epilepsy patients. Journal Of Clinical Virology.
  • Hofer, M. (2006). Absence of Borna disease virus in the CNS of epilepsy patients. Journal Of Clinical Virology, 36(1), 84-85. [More Information]
  • Wacher, C., Muller, M., Hofer, M., Getts, D., Zabaras, R., Ousman, S., Terenzi, F., Sen, G., King, N., Campbell, I. (2006). Coordinated regulation and widespread cellular expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG)-49, ISG-54 and ISG-56 in the central nervous system following infection with distinct viruses. Journal of Virology, 81(2), 860-871. [More Information]

2005

  • Hofer, M., Weber, A., Haffner, K., Berlis, A., Klingel, K., Kruger, M., Kandolf, R., Volk, B. (2005). Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (Hurst’s disease) linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acta Neuropathologica, 109(2), 226-230. [More Information]
  • Harloff, A., Rauer, S., Hofer, M., Klisch, J., Els, T. (2005). Fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis mimicking acute bacterial meningoencephalitis. European Journal of Neurology, 12(1), 67-69.
  • Hofer, M., Finger, C., Pagenstecher, A. (2005). Molecular genotyping of the murine H-2K MHC class I allele. Journal of Immunological Methods, 302(1-2), 168-171. [More Information]

2004

  • Friedl, G., Hofer, M., Auber, B., Sauder, C., Hausmann, J., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2004). Borna Disease Virus Multiplication in Mouse Organotypic Slice Cultures Is Site-Specifically Inhibited by Gamma Interferon but Not by Interleukin-12. Journal of Virology, 78(3), 1212-1218.
  • Hofer, M., Hausmann, J., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2004). Cerebral Expression of Interleukin-12 Induces Neurological Disease via Differential Pathways and Recruits Antigen-Specific T Cells in Virus-Infected Mice. The American Journal of Pathology: cellular and molecular biology of disease, 165(3), 949-958.

2002

  • Freude, S., Hausmann, J., Hofer, M., Pham-Mitchell, N., Campbell, I., Staeheli, P., Pagenstecher, A. (2002). Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system. Journal Of Clinical Virology, 76(23), 12223-122232.

2001

  • Allmang, U., Hofer, M., Herzog, S., Bechter, K., Staeheli, P. (2001). Low avidity of human serum antibodies for Borna disease virus antigens questions their diagnostic value. Molecular Psychiatry, 6(3), 329-333.

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