Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria


  • Child is between 2 and 8
  • Main concern is oppositional behavior, anger, aggression, and conduct problems
  • Parents and child are able to attend the clinic in Sydney on multiple assessment dates
  • Parents have access to a computer if allocated to e-health (online) treatment
  • Parents are happy to be randomly allocated to face to face treatment sessions or online treatment
  • Parents are willing to complete and provide their data for research purposes
  • Parents are happy to participate in a parent-focused treatment
  • Parents can read and understand English


  • Child has:
    • Intellectual disability/brain injury
    • Acute/severe psychiatric disorder (e.g. psychosis)
    • Acute mental illness or drug/alcohol dependence
    • Severe Autism or other developmental problems
  • The child’s wellbeing and caregiving are the subject of ongoing legal matters.
  • The parents are unwilling to participate in research
  • The family is unable to maintain contact with the CBRC for the duration of treatment.