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Paper in Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
  • Hermens, DF, Cooper, NJ, Kohn, MR, Clarke, SD, Gordon, E, and Williams, LM (2005a). Predicting stimulant medication response in ADHD: evidence from an integrated profile of neuropsychological, psychophysiological and clinical factors. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 107-121.

    ABSTRACT
    There have been significant advances in understanding the neurobiology of ADHD and it is timely to examine the ability of biological and psychological markers to predict medication response in this disorder. We evaluated prediction of medication response in adolescent ADHD using neuropsychological testing and psychophysiological measures of central and autonomic function. Fifty ADHD adolescents participated in pre- and post-stimulant medication testing. Separately ranked performance in auditory oddball and visual working memory (WM) tasks determined 20 ‘responders’ and 20 ‘non-responders’, with 10 ‘neutrals’ excluded from the discriminant function analyses (DFA). For both oddball and WM performance rankings, the two groups did not differ in age, sex, or handedness. However, responders did have higher levels of symptomatology than non-responders at baseline. Pre-stimulant medication psychophysiology variables were used as predictors in each DFA. Oddball performance correctly classified 85.0% of responders and 95.0% of non-responders. Better response was associated with increased resting beta power (left posteriorly), delayed oddball target N1 (frontally), decreased oddball target P2 (left posteriorly) and decreased WM distractor P3 (right frontally). Working memory performance classified 80.0% of responders and 90.0% of non-responders, with a broadly similar profile of psychophysiological predictors. These findings indicate the value of integrating neuropsychological and psychophysiological data in predicting medication response in ADHD.