Paper in Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
DF, Cooper, NJ, Kohn, MR, Clarke, SD, Gordon, E, and Williams,
LM (2005a). Predicting stimulant medication response in
ADHD: evidence from an integrated profile of neuropsychological,
psychophysiological and clinical factors. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4, 107-121.
There have been significant advances in understanding the neurobiology
of ADHD and it is timely to examine the ability of biological
and psychological markers to predict medication response in
this disorder. We evaluated prediction of medication response
in adolescent ADHD using neuropsychological testing and psychophysiological
measures of central and autonomic function. Fifty ADHD adolescents
participated in pre- and post-stimulant medication testing.
Separately ranked performance in auditory oddball and visual
working memory (WM) tasks determined 20 ‘responders’
and 20 ‘non-responders’, with 10 ‘neutrals’
excluded from the discriminant function analyses (DFA). For
both oddball and WM performance rankings, the two groups did
not differ in age, sex, or handedness. However, responders did
have higher levels of symptomatology than non-responders at
baseline. Pre-stimulant medication psychophysiology variables
were used as predictors in each DFA. Oddball performance correctly
classified 85.0% of responders and 95.0% of non-responders.
Better response was associated with increased resting beta power
(left posteriorly), delayed oddball target N1 (frontally), decreased
oddball target P2 (left posteriorly) and decreased WM distractor
P3 (right frontally). Working memory performance classified
80.0% of responders and 90.0% of non-responders, with a broadly
similar profile of psychophysiological predictors. These findings
indicate the value of integrating neuropsychological and psychophysiological
data in predicting medication response in ADHD.