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Paper in Journal of Memory and Language
  • Andrews, S., Woollams, A. & Bond, R. (2005). Spelling-sound typicality only affects words with digraphs: Further qualifications to the generality of the regularity effect on word naming. Journal of Memory and Language, 53: 567-593.

    ABSTRACT
    Two experiments investigated naming performance for items with and without digraphs. Both experiments compared performance for Regular Consistent, Regular Inconsistent and Exception words. Experiment 1 also compared nonwords with Non-Existent Bodies to those with existing Consistent and Inconsistent Bodies. Naming was slower for nonwords containing digraphs and for nonwords constructed from Non-Existent bodies. In both experiments, the naming latency data for words showed effects of spelling-sound typicality only for words with digraphs; the speed of naming words without digraphs was not affected by either regularity or consistency. The complete set of results could not be effectively simulated by either the Dual-Route Cascaded model or by Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, and Patterson's (1996) Parallel Distributed Processing models. The absence of effects of spelling-sound typicality for words without digraphs qualifies a phenomenon that has been regarded as one of the central facts of visual word recognition and provides strong constraints on the future development of computational models of lexical retrieval.