Paper in Learning and Individual Differences
  • Kleitman, S., & Stankov, L. (2007). Self-confidence and Metacognitive Processes. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 161-173.

    This paper examines the nature of the Self-confidence factor. In particular, we study the relationship between this factor and cognitive, metacognitive, and personality measures. Participants (N=296) were administered a battery of seven cognitive tests that assess three constructs: accuracy, speed, and confidence. Participants were also given the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI, Schraw, G., and Dennison, R.S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19,460-475.), a personality measure of the Big Five factors and our own Memory and Reasoning Competence Inventory (MARCI). Results indicate the presence of separate Self-confidence and Metacognitive processes factors, and a moderate correlation (.41) between them. The Self-confidence factor taps not only processes linked to performance on items that have correct answers, but also sureness level in beliefs about events that may never occur. A hierarchical multiple regression showed that the Self-confidence factor was predicted by accuracy of performance, Metacognitive Awareness Questionnaire, and beliefs of competence in reasoning ability.