Paper in Learning and Individual Differences
  • Kleitman, S. and Gibson, J. (2011). Metacognitive beliefs, self-confidence and primary learning environment of sixth grade students. Learning and Individual Differences, 21: 728–735.

    ABSTRACT
    Metacognition is an integral component of a self-regulated approach to learning. The present study examined the relationships between academic self-efficacy and perceptions of one's own competence in memory and reasoning abilities, and their role in predicting the Self-confidence trait. The study also aimed to determine the role of key classroom factors (goal orientation and self-efficacy with the teacher) in predicting selfbeliefs, the Self-confidence trait and academic achievement in Year 6 students (N=177). EFA and Path analysis were used to determine these relationships. The hypothesised path model was tested in a simultaneous fashion of the entire system of variables to determine whether or not hypothesised relationships were consistent with data. The results suggest that academic self-efficacy and metacognitive competency beliefs define a broad factor—Metacognitive Beliefs—which serves as a key predictor of Self-confidence. Mastery goal-orientation and self-efficacy with teacher predicted Metacognitive Beliefs and, indirectly, Selfconfidence. Students with stronger Metacognitive Beliefs were less engaged in self-handicapping behaviours. Known common factors—intelligence, gender and a proxy for SES, school fees—were controlled for. The present study has important implications for both metacognitive theory and educational practice.